Communication As An Effective Tool For Achieving Administrative Goal (A Case Study Of Aba South Local Government Area Abia State)


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Project and Seminar Material for Mass Communication

Project and Seminar Material for Mass Communication


Dedication


I dedicate this work to Almighty God who showed me mercy and love and also guide me throughout this work. Also to my beloved mother Mrs. Ann Ejiogu for her love, care,support and prayers.


Acknowledgement


I am grateful to numerous people who contributed immensely towards the success of this work. First I thank God Almighty who gave me life and also see me through.

I also appreciate the effort of my supervisor Mr. Golden Oparaeke for putting me through in this project work.
I will not forget the joy of my life, my sweetest love, my one and only husband Mr. Adrian Nzeribe Opara for standing by me all this years, my irreplaceable mother Eng. Mrs. Ann Ejiogu who single handedly brought me up, my siblings Engr. Val Ejiogu, Reginard Ejiogu, my father in-law Mr. Christopher Opara for the love and care he gave to me all this while, my mother in-law Mrs. Emillia Anyawu for her advice.

My acknowledgement also goes to all my friends and well-wishers may God Almighty bless you all in Jesus Name Amen!!


Abstract


The success of any organization has been attributed to effective communication within and outside it. This is more so in a place like Aba South L.G.A. Abia State where the growing need for communities to keep abreast with government activities for their full participation in development project is vital. Lack of knowledge about the preference and belief of members of an organization constitutes a major barrier in the formulation and implementation of policies.

The structure of communication determines the power of an officer since he controls information and its flow through the organization In order to remove all the necessary impediments to effective communication. Officers would be expected to ensure that information is honestly transmitted to persons that require them within and outside the environment.

KEY WORDS: Effective, Communication, Organization, Administrative.


Table Of Contents


  • Title Page i
  • Approval page ii
  • Dedication iii
  • Acknowledgment iv
  • Abstract v
  • Table of contents vi

Chapter One

  • 1.0 Introduction 
  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of the problem
  • 1.3. Objective of the study
  • 1.4. Research Questions
  • 1.5 Significance of the study
  • 1.6 Scope of the study
  • 1.7. Limitation of the study
  • 1.8. Definition of terms

Chapter Two

  • 2.0. Literature review 
  • 2.1. The role of communication
  • 2.2. System school Definition on communication
  • 2.3 An overview of the school of thought
  • 2.4 Definition of the school of thought
  • 2.5 Henry Fayol’s point on communication
  • 2.6. Solution to communication problem
  • 2.7. Commission attempt on civil service
  • 2.8. The two classes in the civil service
  • 2.9 Dr. Inya’s Comment on communication
  • 2.10 How poor communication affect civil service
  • 2.11 Characteristics of effective communication
  • 2.12 Need for effective communication
  • 2.13 Feedback as an aid to effective communication
  • 2.14 Barriers to effective communication
  • 2.15 Theoretical framework

Chapter Three

  • 3.0. Research methodology 
  • 3.1. Research design
  • 3.2. Area Of study
  • 3.3. Population of study
  • 3.4. Sample and sampling procedure
  • 3.5. Sources of Data
  • 3.6. Instrument for data collection
  • 3.7. Validity of instrument
  • 3.8 Administration of the instrument
  • 3.9 Method of data analysis

Chapter Four

  • Data presentation and discussion of finding 
  • 4.0. Introduction
  • 4.1. Data presentation and analysis
  • 4.3. Presentation of research Question/Discussion
  • 4.4. Discussion of finding

Chapter Five

  • Summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations 
  • 5.0 Introduction
  • 5.1 Summary of findings
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3. Recommendations
  • References
  • Appendix
  • Questionnaire

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

Communication is the act or process of using words, signs, sounds or behaviors to express or exchange your ideas, thoughts, feelings to someone else. Communication is one of the import resources in interaction, persuading and establishing of dialogue (Middleton, 1980:32).

The establishment of any organization does not only rely on the critical tasks of bringing theorganization into being, making it work. Articulating the raw materials and transferring them into finished products, but also the use of effective communication system within the organization (Chambers, 1974:84)

Effective communication is critical to any organization and can help it in many ways infact, communication play a role in product development, customer relation, employee, management-virtually every face of business operates. Employee is the key audience because they often serve as the conduct is other constituency is likely to be strong as well. Effective communication builds strong relationship.

Trust and loyalty both are boosted by communication that is focused in meeting individual needs conveyi8ng important information and providing feedbacks positive and constructive strong relationship with enteral audience also builds strong solid communication about products, services and company cultural and values.

Basically, communication touch every sphere of human activity, it informs or better still disseminate information /message to target audience. One of the peculiarities of the human race is communication among the members of the society. Communication is an essential attributes of human behavior indeed, communication is perhaps man’s most important singular activity because every other human activity revolves around communication.

