The Microbiological Quality Control Of Soymilk Beverage Sold In Institute Of Management And Technology Campus 3 Enugu
The study is aimed at evaluating the microbiological quality control of soymilk beverage sold in I.M.T campus 3 Enugu. The soymilk samples were collected randomly from all the soymilk hawkers in campus 3 I.M.T Enugu. 30 soymilk samples were collected and used for the study. All the sample were freshly prepared, serial dilution of the soymilk samples was carried out. The sample were cultured using the streaking method on nutrient and Macconkey agar media Gram staining and microscopic examination was carried out to identify the organism. Biochemical test were finally carried out to confirm the implicated organism. The bacteria implicated in this study were staphylococcus sp and escherichia coli.
The three basic needs of man are food shelter and clothing but food has been proved to be the most important. Food has been defined as that which can be eaten to nourish the body. Since the economic situation is getting worse day by day, it becomes imperative that an alternative soymilk be provided to improve nutrition status.
Soybeans (Glycine max) is a member of the family legminosae, sub family papilnonaceae (Howell and Caldwell, 1972) Ezedinma F.O.C 1964) it is an annual summer legume be4ing that it is found in the hairy pods of an erect bushy legume native to Asta and have been reported to have originated from eastern and where used as food as long as before the existence of written record. It is highly proteinous in that it contains a large proportion of assailable protein, have carbohydrate having no starch at all. The protein of soybeans are glycinun, phaseolin, and legumlin are equally good source of B- comple vitamins and minerals (James et al 1992). They are also known to contain best blance of essential ammoniac’s and that is why it is usually referred to as the miracle legume or the poor mans meats”.
Originally confined to the temperate zone is no spreading rapidly into tropic particularly in Brazil and other parts of south American in India and in the far East Inspite of being one of the earliest filed crops, soybeans was introduced into Nigeria shows that Benue state and Kogi state is the most important soybeans producing are in the country. In Nigeria, nearly all of the soybeans production estimated at 30,000 tons is for human consumption and in response to increasing demand for. Soybeans as a source of protein and vegetable oil, National programmes in Nigeria have expanded their research on the crop since 1981) ( III A Annual report 1983).
Soymilk, which is traditionally an equeous extract of whole soybeans has been of considerable interest to nutritionists as a possible substitute for cow or human milk due to its advantage over many other protein source in that no allergenic properties have been associated with it so far. Therfore it is recommended for infants who are allergic to cows milk (food and food production Encyclopedia 1971)
Soymilk has been made in china for generation and its consumption is fast gaining ground in Nigeria (Ahmed 1984; bashiell et al, 1990) soymilk has been recommended by physicians for years to patients who are allergic to cows milk and now it is being recommended to those who have suffered from or are prone to degenerative heart diseases and who need a milk with unsaturated fat as a replacement for dairy milk. (Ahened 1984)
Importance Of Legumes As Food
Generally legumes contain 17-25% protein except soybeans which contains about 40% protein and 40-70% carbohydrate. Legume seeds are also good sources of minerals such as phosphorsphrous and iron (Bresani and Elias, 1974; stegel and fawceth, 1976) except for soybeans and groundnuts, which contains 18% and 48% oil respectively (Muller and Tobin 1980) legume seeds their utilization is impaired by inherent constraints such as the presence of several antinutrients and toxic components despite their high nutrient content. Legume seeds are generally low in fats and oils. Consequently legume seeds as protein souces despite the fact that legume protein are cheaper. However, with adequate processing legumes are safe and nutritious.
Today. In Nigeria, the house holds use of various Nigerian Families and communities all over the country. Food recipes have been developed for those based mainly on soybean and those in which soybean I incorporated so as to increase the nutrient content especially protein. Soybean are incorporated into cereals tubers, and roots and other legumes. They are used to prepare the main dish breakfast, foods for adults and children weaning foods and convalescent diets.
