Determining The Major Aetiologic Agent Of Urethritis

Project and Seminar Material for Microbiology

Determining The Major Aetiologic Agent Of Urethritis


Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

Chlamydiae are small gram-negative obligate intracellular microorganisms that preferentially infect squamocolumnar epithelial cell (www. Google. Com.2010).

Chlamydia is the most prevalent sexually transmitted disease resulting in urethritis, with frequencies exceeding those of Neisseria gonorrhoeae

In the United State for instance, roughly four million cases are reported annually mostly occurring in men and women under the age of 25 (Barners, 1990).

In Nigeria and indeed most developed nation, majority of the reported cases urethritis are diagnosed as being caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae, StaphyLococcus aureus and streptococcus Spp.

This could be attributed to inadequate facilities to establish proper test for the diagnosis of chamydia infection. As a result, cases of urethritis are wrongly diagnosed and treated. This calls for proper research work to establish the major aetiologic agent of urethritis. This will go a long to aid prompt treatment of reoccurring urethritis resulting from wrong diagnosis and treatment.

According to the centers of disease control and prevention (CDC), chlamydia is the most common bacteria infection in the United State. About 1.1 million new cases were reported in 2007.

However, because as many as 75% of infected women and 50% Infected men do not experience symptoms of infection, the CDC estimates that up to 2.8 million new cases may occur each year in the United States. Chlamydia is most prevalent among teenagers. Nearly 75% of all new cases occur in women under the age of 25. By age 30, 50% of sexually active women have been exposed to Chlamydia.

Non-gonococcal urethritis is the most commonly diagnosed sexually transmitted disease in men in the United States.


1.1 Objectives of the Study

  1. To determine the prevalence of Chlamydia infection.
  2. To ascertain the age distribution of the infection.
  3. To determine the sex distribution of the infection.
  4. To make recommendations on how to control or eradicate the infection.

Chapter Five


5.0 Discussion, Recommendation and Conclusion

5.1 Discussion:

From the result obtained, 3 (1.2%) female had the infection while 1 (0.4%) male had the infection.
The infection was more in the age group 21-30 followed by the age 0-10. None was recorded for the age group 11-20,31-40, 41-50 and 61-above. Male who had the infection was in the age of 0-10 while female with the infection was in the age group 21-30.

Both sexes in group 11-20, 31-40,41-50, 51-60, and 61-above their males and females had no infection.
It is passed to the newborn during child birth this may have given the reason why somebody in the group 0-10 had this infection. This is in agreement with world Health Organizations report which estimated 140 million cases of Chlamydia trachomatis infection worldwide.

The highest incidence 2(0.8%) recorded among age group 21-30 may be because of sexual promiscuity.


5.2 Recommendation

The following recommendations are made based on the findings of this project work.

  1. Government should ensure public health education/ awareness campaign to improve the health of living of her citizens.
  2. They should be inclusion of chlamydia trachomatis diagnosis among routine laboratory diagnosis especially among pregnant women attending antenatal.
  3. Infected patients should be treated especially pregnant women to avoid mother to child transmission
  4. Avoidance of casual sex and the use of preventive measures such as condoms

5.3 Conclusion

In conclusion analysis of 251 samples for Chlamydia trachomatis were revealed that 3 (1.2%) were positive and 248 (98.8%) were negative.

Among the positive 1 (0.4%) male and 2 (0.8%) female distributed among age group 0-11 and 21-30 only.
Considering the medical importance of this infection, efforts should be made in eradicating it.


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