Selection, Acquisition And Use Of Health Information Researches At Federal Medical Center

Medical and Health Science Project and Seminar Material

Selection, Acquisition And Use Of Health Information Researches At Federal Medical Center


Abstract


This study investigated selection, acquisition and use of health information researches at federal medical Centre. The population of the study consists of all the health care practitionersat Federal Medical Centre of North Western State of Nigeria. Out of the total population of 5,958 health workers, 1,192 (20%) were selected using stratified Random sampling procedure. An open and closed-ended questionnaire was designed and used for data collection. Data that related to the research questions were analysed using frequency tables. The study concluded that Access to reliable Health information research is crucial for progress towards health for all. Since majority of the population lives at Federal Medical Centre, lack of awareness and access to information can be a barrier to effective dispensation. It was recommended that Hospital management board should be encouraged to establish effective and sustainable Health information research programme. This will enhance location, access and evaluation of Health information research resources in various formats.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background to the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of Problem
  • 1.3 Research Questions
  • 1.4 Objectives of the Study
  • 1.5 Purpose of the Study
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study

Chapter Two:

Literature Review

  • 2.1 conceptual Review
  • 2,2 Theoretical Review
  • 2.3 Empirical Review
  • 2.4 Summary

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Method adopted for the Study
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample and sampling Techniques
  • 3.4 Instruments for Data Collection
  • 3.5 Validity of the Instruments
  • 3.6 Reliability of the Instruments
  • 3.7 Procedure for data collection
  • 3.8 Procedure for data analysis
  • 3.9 Ethical consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Analysis and Result Presentation


Chapter Five:

Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendations
  • 5.3 Suggestion for Further Research
  • REFERENCES
  • APPENDIX 

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

In addition to sound professional education and training, the capacity of health care practitioners to successfully manage health care cases and challenges is largely dependent on their level of awareness of relevant information especially on health care and their ability to access and utilize effectively and efficiently such information. The fundamental factor in information utilization is awareness of the existence of information (Tyagi, 2011). Awareness is a major determinant of use. Awareness of information resources enhances information utilization. Studies indicate that lack of information awareness is one of the primary reasons for non-use of information resources (Tyagi, 2011; John, 2012; Kujengyere, 2012; Manda & Mukangera. 2012; Sajjad and Ramzy, 2015). This implies that, though a user may identify his/her area of information need, without proper awareness of how and where to get the resources that will provide the information needed, such needs may not be met. Togia and Tsigilis (2011) reiterated that lack or low awareness of the existence of information resources constitutes major impedance to its utilization.

Closely related to the role of awareness in information utilization is the notion of information access. Access to timely and accurate information play a vital role in the planning, development and maintenance of health care services. World Health Organization (2008) posits that “sound and reliable information is the foundation of decision making across all health system building blocks and is essential for health system policy development and implementation, governance and regulation, health research, human resources development, health education and training and service delivery”.

The provision of health care requires planning and information is needed for planning. It is important that information should be made accessible to health care practitioners, planners and health policy formulators to enhance the provision of quality health care. Health information is a key ingredient to effective health delivery. It is in realization of the importance of communication to health service that Nakojimo (2021) remarked that “information and communication are at the very heart of World Health Organization”.

WHO & UNICEF (1978) identified one of the fundamental principles of health care as “participation of community at all stages”. For country to be intelligently involved, they need to have easy access to the right kind of information covering their health situation and how they can help improve it. It is important to have a clear explanation of the technologies available, their advantages and disadvantages, their success and failure, their possible adverse efforts and their costs. Information given should be neither over sophisticated nor condensing but should be in the language people can understand. For example, newspapers, magazines, radio, television, films, plays, posters, community notice board and any other means available can be used.

Quality health care depends heavily on the knowledge and skills of its personnel. To ensure a high level of current awareness and research, PHC services and activities require the support of constant flow of information (WHO, 2008). Availability of health information in various forms at different locations calls for a need to coordinate them and make them accessible to those in need. In realization of this, the Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN) established the National Health Information System (NHIS) for planning, monitoring and evaluating health services.


