The Role Of Cable TV In The Education Of Secondary Girls In Owerri (A Case Study Of Owerri Girls High School)


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Project and Seminar Material for Mass Communication

Project and Seminar Material for Mass Communication


Dedication


This project is dedicated to God Almighty who made this work a huge success and for His grace which is sufficient for us.


Acknowledgement


I give God Almighty all glory for making this project work possible

Any project of this magnitude requires the assistance of many people. Our H.O.D and also my supervisor were particularly helpful with their keen eye and questioning attitude that sharpened each chapter of this work. My supervisor’s invaluable sound academic guidance gave a clear direction that made this project writing most rewarding.

I am most grateful to our beloved parents, for their prayers, encouragement, love, finance to ensure our educational success. I can’t find enough words to express my appreciation. God bless you all.


Abstract


This research work studied the role of cable TV in the education of secondary girls in Owerri using Owerri Girls High School Students as a case study. The research was carried out sequel to the need to identify any related changes, consequences, and factors that will occur to student’s mentality, performance and lifestyle as a result of the influence of the cable television towards them. Survey method was adopted for the analysis of data and the instrument employed was the questionnaire method.

A total of 200 questionnaires were administered and 180 were returned. Simple random sampling was used in selecting the sample for this study. The results obtained indicate that cable television can impact both positively and negatively on the behaviour of most students. It was therefore recommended that cable television operators should give more airtime to programmes that will impact positively on students such as career and moral guidance and less airtime to those with negative impact such as most home video depicting violence.


Table Of Contents


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Content

Chapter One:General Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of Study
  • 1.2 Statement of Problem
  • 1.3 Purpose/Objectives of the study
  • 1.4 Research Question
  • 1.5 Scope of the Study
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Delimitation and Limitation
  • 1.8 Definition of Terms

Chapter Two:Literature Review

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Cable Television
  • 2.3 Receiving Cable Television
  • 2.4 Mode of Transmission
  • 2.5 Effects of Cable TV
  • 2.6 Benefits of Cable TV

Chapter Four:Data Presentation And Analysis

  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Data Analysis

Chapter Five:Summary Of Findings, Conclusion & Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary of findings
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • Reference
  • Questionnaire

Chapter One


Introduction

1.0 Background Of The Study

The role of the media on the psychological development of the child is profound. It has become something of a clichĂ© to observe that despite many decades of research and hundreds of studies, the connection between people’s consumption of the mass media and their subsequent behaviour has remained elusive.
Cable TV has proliferated all over the country.

A variety of channels are available to the viewers and viewers have favoured them. As a result, the viewership for channels like CNN, BBC, African Magic, AIT, Nollywood, Super sports and STAR TV is increasing gradually. Various types of programmes are being telecast by these channels such as, news, serials, sports, film based programmes and music programmes.

This has affected adversely the cinema houses in many cities as the percentage of people who prefer to watch movies in theatre has gone down by 25 to 40 per cent. Studies have shown that the expansion of cable and satellite TV will have profound effect on children, i.e. on their studies, work habits, play activities, sleeping pattern, their relationships with others, etc. The expansion of TV viewers through satellite, cable TV has enormously increased the scope for advertising. With the coming of satellite television in Nigeria, children spend up to four hours every day watching Cable TV programmes.

It provides them thrill and entertainment which does not add to their knowledge or creativity. According to several school principals, children were showing behavioural abnormalities which leads to poor performance. They were reading and writing much less and generally suffering from under exposure to printed material.When cable television was first introduced in Nigeria, it was the entertainment programmes that caught and held the attention of the audiences.

These programmes as was observed had very low educational content; this perhaps had a lot to do with the literacy level in the country then.

Since most secondary students belong to adolescent age, they seem to be easily influenced by what they see and or hear (environment) they are a very mobile group gaining access to several cable television stations and programmes. By their use of cable television, there is every likelihood for an increase in their knowledge, career choices, and behaviour through the programmes they watch.

Cable television has been used to provide information which makes viewers to be in closer touch with places far and near.
It provides entertainment and education to the viewers, it familiarises the school student with an entirely new world of facts and fictions. The cable television is such a powerful medium that changes the attitudes of students in particular and forms habit that reflects those represented in various cable television programmes. Some parents see the cable television as something that is expensive, waste children’s time and corrupt while others see it as an effective teaching aid.