Animals and tress also communicate, but it is man’s ability to create symbols, ascribe meaning and interpret message that elevate him above the status of the lower animals and gives form and character to his existence. All organizations encourage effective communication by having established channels (formal and informal) of transmitting information to people in all enterprises, regulatory agencies and the general public it is through good communication with business owners, board of directors, management, peers and sub-ordinates that an organization maintains good will grows and waxes.

Communication also serves as an instrument of social interaction. It helps us understand ourselves to keep in touch with their people, to understand them and to predict their response to situation, its means by which power is acquired, exercised and sustained. It is the medium through which relationships are established, extended and maintained, it provides a means by which people in business policies make decision and management and material. In business and industry, communication help to orient workers to work with on another and to achieve the good goals of the organization and it is the means by which such goals can be pursed, attained, sustained and improved.

Effective organization communication will lead to strong team work and the ability of employee of all level of the organization to work together to achieve company goals. In addition, effective organizational communication will provide employee the knowledge structure and positive work environment they need to feel confortable, dealing with conflict and resolving issues effectively.


1.1 Background Of The Study

Abia state is a state in south eastern part of Nigeria. The capital is Umuahia and the major commercial city is Aba formerly a British colonial government out post. The state was created in 27th August, 1991 from part of Imo State and its citizens are predominantly Igbo people (95% of the population) it is one of the nine constituents state of the Niger Delta region.

Aba is a city and the main trading center in Abia State. Upon creation of Abia State, Aba was divided into two local government areas namely; Aba South and Aba North. Aba South is the main city center and the heart-beat of Abia State. It is localized on the Aba River. Aba was established by the Ngwa clan of Igbo people of Nigeria as a military post was placed there by the British colonial administration in 1901.

The state government is led by ademocratically elected governor who works closely with an elected state house assembly and it has 17 local government areas which Aba South is one of them. The activities in Aba South local government area, the city center of Aba have drawn the attention of the researcher which led her to use it as her case study for the research work.

Federal state and local government in the country are reputable large organizations that carter for the interest of the citizens. They formulate policies that affect them. They maintain peace and security that create a good atmosphere so people to engage in necessary and viable economic activities.

The important rate Aba South local government area of Abia State plays in administration of the state has capture the interest of the researcher to examine the working of the various arms of government for the welfare of citizens. The problem of transmitting decisions lies on the ability of officers to communicate the required information to the officers expected to deal with the matter. Officers in the service to in adequate provision of necessary input and where those inputs are provided, they are inadequately maintained and worse still treated like no man’s property. Also the in availability of good roads and poor maintenance of existing one’s are said to affect very largely the communication system.

On arriving at certain conclusions reached in the achievement of effectives and efficiency of communication system in the state civil service. They did not rely on existing literature in communication but carried out research work in five ministries four parietals, and one Local Government Headquarters officers because Abia Sate has a large civil service which Aba South is one of it and the researcher choose Aba South for the research.


1.2 Statement Of The Problem

All organizations set their goals and work towards achieving them but the achievement of organization goals would depend on the working attitude of management and its staff through the operation of effective communication system. Most business organization today have failed in their bid to satisfy their potential customer, not in quality or quantity of such goods and services provided but in terms of creating adequate awareness and enlightenment to its customers, the kind of communication system adopted in the service are written, oral or face to face discussion. Transportation, telephone, intercom and committee meeting. Type downward and upward and literal flow and the media have been formal to present some problems in acquiring effective communication.

The problem that impede effective communication in Aba South local government Abia Sate have been traced to:

  1. Organizational structure of ministries and department which case result in conflict between officers with consequent effect on communication system from one scheduled officer to the other.
  2. Inadequate resources:These has barely affected effective communication equipment and sound transport system to transmit massage to offices in the seventeen (17) local government areas from the state capital are not adequately provided and where they are provided. They become unserviceable and therefore serve no effective purpose.
  3. The bureaucratic system of the service:This implies that traditional legal authority arise out of the office or position of the person in authority as bounded by Max Weber, while to the present day is regarded as an effective management system for a large organization.
  4. Human factors, the attitude of all cadres of serving officers in the executive of their duties particularly at this period of minimum wage issue.

1.3 Objectives Of The Study

The purpose of the study is to:

  1. Know the important of communication in Aba South Local Government Area in particular and Nigeria at large.
  2. Identify the problems that impede effective communication in the State public service and make recommendations on how remedy the situation.
  3. Identify the causes why some senior officer keep secret to their subordinates for their personal benefit thereby delaying unduly information intended to reach the public and to treat the problems.
  4. Encourage the senior officers in the state civil service to establish an environment and a chain or relationship with the staff which encourages the transmission of suggested changes in procedure, problems to be resolved, and difficulties encountered and proposed solution.Since the importance of communication in the Nigeria civil service cannot be over emphasized.