1.2 Statement of Problem

Health decisions depend on use of information. Health decisions require information from several sources. Information is an indispensable resource in heath decision situations. In the United States, health care information system is evolving into a national network of quality improvement initiative (Blumenthal & Egbert, 2010 and ONHTIT, 2008). The utilization of health information is a necessary component of quality improvement initiative because it is expected to enhance quality care, increase health care safety and provide cost effective health services for patients.

According to Pakenham-Walsh and Priestly (2021) studies have shown that people at the Federal Medical Centre do not have access to basic information they need since majority of the population live at Federal Medical Centre. Most of the health care centres that are in remote areas lack facilities like internet services. They lack adequate power supply, poor road networks and most of the social amenities of life.

Information is valuable in the prevention of diseases and promotion of good health. “Both the public health and the personal care interventions have contributed to reversing the urban – rural differences in health status; better health among urban populations is due more to the application of improved knowledge” (WHO, 2016). It therefore follows that people at Federal Medical Centre could enjoy better health if they accessed information to enhance their knowledge. Hence, factors which negate information access and use at Federal Medical Centre need to be addressed in order that rural communities may reap the benefits of improved health knowledge (Musoke, 2014).

Despite the relevance of information for effective and efficient health care delivery there are still high rates of diseases at Federal Medical Centre in Nigeria. Could the high rate of diseases at Federal Medical Centre be attributed to poor or lack of awareness, access and utilization of primary healthcare information among health care practitioners? It is in line with the aforementioned problems that the researcher sought to determine the awareness, access and utilization of information among health care practitioners at Federal Medical Centre of North-Western States of Nigeria.


1.3 Research Questions

The study was undertaken to answer the following questions:

  1. What type of information is generated by the health care practitioners at Federal Medical Centre of North-Western States of Nigeria?
  2. What are the sources of health information research at Federal Medical Centre of North Western states of Nigeria?
  3. What are the health information research used for by the health care practitioners at Federal Medical Centre of North-Western States of Nigeria?
  4. How do the health care practitionersat Federal Medical Centre of North Western States of Nigeria access health information research?
  5. How do the health care practitioners at Federal Medical Centre of North Western States of Nigeria utilize the health information research generated?

1.4 Objectives of the Study

The study sought to achieve the following objectives:

  1. To identify the type of information generated by health care practitionersat Federal Medical Centre of North Western States of Nigeria.
  2. To identify the sources of health information research at Federal Medical Centre of North-
    Western States of Nigeria.
  3. To determine what health information research are used for at Federal Medical Centre of North western states of Nigeria.
  4. To determine how health care practitioners at Federal Medical Centre of North Western States of Nigeria access information for health care.
  5. To identify how health care practitioners utilize information for health careat Federal Medical Centre of North Western States of Nigeria.

1.5 Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study is selection, acquisition and use of health information researches at federal medical centre


1.6 Significance of the Study

The study is of immense importance to students of the School of Medicine in universities especially those in the Department of Community Health. This will create awareness and widen their horizon in the areas of community based health delivery.

The study is also of great importance to the lecturers in Colleges of Medicine and School of Health Science all over the country. It will help them appreciate the role of information as it regards the achievement of their primary goals and objectives for which they were established.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The study was limited to rural areas of North-Western States of Nigeria comprising seven States namely: Jigawa, Kano, Kebbi, Kaduna, Katsina, Sokoto and Zamfara State. These States constitute what is referred to as the core north in contemporary Nigerian journalistic and political terminology. The research covered health care practitioners that are in charge in the above listed States. The States are located in the dry, relatively arid and sahel savannah region, characterized by a short duration rainy season and low rainfall, except in some parts of Kaduna State, whose southern provinces fall within the relatively better climate and ecological zone of the Guinea savannah.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

This study was limited to Health care practitionersat Federal Medical Centre of North Western States of Nigeria due to the constraints of finance, the time within which the research was to be carried out, presented and defended, proximity and logistics among others.