Against the above, the role of cable television in the education of secondary girls in Owerri will be studied.
This research will identify the academic and behavioural changes prevalent in our secondary school students as a result of time spent in viewing cable television programmes, the type of programmes they prefer to watch and the influences of viewing these programmes on the academic performance of the secondary students. This research will expose to the public behaviours and attitudes of students which comes from imitating Cable TV characters.

The finding will encourage parents to monitor the type of programmes their children are exposed to and advise them to adopt healthy life styles. It is hopes that findings will help students know the implications of imitating scenes from movies. School Counsellors and Principals will know how to better handle some student’s issues as they occur in schools.

It is hoped that the study will be helpful to those responsible for planning cable TV programmes as it will expose them to some of the problems arising from the programmes televised. It is also hoped that the study will be helpful to other students who might want to consult it for further studies.


1.2 Statement of Problem

A lot of people claim there is no observable impact of cable television in the education of students, yet parents and teachers have shown much concern about the effect of cable television on our young people. In the light of which Maduewusi (2005) called for utmost caution in Cable TV programme production.

Cable TV has the potentials to generate both positive and negative effects. Dietz and Strasburger (1991). It is therefore unfortunate that great deals of Cable TV shows which students have devoted their time to view are not educational. Studies by Johnson, Cohen, Smailes, Kasen and brook (1999), show that the average adolescent spends more time watching cable television than in the classroom.

The time spent watching television, has been attributed to being one of the causes of the fallen standard of education in developing countries like Nigeria. The time spent viewing cable TV frequently limits the time for reading, studying and developing other necessary physical, mental and social skills. It is against this background that the researcher is carrying out this study designed to identify the role of cable television in the education of secondary girls in Owerri.


1.3 Objectives / Purpose Of The Study:

The following objectives have been formulated for the present investigation.

  • To find out the study habits of cable TV viewers,
  • To identify the influence of Cable TV on the academic performance of students.
  • To know the influence of Cable TV on career choices of students.
  • To identify the behavioural changes prevalent in our students as a result of time spent in viewing Cable television programmes and type of programmes they prefer to watch and the influences of viewing these cable TV programmes on the behaviour of the students.
  • To know if Cable Television improves and develops the standard of education and to what extent the students benefit from it.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions will be answered to meet the objectives of the study.

  • Does Cable TV viewing influence student’s study habits?
  • Does Cable TV viewing influence the career choices of students?
  • Does Cable TV viewing influence the academic performance of students?
  • Does Cable TV viewing influence ill-social behaviour in students?
  • Does Cable TV viewing improve the standard of education in Nigeria?

1.5 Scope Of The Study

This study is restricted to students only in Girls High School Owerri. Also, while investigating the role of cable TV in the education of Secondary students, the researcher shall limit herself to the educational aspect of the student’s lives.


1.6 Significance Of The Study

The needfulness of this study can never be overstressed. The significance of the study is on the education of secondary students as a result of Cable TV viewing and exposure. It is to identify its benefits and challenges to societal growth and development especially in this twenty first century of educational and youth advancement the present generation knowledge oriented.

It is an indicator to know well how students have adopted to the Cable TV Programmes they expose themselves to.It exposes the Nigerian students to active information flow around the world rather than local passive observers.

It is beneficial to the youths as the future leaders and avails them the opportunities to have a holistic view of an ideal society. This would reduce to its barest minimum student’s delinquency. A Nigerian student who is not well informed would constitute societal blunder but a well informed student is a plus to societal development.

The finding will encourage parents to monitor the type of programmes their children are exposed to and advise them to adopt healthy life styles. It is hopes that findings will help students know the implications of imitating scenes from movies. School counsellors and principals will know how to better handle students’ issues as they occur in schools.

It is hoped that the study will be helpful to those responsible for planning Cable TV programmes as it will expose them to some of the problems arising from the programmes televised. It is also hoped that the study will be helpful to other students who might want to consult it for further studies. This research remains for further research. Another significance is that it can serve as an academic source to fill knowledge gap.


