An Appraisal Of Local Government Administration In Community Development In Imo State (A Case Study Of Aboh Mbaise)


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Project and Seminar material for Public Administration

Project and Seminar material for Public Administration


Dedication


I dedicate this work to those who know the truth and love the truth. And to my parents for their support and encouragement


Acknowledgement


I am grateful to Almighty God for His absolute care and protection and also for the good health He gave me throughout this period of this research work.

My immeasurable thanks go to my parents MR and MRS Emmanuel Ogu whose parental care and love are immeasurable.

I must appreciate my able supervisor Mr. Ozor J.E for painstakingly reading through my work and ensuring that this work is completed.

Finally, I must appreciate my siblings and friends for their support and encouragement.


Abstract


This research question centers on an Appraisal of Local Government Administration in Community:A Case Study of Aboh Mbaise. This research work focuses on local government, as the third of government activities for the third level of government. The federal government deemed it right to develop the community through the formulation or creation of local government area.

This work will look at into the people at the grass root level. What and what have been done by the local government in the rural areas. The methodology used in this research is the survey design also questionnaires were used in collecting data from respondents and simple percentage system was used to analyze the data. This work looks into the usefulness of local government to community development.


Table Of Content


  • Title page i
  • Certification ii
  • Dedication iii
  • Acknowledgement iv
  • Abstract v
  • Table of contents vi

Chapter One

  • 1.0 Introduction 1
  • 1.1 Background of study 1
  • 1.2 Statement of the problem 4
  • 1.3 Objective of the study 5
  • 1.4 Research questions 7
  • 1.5 Significance of study 7
  • 1.6 Scope of the study 8
  • 1.7 Limitation of the study 8
  • 1.8 Definitions of terms 9

Chapter Two

  • 1.0 Literature review 11
  • 2.1 Introduction 11
  • 2.2 The concept of development 11
  • 2.3 Benefits of community development 21
  • 2.4 Problems of community development 22
  • 2.5 Definition/meaning of the concept 23
  • Reference 34

Chapter Three

  • 2.0 Research design and methodology 35
  • 3.1 Introduction 35
  • 3.2 Research design 35
  • 3.3 Method of data collection 36
  • 3.4 Population and sample size 36
  • 3.5 Sample technique 37
  • 3.6 Validity and reliability of measuring instrument 37
  • 3.7 Method of data analysis 37

Chapter Four

  • 4.0 Presentation and analysis of data 39
  • 4.1 Introduction 39
  • 4.2 Presentation of data 39
  • 4.3 Analysis of data 46
  • 4.4 Interpretation of data 49

Chapter Five

  • 5.0 Summary, conclusion and recommendation 52
  • 5.1 Introduction 52
  • 5.2 Summary of findings 52
  • 5.3 Conclusion 54
  • 5.4 Recommendations 55
  • Bibliography 57
  • Appendix 58
  • Questionnaires 59

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

This chapter examines the subject of community development in its proper perspective, first the term “development” is defined in order to highlight the meaning attached to it in this work. In spite of all the efforts of the government to see that development is extended to the community.

The federal government of Nigeria recognized local government as the third level of government. This was the effort made by the federal government to reach the community development. This could be called government as grass root level, taking cognizance of development objectives of government. The federal military government has therefore decided to recognized local government as the third tier of government activities in the nation.

Local government should be precisely what the word government implies i.e. governing at the grass root or local level. The above quotation confirms local government position as the third level of government.


1.1 Background Of The Study

Before the advent of colonization with its subsequent indiscriminate imposition of uniform nature authority, system, each regulation or status in Nigeria had a different political and administration system which was peculiar to their respective historical, economic and socio-cultural circumstances and conditions. This traditional system of local administration was also used to foster development among them.

However, this traditional system went through some modification, resulting to uniform nature authority system. In the view of the fact that these traditional system differ from one part of the authority to another, the uniform native authority system that was imposed by the colonial master, while recording some resource success in the north, simultaneously recorded monumental future in the southern part of the country.

The presence of the British people in Nigeria introduced a different system of government known as “LOCAL ADMINISTRATION”; this was administered through individuals rule system of government. Here powers and functions were developed to the local authority to run the affairs of the government at the local level.

The military regime which instituted the system, designed it structurally to be development oriented. The military have the following reasons for creating local government areas.

To prevent instability that is prevalent in the grass root level of government significant function to local levels in order to harness local resources for rapid development. Secondly, local government was created to ensure the involvement and participation of the people at the local level in decisions and plans for their own process and development.

The most striking reason as far as this write up is concerned in this one that says that local government was created to mobilize the people at the local level so as to mobilize the people at the local level so as to harness their emerges and resources towards national development.

Local government so far has been an instrument for community development.


1.2 Statement Of The Problem

In spite of all the efforts of the government to see that development is extended to the community. Some people still nurse that believed that local government has woefully failed to really generate and concretize socio-political and economic development of the local areas and their people. They argue that local government has not been able to wipe out unemployment and under employment. Illiteracy provides basic amenities such as health centers, pipe borne water, electricity, hunger and poor sanitary conditions, high rate of preventable diseases, low life expectancy of the communities, high rate of infant as materials portability, lack of education institutions etc, and that all these had lead to community development migration with all these negative implications for natural development such as congestion of the cities, armed robbery, prostitution.


