Prevalence Of The Risk Factor Of Cardiovascular Diseases Among Undergraduate Students In University Of Benin

Health Education Project Material

Prevalence Of The Risk Factor Of Cardiovascular Diseases Among Undergraduate Students In University Of Benin


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the prevalence of the risk factor of cardiovascular diseases among undergraduate students in University of Benin, Edo State. The study was carried out to find out the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases among university students, determine the level of students awareness of the nature of cardiovascular diseases, assess the cardiovascular risk factors prevalent among students in University of Benin and determine the level of students awareness of the complications of cardiovascular risk factors. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of undergraduates in university of Benin, Edo State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 160 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. While the hypotheses was tested chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases among university students is high. Furthermore, the study revealed that the cardiovascular risk factors prevalent among students in University of Benin includes: Hypertension, Dyslipidaemia, Diabetes Mellitus, Obesity, Smoking. Therefore, it is recommended that health care providers, administrator, educators and student representatives come together to create a health and wellness screening program that has two primary goals.The first goal is to screen students to identify risk factors for CVD. The second goal of the program is to educate and inspire students to be more active in their health, well-being, and lifestyle choices. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organizations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • REFERENCES
  • APPENDIX

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Cardiovascular diseases remain leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide.1 The 2010 World Health Report estimates that non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are responsible for more than 36 million deaths each year.1

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) account for most NCD deaths (about 17 million people annually), followed by cancers (7.6 million), respiratory diseases (4.2 million) and diabetes mellitus (1.3 million). The CVD burden afflicts both men and women, with CVD deaths accounting for 34% of all deaths in men and 28% in women in 1998.2 Nearly 80% of the deaths occur in low and middle income countries ( including Nigeria ),2 and more than 9 million deaths attributed to NCDs occur before the age of 60 years.3 It is projected that between 1990 and 2025, there will be 120% increase in coronary heart disease mortality in women and 137% in men in developing countries compared to 29% in women and 48% in men in developed countries.4

Control of infections and nutritional diseases allows most of the population to reach the ages in which CVD manifests. This is the major factor underlying the epidemiological transition from communicable to non-communicable diseases.4 Omran divided the transition into three basic stages: pestilence and famine, receding pandemics and degenerative and man-made diseases.5 Olshansky and Ault added a fourth stage, delayed degenerative diseases.6 A fifth stage, characterized by epidemic of inactivity and obesity, may be emerging in some countries. Although specific country or region enters these stages at different times, the progression from one to another tends to proceed in a predictable manner.6

The high burden of CVD in the developing countries are attributable to an increasing incidence of tobacco use, physical inactivity, harmful use of alcohol and unhealthy diets leading to atherosclerotic diseases.2 There is also a high burden of cardiovascular risk factors especially diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension (HTN), dyslipidaemia and obesity,2 which are independently associated with CVD risk and are common among young adults and adults in both developed and developing countries.7,8 Nigeria has witnessed tremendous socio-economic changes and rural- urban migration which has led to the emergence of NCDs including ischaemic heart diseases (IHD).7 Development of CVDs is promoted by major risk factors such as HTN, dyslipidaemia, DM, smoking as well as adoption of western lifestyle.

The NCD survey done in Nigeria about 21 years ago found high prevalence of traditional CV risk factors.9 The identification of these major risk factors and the implementation of control strategies, such as community education targeting high risk individuals have contributed to the fall in CVD mortality rates observed in industrialised nations.8 on the bases of the above, this study seek to assess the prevalence of the risk factor of cardiovascular diseases among undergraduate students in university of Benin.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a grouping of diseases that involves the heart and blood vessels of the body. This chronic disease involves an atherosclerotic process that begins early in life and continues to develop over many decades. Atherosclerosis is a medical condition that develops when a substance identified as plaque accumulates in and within the walls of the arteries. As plaque accumulates over time, it becomes hardened and narrows the arterial diameters making it difficult for blood to flow through the vasculature with ease, and creates a greater risk for a heart attack or stroke. The process of atherosclerosis has the potential to lead to serious medical complications including hypertension, heart attack, stroke, or even death9.For many young adults, entering tertiary institute is a critical time of transition. This period of transition can lead to adverse lifestyle patterns and risky behaviors that may progress into risk factors for chronic diseases such as hypertension, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular diseases4. Researchers are discovering that many CVD risk factors are prevalent among healthy young college students4. As the number of cardiovascular risk factors increases, so does the severity of asymptomatic coronary aortic atherosclerosis in young people8. Therefore, university students may be more at risk from developing subsequent CVD than previously expected. Based on the aforementioned, this study aims at assessing the prevalence of the risk factor of cardiovascular diseases among undergraduate students in university of Benin.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The broad objectives of this study is to examine the prevalence of the risk factor of cardiovascular diseases among undergraduate students in university of Benin.

