Influence And The Important Of Using Smartphone On Students Academic Performance In Secondary Schools
1.1 Background to the Study
Smartphone has become one the important devices used to simplify human lives and their activities. The usage of smartphone has been increased in recent years in Bangladesh. The number of Smartphone users in Bangladesh has increased by 8.20 million in 2015 and the figure will be more than doubled by 2021 (BTRC, 2016). In each year, more than 6.00 million new users are added to existing smartphone users (ERICSSON MOBILITY REPORT, 2015). Students seem to be vulnerable to technology overuse because of their developmental dynamics, freedom, and lack of responsibility on society and family.
A mobile phone is a device that can basically make and receive calls over a radio link while moving around a wide geographic area. (Pew Research center, 2010). It does so by connecting to a cellular network provided by a mobile phone operator, allowing access to the public telephone network. The ancient types of Mobile phones support limited services Such as, calling, sending messages and very few for taking pictures. However, the modern phones support very wide range variety of other services apart from making and receive calls These include; text messaging, MMS, e-mail, internet access, short range wireless communications [(Infrared, Bluetooth, File Transfer Protocol, (FTP)], business applications, gaming and photography.
The earliest smartphone released is during the 1990’s.But, of course, with such technologies, people can do things easily and with that, more and more people own smartphone. With this, data traffic from users increased drastically which will also cause the increased mobile charge or mobile bills. It is predicted that by 2020, mobile data will have covered 80 percent of mobile data traffic (Lunden, 2015). This clearly shows how the population of human is dependent on mobile phone. This will then lead to addiction to mobile phone. There are many criteria to show mobile phone overuse in a person.
Smartphone had invariably provide advantages that can be used in our everyday life. With smartphone, children are able to interact with other people at the tip of their finger. They can communicate easily with other people outside their house. This allow the children to keep in touch with their parents. This is especially true in school children when there is a change in their school schedule or when there is an emergency. The rise of smartphone use can be seen in United State when there is a rise in mass school shooting. A research firm, YouthBeat, more than 1 of 10 kids between the ages of 6 to 10 own their own mobile phone (Meredith, 2012). Others include a new and interesting dimension of learning. According PBS Parents Guide to Children & Media, it allow them to explore the virtual reality of media which include augmented reality, dictionaries and encyclopedia. It is apart from the traditional way of teaching (Jones, 2013). Children can also download health application (apps) in their smartphone such an app that can keep track their diet. This help them to be fit and healthy. Other than that, the inclusion of pedometer to help keep track the number of steps taken per day.
There are several researches suggested that it has either bad or good influences. (Power MR, 2004) proposed that an opportunity is given to young people to create new and maintain relationship by the usage of mobile phone.) (al., 2003) stated that social fulfillment of youngsters such as access, convenience and mobility is provided by smartphone.(V, 2000) and (R) suggested that with this technology, busy parents can better be in touch with their children thus lessen their stress. Besides that, it is a necessity to own a smartphone by college students in order to keep in touch with their family, as stated by (al, 2011). (B, 1997) proposed that youngsters seek peer group acceptance by using their mobile phones. Contrast to these statement, there are some bad influences in the social aspect of lifestyle of youngster nowadays. A study that had been conducted by James and (James J, 2011) on Australian students concluded that there are adverse consequences of excessive usage of smartphone such as the increases in financial costs, emotional stress, damaged relationships and falling literacy. Stated there is a linkage between criminal activities like alcohol, fighting, theft and narcotics use and the usage of smartphone. (L, 2005) claimed that students even use their mobile phones while attending their lectures. Griffiths and Renwick (2003) (Griffiths M, 2003) stated that being in debt and other financial worries of adolescents is one of the significances of the higher usage of mobile phone. (Thompson R, 2007) emphasized security of children using mobile phone by pinpointing the potential risks of uncontrolled expenditures, exposure and access to prohibited, damaging or adult material and bullying via mobile phone. Basing on their acadmia, (Sánchez-Martínez, 2009) suggested that intensive cell phone use was related to school failure as well as other negative behaviors such as smoking and excessive alcohol use. Several studies reveal that students frequently report using a variety of electronic media including cell phones while in class, studying, and doing homework (Jacobsen, 2011) (W, 2012) (Junco, 2012) (Junco, Too much face and not enough books: the relationship between multiple indices of facebook use and academic performance, 2012) (Junco R. a., 2012) (Wood, 2012).First, measured the influence of multitasking with an array of electronic media on students’ ability to learn from typical, university classroom lectures. Emailing, MSN messaging, and Facebook use via computer were all investigated as was cell phone texting. Results showed that multitasking with any of the technologies was associated with lower scores on follow up tests compared with students who did not multitask. Immense research had been made from the effects of smartphone on smartphone. (EJ, 2003) finds out that most of the students from United States are inclined to make calls at night which can lead to some adverse outcomes such as sleep loss. Niaz (U, 2008) proposed that an awareness about the dangers associated with excessive and addictive mobile use must be created among the society because a public health problem have appeared due to unwise usage of smartphone. (James J, 2011) Highlighted some adverse consequences of excessive usage of smartphone, such as the financial costs, emotional stress, damaged relationships and falling literacy. In conclusion, a study has to be done on this matter in order to create an awareness on the influence of smartphone on the academic performance of students.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Globally, smartphones use among tertiary level students has increased tremendously over the last two years. Higher learning institutions need to develop sound strategies to leverage students’ smartphone use in order to create a more autonomous learning environment. To date, numerous studies have been conducted to investigate the use of mobile devices themselves. For most of the research reporting on the benefits and limitations of smartphone, there was very little empirical evidence to support their claims (Merchant, 2012). Although there is some evidence regarding students’ use of smartphones in higher education, there is little research on how they have used smartphones to support learning activities and how this relates to academic performance. This study considered the amount of time tertiary level students used smartphones in sixteen learning activities and explored how it influenced their academic performance. Understanding the stated relationship may give insights as to whether smartphone usage has indeed contributed to increasing students’ learning opportunities or likewise affected their academic performance negatively.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of this study is to find out the influence of smartphone on students’ academic performance, specifically the study intends to:
- Ascertain the extent to which mobile phones are being utilized in secondary Schools among the students.
- Find out the extent to which the use of mobile phones will affect students’ performance in secondary School.
- Comparison of student performance in Public and Private Schools using mobile phones.
- Proffer solution to the problem of abusive use of smartphone
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions if formulated to guide the study so as to achieve a valid conclusion:
- To what extent are smartphones being utilized in secondary Schools among the students?
- What is the extent in which the use of mobile phones affects students’ performance in secondary School?
- What is the performance of students in Public and Private Schools using mobile phones?
- What solution can be proffered to the problem of abusive use of smartphone?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
- Ho: there is no significance effect of smartphone on the academic performance of secondary school students
- Ho: there is no significance difference between the performance of public and private school students using smartphone
- Ho: there is no significance difference between the performance of students using smartphone and students not using smartphone.
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