Design And Implementation Of A Computerized System For The Methodological Test Analysis (A Case Study Of Sickle Cell Disease)
This work is specially put together not to replace medical doctors or medical laboratory scientists but rather to assist them in accelerating in their diagnostic work which will go a long way to eliminate the trial and error method of treatment (which the doctors usually do while waiting for the lab result which would be detrimental to the patient.
In view of this, a careful study and understanding of this research will assist users, medial doctors & lab scientists. It will educate them on now best a computer can aid medical diagnosis for optimum service to the public.
The project will go further to educate out lab scientists / doctors on the need to accumulated salient aspects of the medical know-how of even the most experienced specialist in the computer. So as to eliminate the vacuum that would have been created when specialist dies or is in capacitated.
Table of Content
- Title Page
- Organization Of Work
- Table Of Contents
- 1.0 Introduction
- 1.1 Background Of The Study
- 1.2 Statement Of Problem
- 1.3 Purpose Of Study
- 1.4 Aims And Objectives’
- 1.5 Scope Of Study
- 1.6 Significance Of The Study
- 1.7 Limitations Of The Study
- 1.8 Definition Of Terms
- 2.0 Literature Review
- 3.0 Description And Analysis Of The Present System
- 3.1 Historical Background
- 3.2 Method Of Data Collection Used
- 3.3 Input Analysis
- 3.4 Process Analysis
- 3.5 Output Process
- 3.6 Problems Of The Current System
- 4.0 Design And Implementation Of The Computerized System
- 4.1 Design Objective
- 4.2 Design Standards
- 4.3 Output Specification And Design
- 4.4 Input Specification And Design
- 4.5 Procedure Design Of New System
- 4.6 System Requirement
- 5.0 System Documentation
- 5.1 Program Description
- 5.2 User’s Guide
- 6.0 Summary
- 6.1 Conclusion
1.1 Background of Study
Health is generally said to be wealth. To acquire this wealth either for personal or national needs, one require to be healthy hence the need for adequate Medicare especially in the area of diagnosis. Since there is a good relationship between the job output and the health of the workers, a good Medicare is vital.
Unfortunately, in most developing notions including Nigeria, adequate Medicare is lacking due to low standard of technologies know how and manual handling of most medical problem. As observed by Iyiama H.C and Chukwu. D. C. very often, people in developing countries who are critically ill are rushed abroad for special treatment because it is felt that medical facilities at home is inadequate. This is simply because at home is inadequate. This is simply because computer aided Medicare has become a reality in many developed countries. It is also a known fact that the production of qualified medical doctors, medical lab. Scientists and other medical personnel is on the increase but this is not enough to meet the health needs of the increasing population. The return of patients to a doctors, samples to lab scientist is still high. This situation creates problem, because proper and adequate medical attention to patients is far fetched.
1.2 Statement of Problem
It has been observed that to receive medical treatment in most of our hospitals (or private laboratories) the patients queue up for several hours from one unit of the hospital to another. Starting from obtaining a new hospital folder or retrieving an old one before consulting a doctor to the laboratory unit far laboratory test than to the pharmacy to get the prescribed drugs and so on, with the manual processes involved in handling the patient most of them waste whole day in the hospital. This situation discouraging to most patients and sometimes force them to turn to non professionals or even resort to self medication for quick recovery.
Due to the number of patients, who need the attention of the doctor, the doctors medical lab-scientist hurries over his work without adequate attention and expertise. Still at the end of the day he (is exhausted.
In addition to this, the diagnosis and prescription depends on the doctor’s memory their brains are often loaded with different diseases, signs, systems and various drugs far third treatment. Some of which are very similar. To remember and process threes huge information in his clinical work is very asking for this reason accurate and urgent diagnosis and subsequent drug prescription may not always be obtained.
The keeping and retrieval of accurate records an patients are poorly carried out in most of our hospitals. Files may be misplaced the record in them might be wrongly filled.
Finally the keeping of folder for each patient manually takes a lot of time and money. Some of the information are redundant. All these have not effect on loss of lines and inefficiency on the part of management.
1.3 Purpose of Study
Purposely, this work is designed at minimizing the time patients have to wait to get adequate medical attention. This delay usually pushes them into patronizing non-professionals.
It will also help to reduce the work load which the doctor usually has to show especially where they are few in number. It will allow easy assessment of the previous clinical history of the patient in the shortest possible time.