The other specific objectives includes:

  1. To find out the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases among university students.
  2. To determine the level of students awareness of the nature of cardiovascular diseases.
  3. To assess the cardiovascular risk factors prevalent among students in University of Benin.
  4. To determine the level of students awareness of the complications of cardiovascular risk factors.

1.4 Research Questions

The study will by guided by the following questions;

  1. What is the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases among university students?
  2. What is the level of students awareness of the nature of cardiovascular diseases?
  3. What are the cardiovascular risk factors prevalent among students in University of Benin?
  4. What is the level of students awareness of the complications of cardiovascular risk factors?

1.5 Research hypotheses

  • Ho: There is no high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among students in University of Benin.
  • Ha: There is a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among students in University of Benin.

1.6 Significance of the Study

Basically, this study will help to raise alarm on the risk factors associated with CVD, hence, increasing students awareness. The study will also help students to manage the habits they exhibit so as not be fall victim of CVD.
Additionally, subsequent researchers will use it as literature review. This means that, other students who may decide to conduct studies in this area will have the opportunity to use this study as available literature that can be subjected to critical review. Invariably, the result of the study contributes immensely to the body of academic knowledge with regards to the prevalence of the risk factor of cardiovascular diseases among undergraduate students in university of Benin.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study borders on the prevalence of the risk factor of cardiovascular diseases among undergraduate students in university of Benin. Hence, the respondents for this study will comprise of undergraduates in university of Benin, Edo State.


1.8 Limitation of Study

This research project, like all human endeavors, had some challenges that threatened to derail the study’s completion. One of the reasons is that the time allotted for this work was so limited that the researcher did not have enough time to complete the task thoroughly. During data collection, the researcher also had to put forth extra effort to understand the respondents’ interview schedules, several of whom fell into the incomprehensible age group. Also, there were financial and transportation constraints to deal with. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, interview).


1.9 Definition of Terms

Cardiovascular Disease:

Any abnormal condition characterized by dysfunction of the heart and blood vessels. In the United States cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death. Various forms of cardiovascular disease include atherosclerosis, cardiomyopathy, rheumatic heart disease, syphilitic endocarditis, and systemic venous hypertension (K. Anderson, Anderson, & Glanze, 1998).

Cardiovascular Risk Factors

Cardiovascular risk factors can be classified as modifiable, non-modifiable and emerging.

Blood Pressure:

The pressure exerted by the circulating volume of blood on the walls of the arteries and veins and on the chambers of the heart. Blood pressure is regulated by the homeostatic mechanisms of the body by the volume of the blood, the lumen of the arteries and arterioles, and the force of cardiac contraction. In the aorta and large arteries of a healthy young adult, average blood pressure is approximately 120 mmHg in systole and 80 mmHg during diastole (Goff et al., 2014).


1.10 Organizations of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the prevalence of the risk factor of cardiovascular diseases among undergraduate students in University of Benin, Edo State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the prevalence of the risk factor of cardiovascular diseases among undergraduate students in University of Benin, Edo State. The study specifically was aimed to find out the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases among university students, determine the level of students awareness of the nature of cardiovascular diseases, assess the cardiovascular risk factors prevalent among students in University of Benin and determine the level of students awareness of the complications of cardiovascular risk factors.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents are undergraduates in university of Benin, Edo State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases among university students is somewhat high.
  2. The level of students awareness of the nature of cardiovascular diseases is high.
  3. The cardiovascular risk factors prevalent among students in University of Benin includes: Hypertension, Dyslipidaemia, Diabetes Mellitus, Obesity, Smoking.
  4. The level of students awareness of the complications of cardiovascular risk factors is high.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. Health care providers, administrator, educators and student representatives come together to create a health and wellness screening program that has two primary goals. The first goal is to screen students to identify risk factors for CVD. The second goal of the program is to educate and inspire students to be more active in their health, well-being, and lifestyle choices.
  2. Students should receive education for focusing on eating a well-balanced diet, getting adequate sleep, scheduling time for exercise and activity, and practice healthy stress management techniques while balancing academic demands.
  3. Health care professionals can help students protect and enhance their health by performing preventive screening including a blood lipid analysis and blood pressure measurements beginning at the age of 20.
  4. It is important for health care providers to be familiar with medical, community, and campus resources that may be beneficial in assisting students with specific areas of concerns. A preventive screening for CVD risk factors has the potential to educate and enable young adults to become empowered to establish healthy lifestyle patterns throughout college and adulthood.

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