Soymilk is rich beverage and food products rich in protein, substitute for cow milk and other source of protein, cheaper than other source of protein and a food beverage for student to take all day long without feeling the cost. Therefore there is need to ensure that the milk is hygiene prepare, free from pathogen and other spoilage organism with longer shelf ;life to protein, cheaper than other sources of protein and a food beverage for student to take all day long without feeling the cost. Therefore there is need to ensure that the milk is hygiene- prepare, free from pathogen and other spoilage organism with longer shelf life to protect the student from diseases arising from food poisoning
Aim And Objective
The objective of this research work is to carryout microbiological quality control of the soymilk beverage sold in I.M.T campus 3 Enugu. This is to ensure that the soymilk sold is from pathogenic and spoilage organizes and also to ensure that the food compties with the food keeping quality.
- HO Soymilk is associated with spoilage microorganism
- H1 Soymilk is not associated with spoilage Microorganisms.
Statement of Problem
Soymilk as a food of high nutritional value is highly associated with microorganism as a result of this hygienically prepared and declared fit for consumption so as to protect the student from disease that arises due to food poisoning.
This study will be limited to I.M.T campus 3 Enugu and soymilk as the main beverage consumed on campus III. This is due to the prevailing economic situation in the country and the relatively depreciating value of the naira has extremely affected the supply of materials and transportation difficulty encountered in the course of the study.
30 soymilk samples will be collected from the various hawkers within I.M.T campus 3 Enugu. Serial dilution of the sample will be carried. Samples will be cultured using streaking method with nutrient agar and macconkey agar.
Gram staining will be carried out and microscopic examination will also be carried out to identify the pathogenic organism. Finally, biochemical test will be done to confirm the presence of the organisms.
5.0 Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendation
The soymilk samples are produced or manufactured under conditions that ensure contamination freedom. However, due to the careless treatment and condition of preparation certain microorganisms are found inside this soymilk samples. The contamination may also be caused accidentally due to lack of adequate sterilization of equipment used in the production process. The survival and proliferation of these microorganisms depends on the composition of the food and the conditions of strange. In soymilk samples collected the organisms found include staphylococcus SP and Escherichia coli some of these organisms in the aroma, flavour, appearance of the soymilk which summed up to what is referred to as spoilage of food. The public is faced with a number of problem or risks, which if not taken care of will retard the extensive use of the soymilk product as food. One of this problem is the high risk of food borne unless/ disease resulting from soymilk consumption due to the microbial content of this product most of which are pathogenic soymilk is not supposed to harbour most of these microorganisms due to the heat treatment during boiling and also cold treatment during refrigeration. This appears not so because contamination by most microorganisms occur during the final process of product like pouring of the milk into unclean containers during wet milling sieving and water used are not potable.
The result of this project have shown that some soymilk products sold in I.M.T campus 3 Enugu mini markets were unfit for consumption. The number of organisms isolated shows that some soymilk product therefore is microbiologically unacceptable. Some of the soymilk samples collected from the various hawkers in I.M.T campus 3 Enugu are produced using different methods viz hot extraction and cold extraction method. These ones produced by hot extraction method have less microbial growth and its shelf life vary with different storage facility. While those produced using cold extraction method have more microbial growth in order to ensure good keeping of soymilk products that will meet desired quality attempt should be made at reducing the number of microorganism in the preparation, coupled with effective storage. Again personal hygiene of the handlers is necessary to improve the hygienic condition of this soymilk. The use of clean containers is also very important. It is necessary for food inspectors to monitor and prevent the sale of stale soymilk food in institute of management and technology Enugu.
From the result obtained in this research work, it is recommended that soymilk be produced under high sanitary conditions to reduce the rate of contamination. More emphasis should be laid on the source of water used for milling and sieving. Since the economic situation is getting worse day by day, it becomes imperative that an alternative be provided as alternative to soymilk. Since its being recommended for infants who are allergic to cow milk by the nutritionists, it is therefore necessary that high standard of hygiene be kept so as to avoid health hazards it is being recommended for those who have suffered form or are prone to degenerative heart diseases and who need milk with unsaturated fat as a replacement for diary milk.
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