1.7 Delimitation And Limitation:

Delimitation:

The research is to examine the role of Cable TV in the education of Secondary Students.The researcher has decided to choose Girls High School Owerri as a case study. The decision is justified by the fact that the Nigerian students are identical in almost all respects. Since the researcher cannot lay hold on all the students watching Cable TV in Owerri in their closest environment from a ready population for data gathering. The focus will be on the educational impact the cable TV has on the lives of students.

This means that the impact on their social, political, religious and other aspects of their lives will be downplayed on.

Limitation:

A research carried out by human beings is bound to have limitations. This research deals principally on the role of Cable TV in the education of Secondary students.

The study is limited by many factors among them are:

1) Limitation of researcher both in financial and time resources:This research work is not funded by government research agencies or academic bodies but is strictly funded through the financial strength of the researcher who is a full time student with no source of income except the merger allowance from the parents and guidance. This financial constraint has affected the researcher in no small measure as any good research is based on fund and time which the researchers were not lucky to have.

2) Another limitation was the lack of co-operation from the school Mgt. and students in the process of administering the questionnaire and conducting interviews.

3) Secrecy Although these factors exist, determination and effort will be made for relevance of the study.


I bet you, the complete material is fully loaded. This is just an excerpt. The Material is in MS-Word Format which you can easily edit and is comprehensive for a complete research work for this topic


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How to nail it on the head during your project defence


You are through with writing that project. Now what?

You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.

  • How am I going to start?
  • I hope I will do well enough to get an A.

You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.

I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.

Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.


Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:

Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.


Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:

Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.


Speak With Authority:

Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.


Use, Your Gestures:

I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.


Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:

Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.


Make Sure You Know Your Work:

Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.


Prepare For The Questions:

Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.


These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.


The structure of a good project work


Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.

A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are


1. Introduction

The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.

Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;

  • Background of the study,
  • Statement of the problem,
  • Objectives or aims of the study,
  • The research questions,
  • Research hypothesis,
  • Significance of the study,
  • Scope of the study,
  • Limitations of the study and
  • Operational definition of terms.

2. Literature review

Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.

3. Research Methodology

This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected.  This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.


4. Results & Discussion

This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question.  Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported.  In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.


5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations

This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner.  It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.


References:

This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.


Choosing A Good Project / Research Topic


Students in Nigerian universities these days wish to choose a very simple project topic/material. There is no issue choosing a simple project topic; the only problem is your ability to choose a good project or research topic that your supervisor will easily approve for you.

Most project supervisors really want to see how good his or her project student understands his or her surrounding through the kind of topic he or she chooses for their project work.

There are some project topic that are not reject-able; for instance in Nigeria of today; what do you think is the major issue on ground now?

If a project student can choose or craft a topic on the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. Such project topic will be very interesting to write on.

Now what are the qualities of a good project topic?

  1. The materials for the project topic must be easily assessable.
  2. The project topic itself must be meaningful.
  3. The variables must be able to give a clear aim of the project topic.

What do I mean by variable?

Well I am deriving my point from the area of project writing; the variables here are those main words in the project topic.

Like the above project topic; the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. You can see the main variables that really define this project topic are:dollar, increment and economy.

Before you present your topic to your project supervisor, first of all understand your project topic, and then secondly try to do some research for your topic to see if at least you can get up to 60% of what you need to write the complete project.

I said that above because you might have a very nice topic that the materials are not available online and there are no books as regard the topic; in this case the project topic becomes difficult for you even though the topic is catchy.

What do I mean by your topic being assessable?

Well what I mean is very simple and easy to understand. Simply pick your project topic, type it on google and see if you will have at least a good background for the topic you are writing on.

If you can have a good background for your project topic and you can understand the problem associated with the project topic, then I believe the aim of the project is not far-fetched.

SAMPHINA ACADEMY

SAMPHINA ACADEMY

Samuel Obiora Blessed is the CEO and founder of Samphina Academy (samphina.com.ng) a.k.a Nigeria Students Media, the youngest engineering graduate of Federal Polytechnic Nekede in 2017 and the engine brain behind this great platform. He is the man behind the scene, filled with many potentials, a musician as well as a pro developer with the interest of Nigerian students at heart.

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