1.3 Objectives Of Study

Many people do not know the significance of having a third tier of government in this country. Some people believed that the establishment of local government in Nigeria is a waste of resources; therefore, the study will highlight the importance of local government in this country.

Look into their activities so far using Aboh Mbaise local government as a case-study and to encourage both federal and state government to manage local government effectively and give them financial and adequate supports for effective development of the communities. So some people are of the opinion that local government has generated development for the community development. Some citizens in Aboh Mbaise local government in particular are not left behind in this belief. This is a problem that needs to be resolved, people should be meant to understand the good gestures which the federal government made in allowing local government to come into existence as the third level of government.


1.4 Research Questions

What pattern does local government portray in the community development?


1.5 Significance Of The Study

This study is geared towards correcting the misconception some people have as regards the value of local government. It will go a long way in detecting the idea that local government is an extension through which federal, those in the wealth to politicians or their supports.

This write up will expose the usefulness of local government to the citizenry. It will also motivate the society towards community development. It will help local government administrations (chairman and councilors) to understand why they are there and those asperities to be there to know why there should be there.


1.6 Scope Of The Study

As a result of many local government areas in Nigeria, this is narrowed down to our local government areas in Imo State. The emphasis should be Aboh Mbaise local government as an agent of community development.


1.7 Limitation Of The Study

The limitation of this study is as a result of financial constraints and time the researcher encounter in carrying out the research work. The first limitation is lack of finance was an expensive venture the researcher spent a lot of money on transport, the collection from respondents, also the typing of the project is very much expensive for the student.

Another limitation is the study of time factor the researcher was not given sufficient of political stability in Aboh Mbaise local government area in Imo State.


1.8 Definition Of Terms

In this research work, there are certain words and terms which need to be defined on the way and manner in which they are applied.

Some of these terms are itemized as shown below, the key terms in this work are local government at the local level of grass root, and government exercised through elected representative councils to perform specific function.

Local government as a political authority set up by a nation or state as a subordinate and for the purpose of dispensing or decentralizing political power.

Agents

Agent can be defined as a person or company that represents another person. It is also defined as someone who works for a government or police department in order to get secret information about country or organization.

Community

Community may be defining as a place where people live in the same area, town, and an arts center built to serve the whole community.

Development

The word development means change; it also means the gradual growth of something so bigger or more advanced. It has to do with improving the standard of living, a change or growth patterned towards realization of human being in any given society.


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How to nail it on the head during your project defence


You are through with writing that project. Now what?

You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.

  • How am I going to start?
  • I hope I will do well enough to get an A.

You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.

I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.

Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.


Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:

Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.


Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:

Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.


Speak With Authority:

Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.


Use, Your Gestures:

I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.


Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:

Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.


Make Sure You Know Your Work:

Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.


Prepare For The Questions:

Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.


These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.


The structure of a good project work


Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.

A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are


1. Introduction

The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.

Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;

  • Background of the study,
  • Statement of the problem,
  • Objectives or aims of the study,
  • The research questions,
  • Research hypothesis,
  • Significance of the study,
  • Scope of the study,
  • Limitations of the study and
  • Operational definition of terms.

2. Literature review

Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.

3. Research Methodology

This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected.  This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.


4. Results & Discussion

This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question.  Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported.  In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.


5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations

This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner.  It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.


References:

This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.


Choosing A Good Project / Research Topic


Students in Nigerian universities these days wish to choose a very simple project topic/material. There is no issue choosing a simple project topic; the only problem is your ability to choose a good project or research topic that your supervisor will easily approve for you.

Most project supervisors really want to see how good his or her project student understands his or her surrounding through the kind of topic he or she chooses for their project work.

There are some project topic that are not reject-able; for instance in Nigeria of today; what do you think is the major issue on ground now?

If a project student can choose or craft a topic on the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. Such project topic will be very interesting to write on.

Now what are the qualities of a good project topic?

  1. The materials for the project topic must be easily assessable.
  2. The project topic itself must be meaningful.
  3. The variables must be able to give a clear aim of the project topic.

What do I mean by variable?

Well I am deriving my point from the area of project writing; the variables here are those main words in the project topic.

Like the above project topic; the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. You can see the main variables that really define this project topic are:dollar, increment and economy.

Before you present your topic to your project supervisor, first of all understand your project topic, and then secondly try to do some research for your topic to see if at least you can get up to 60% of what you need to write the complete project.

I said that above because you might have a very nice topic that the materials are not available online and there are no books as regard the topic; in this case the project topic becomes difficult for you even though the topic is catchy.

What do I mean by your topic being assessable?

Well what I mean is very simple and easy to understand. Simply pick your project topic, type it on google and see if you will have at least a good background for the topic you are writing on.

If you can have a good background for your project topic and you can understand the problem associated with the project topic, then I believe the aim of the project is not far-fetched.

SAMPHINA ACADEMY

SAMPHINA ACADEMY

Samuel Obiora Blessed is the CEO and founder of Samphina Academy (samphina.com.ng) a.k.a Nigeria Students Media, the youngest engineering graduate of Federal Polytechnic Nekede in 2017 and the engine brain behind this great platform. He is the man behind the scene, filled with many potentials, a musician as well as a pro developer with the interest of Nigerian students at heart.

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