It will also allow easy analysis of a medical laboratory result. Hence there is need far a system. That will achieve all these, designing a software far laboratory result analysis.
1.4 Aim and Objectives
This study is centered on the following objectives:
- To examine the current procedure employed in our hematological laboratories with regards to diagnosis.
- To examine the associated problem(s) in the current system.
- To improved or the already existing system by designing an efficient computer coded medical diagnosis aimed at an accurate, faster and reliable diagnosis therapy.
1.5 Scope of the Study
Due to the fact that it is difficult to develop a computer based system for diagnosing all disease at a time; financing and time constraints, this research is limited to medical diagnosis of sickle cell disease and erythropoesis foetive.
This study will also improve method(s) of diagnosis especially the patient history, physical examinations and request for clinical laboratory test it the patient did not go directly to the medical lab scientists.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The aim of this study is not to replace medical doctors medical laboratory scientist but to assist them in accelerating in their diagnostic work; which will go a long way to eliminate the trial and error method of treatment (which the doctors usually do while waiting for the lab, result which could be detrimental to the patient.
This work will also help both the lab scientist and doctors overcome mental stress and constancy of being overworked.
Furthermore, this research will educate our lab scientist / doctors on the need to accumulate salient aspects of the medical know-how of even the most experienced specialist, in the computer. So as to eliminate the vacuum that would be created when specialist dies or is incapacitated by old age.
1.7 Limitations to the Study
It has been observed that the computerization of the procedures of hematological laboratory analysis is a difficult if not an impossible one. We then have to accept that complete computerization of any branch of the medical laboratory will still take scientists some more year.
Therefore, this work will be centered mainly on the computerization of the patient’s classical data and result documentation rather than the procedure involved in obtaining the results.
1.8 Definition of Terms
This is the most common of hematological disorder and is characterized by a multiplication of conditions which can be complicated and confusing.
This is defined as a reduction in the peripheral in the pesidpherd blood which is below normal for the age and sex of the patient. Anemia must also relate to the level of hemoglobin the individual normally possessed for instance if an adult maintains hemoglobin of 160g/l and over a period of days is noted to have decreased to 140gil. This must be considered significant even though both values are within the normal range of an adult male.
This is the most important agent on the red cell. This, like its quarter brother myoglobin of muscle, the ctyochrome, peroxides and catalyses enzymes, is a hemoprotein. The protein part, known as globins, is colorless and consists of far peptide chains arranged in hops. The hemoglobin molecule has the heme group surrounded by two pairs of polypeptide chains, normal adult hemoglobin has the pairs of chains alpha and data. The alpha chain has 141 amino acids in a strict sequence commencing at valine and ending with arginine. The beta chain has 146 amino acids also starting with value but ends at histidene. In the adult there as also a small amount of fetal hemoglobin. (HBF) in which the two beda chains are replaced by gumma chains.
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Application of computer in most areas of human endeavour has made the world to become a global village. Because of the this the federal government of Nigeria sometime ago to bring out a policy urging all Nigerians to be computer literate to help Nigeria reap the benefits of computer technology as is being obtained in the developed countries of the world.
As mentioned earlier, the use of computer in medical services sucha s monitory of heart beat, body temperature and blood pressure during surgical operation. The inputs being temperatures, blood pressures, heart beat/ pulse wheich are based around a micro-computer equipped with video display unit (VDU), a keyboard & alarm panel.
The essence is to ensure that these variables are within accepted units the so that the medical staff will be alerted if there is any sign of irregularity during the operation.
Similar to the above, this project work is designed to use microcomputer in ensuring the correct diagnosis sickle cell Anaemia (SCA). The alarm being the rejection from the microcomputer when the diagnosis is followed sequentially for correct diagnosis.
To crown it all, it is viuid that the use of computer in our daily activities is an important issue that deserve urgent attention.
The use of computer to analyse hematological tests results will not only produce greater flexibility of jobs but also save more lines reduce the rate of people patronizing the local medicine men, reduce the work wad far the doctors and more importantly guarantee correct interpretation analysis of the result.
Interpretation / analysis of medical laboratory results is an area in medicine that requires professionalism. With the aid of a software for this analysis, there is bound to be correct tests for correct diagnosis. It kills lapses in the part of medical laboratory scientists, and medial doctors, thus wrong diagnosis is drastically reduced.