Information are expected to move from the line of operations up to the top in order that senior officers and policy making may be sound, and decisions at the top flows to the very root of the organization if well planned productive action results.


1.4 Research Question

  1. Does the kind and types of communication system used, seriously affect communication system in the service?
  2. Does lack of adequate training of officers handling communication gadgets poor selection and placement of officers impede effective communication?
  3. Is communication delayed in the services when the schedule officer is not around?
  4. What do civil servants need in other to work effectively in the Nigeria public service?

1.5 Significance Of The Study

This study intends to find out the impact effective communication has on the organization and how it aids in achieving administrative goal. The study is also important to managers to know how to achieve business objectives though the implementation of an effective communication system.

The research work offers researchers the opportunity of finding out how the public think of the Abia state civil service bureaucrats and the sometime to portray one of the root caucused mismanagement in the system in order to achieve some self-set dysfunctional objectives. The research is also important because it is a requirement for the award of higher national diploma(HND) in mass communication department federal Polytechnic Nekede Owerri.


1.6 Scope Of Study

The broad topic of this project is on communication as an effective tool for achieving administrative goal. The main focus however is on effective communication in Aba south local government area of Abia state.

The study will therefore, cover all the avidities engaged by the Aba south communication system.

There are other related co-operation where relevant data in relation to the above topic can be gotten but the researcher decided to restrict the study with in the boundary of Aba south local government of Abia state.


1.7 Limitations Of The Study

The research is limited to some departments and parietals in Aba south local government, Abia state civil service due to some problems which include.

  • Financial constraint
  • Vastness of co-operation from respondents
  • Time factor

In the process of understanding this research work, the cost involved in transporting data for processing information, and the production of materials that are needed cannot be over emphasized. Inadequate time is another factor owing to give to the fact that officers of the company have little time to give me attention while others pay no attention at all. In view of these few selected ministries and perastatals were chosen by the researcher for effective research.


I bet you, the complete material is fully loaded. This is just an excerpt. The Material is in MS-Word Format which you can easily edit and is comprehensive for a complete research work for this topic


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How to nail it on the head during your project defence


You are through with writing that project. Now what?

You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.

  • How am I going to start?
  • I hope I will do well enough to get an A.

You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.

I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.

Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.


Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:

Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.


Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:

Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.


Speak With Authority:

Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.


Use, Your Gestures:

I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.


Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:

Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.


Make Sure You Know Your Work:

Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.


Prepare For The Questions:

Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.


These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.


The structure of a good project work


Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.

A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are


1. Introduction

The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.

Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;

  • Background of the study,
  • Statement of the problem,
  • Objectives or aims of the study,
  • The research questions,
  • Research hypothesis,
  • Significance of the study,
  • Scope of the study,
  • Limitations of the study and
  • Operational definition of terms.

2. Literature review

Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.

3. Research Methodology

This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected.  This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.


4. Results & Discussion

This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question.  Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported.  In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.


5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations

This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner.  It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.


References:

This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.


Choosing A Good Project / Research Topic


Students in Nigerian universities these days wish to choose a very simple project topic/material. There is no issue choosing a simple project topic; the only problem is your ability to choose a good project or research topic that your supervisor will easily approve for you.

Most project supervisors really want to see how good his or her project student understands his or her surrounding through the kind of topic he or she chooses for their project work.

There are some project topic that are not reject-able; for instance in Nigeria of today; what do you think is the major issue on ground now?

If a project student can choose or craft a topic on the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. Such project topic will be very interesting to write on.

Now what are the qualities of a good project topic?

  1. The materials for the project topic must be easily assessable.
  2. The project topic itself must be meaningful.
  3. The variables must be able to give a clear aim of the project topic.

What do I mean by variable?

Well I am deriving my point from the area of project writing; the variables here are those main words in the project topic.

Like the above project topic; the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. You can see the main variables that really define this project topic are:dollar, increment and economy.

Before you present your topic to your project supervisor, first of all understand your project topic, and then secondly try to do some research for your topic to see if at least you can get up to 60% of what you need to write the complete project.

I said that above because you might have a very nice topic that the materials are not available online and there are no books as regard the topic; in this case the project topic becomes difficult for you even though the topic is catchy.

What do I mean by your topic being assessable?

Well what I mean is very simple and easy to understand. Simply pick your project topic, type it on google and see if you will have at least a good background for the topic you are writing on.

If you can have a good background for your project topic and you can understand the problem associated with the project topic, then I believe the aim of the project is not far-fetched.

SAMPHINA ACADEMY

SAMPHINA ACADEMY

Samuel Obiora Blessed is the CEO and founder of Samphina Academy (samphina.com.ng) a.k.a Nigeria Students Media, the youngest engineering graduate of Federal Polytechnic Nekede in 2017 and the engine brain behind this great platform. He is the man behind the scene, filled with many potentials, a musician as well as a pro developer with the interest of Nigerian students at heart.

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