Chapter Five


Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Conclusion

Information is a dynamic entity inherent in the society that is both powerful and important in our complex modern society. An ever-widening range of Health decisions, public and private, group and individual depend on wide use of information. Many Health decisions require information from several sources. Information is therefore an indispensable resource to the individual, family and society. It can be concluded that Health information research is mostly generated in form of reports, statistics, memos, notices and records at Federal Medical Centre of North Western states of Nigeria. All listed sources of information which include Patients; colleagues; conferences / workshops / seminars; library; textbooks; journals; Newspapers, internet; radio; television; research reports and professional Association were consulted by the health care practitionersat Federal Medical Centre of North Western States of Nigeria. However, it was found that Audio Visual Materials were not considered as a veritable source of information by the health care practitioners. Internet, superiors, colleagues, conferences, workshops, seminars and meetings were the commonest means through which the health care practitioners access information at Federal Medical Centre of North Western States of Nigeria. It was also found that databases, Focus Group Discussion, Archives/Museums and record centres were not among the means of access to Health information research in the states by health care providers studied. Record managers, librarians, superior officers, colleagues, search engines, and self played major role in facilitating access to information in the states studied. Information on Maternal child health, Immunization, control of endemic diseases, Provision of essential drugs, Prevalent diseases, appropriate treatment of diseases and injuries, good health habits, and Dental care were the type of information mostly preferred by the health care practitionersat Federal Medical Centre of North Western States of Nigeria. A majority of the respondents were highly satisfied with the information on: maternal child health, water borne diseases, environmental sanitation, appropriate treatment of diseases and injuries and information on dental care available in the states studied respectively.

Improved communication and access to information worldwide helps us to be better prepared and responds to disease out breaks. However, much knowledge is likely to remain in Research Institutes and Teaching Hospital if they are not properly communicated to health workers. Access to reliable health information is crucial for progress towards health for all. Since majority of the population lives at Federal Medical Centre, lack of awareness and access to information can be a barrier to effective dispensation on PHC. Relevant, accurate and timely information can avert a local or national disease outbreak and at the same time prevent international crises. This is achievable when there is awareness, free flow and use of information among health practitioners.


5.2 Recommendations

In the light of the findings of the study, it is recommended that:

  1. Technological and cultural barrier against access to information on primary Health Care should be removed.
  2. The government of Nigeria (Ministry of Health) should make information for PHC available and accessible through awareness in national dailies and scholarly out lets in form of reviews and announcement.
  3. Hospital management board of Nigeria should be encouraged to establish effective and sustainable Health information research management programme. This will enhance location, access and evaluation of Health information research resources in various formats.
  4. Health Care Practitionersat the Federal Medical Centre of North Western states of Nigeria and other stakeholders should be trained and re-trained through refresher courses, symposia, meetings and workshops on the latest trends in access to Health information research and use of Health information research.
  5. State-of-the-art ICT facilities should be employed at Federal Medical Centre north western states of Nigeria in both on-line and the conventional information carriers in their organisation to reduce the physical stress and time used when searching for information. ICT facilities such as computers, scanners, digital cameras, telecommunication infrastructure and Internet should be provided as a matter of urgency in all the PHC centers in the states to make the Health care practitioners appreciate the relevance and use of ICT in Health care delivery. The Health care practitioners should be up to date and more responsive to the challenges of their profession in this digital age.
  6. Librarians and other information providers in Nigeria generally and particularly at Federal Medical Centre of north western states should create retrieval devices and other representational forms of information to create awareness and facilitate access to and retrieval of Health information for Health care Development.
  7. A model that will facilitate access to Health care should be developed. This research has succeeded in developing a one that will facilitate access and use of information for Health care. See Appendix 1 for details.

5.3 Suggestion for Further Research

In typical research, some silent areas are bound to be left out for further investigation. In the light of the findings and conclusions of the study, it is recommended that research on the following areas should or can be carried out:

  1. Access and Use of Online Information Resources for patient management in Secondary Health Care Centers in Nigeria.
  2. Use of Information and Communication Technology in accessing information on Health care in Northern Nigeria.
  3. Utilization of online information for health care delivery.

Selection, Acquisition And Use Of Health Information Researches At Federal Medical Center


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