The Impact Of News Commentaries On Radio Listeners (A Case Study Of Federal Radio Corporation Of Nigeria Enugu)

Project and Seminar material for Public Administration

Project and Seminar material for Public Administration


Abstract


The aim of this research project is to know the essence of radio commentaries and its impact on the listeners.

The project stars with information which given insight into the historical back ground of news commentaries.

It processed to examine the impact news commentaries creates to this listens and the distinguishing features. It then derives into detailed exposition of relevant literature formation of research question and hypothesis.

The research question was formulated to properly address the problem on radio commentary in relation to its listens. Questionnaire were administered to the sampled respondents. The findings on the study reveled that news commentaries have less impact on some resident of the country as a result of low level of awareness and illiteracy.

The research recommended that radio news commentaries should create enough awareness to control the effect of illiteracy level of respondent and also further studies should be encouraged.


Table Of Content


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title Page
  • Declaration
  • Approval
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Content

Chapter One

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the study
  • 1.4 Significance of study
  • 1.5 Research question
  • 1.6 Research hypothesis
  • 1.7 Definition of terms
  • 1.8 Limitation of the study

Chapter Two

Literature Review

  • 2.1 Source of literature
  • 2.2 The review
  • 2.3 Summary of literature review

Chapter Three

Research Design and Methodology

  • 3.1 Research method
  • 3.2 Research design
  • 3.3 Research sample
  • 3.4 Data collection
  • 3.5 Data analysis

Chapter Four

Data Analysis and Result

  • 4.1 Data analysis
  • 4.2 Result
  • 4.3 Discussion

Chapter Five

Summary & Recommendation for Further Study

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Recommendation
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • Bibliography
  • Appendix
  • Questionnaire

Chapter One


Introduction

The history of radio news commentary in Nigeria dated back to the 1930’s when what was known as radio receiver was just a wooden box and as amp liter. The audience has thrilled by these live commentaries run by various pioneer commentators.

Ever since the tradition of running radio commentary has remained with radio to this day.

In presidential democracy such as ours news commentary whether on the radio newspaper or television do not only serve as surveyor of public opinion but also serve as a requisite for bridging the credibility gap between government and the governed.

Perhaps, it might be necessary to draw a line of distinction between news and news commentary. A news caster presents straight news without additional comment. While a news talk provides background information to the new. Writing on the uses of radio, Richard Aspinall said that:

“with limits radio can persuade and effectively influence large audience thereby contributing substantially to the thinking of the nation” in the Nigeria media house today news commentary has become a ferment feature. Airtime is allowed to news commentary immediately after major news- bulletins perhaps as an attention gaining strategy. The media house not only give air space to commentaries written by its own staff but also uses those written in the additional headlines of various new papers this giving freedom of expression a chance.

Today the media house news- commentary not only interpret the news but sometimes comment on societal problems but what happens to the problems or issues of the society and the views expressed by the news- talk after these Tracie broadcasts as in the media house?

Do they influence the attitude and an opinion of the country’s listening public?


1.1 Background Of The Study

Perhaps 50 percent of each radio news commentary listeners who forget to fund their radio during commentary do so are more accustomed to the news paper additional page to which they can easily refer may be and may be not we shall find cut through survey in the subsequent chapters.

Owing to the fact that news- commentary are aired to listeners and are not seen we have therefore taken it upon ourselves to present at least except of two news commentary aired by ESBS and FRCN

Is it not often said that seeing is believing? Indeed sight or vision is an indispensable in learning and retention –vision is said to aid the memory to produce previously retained content. And for quick remembrance of past new-talks by respondents these excerpts shall serve as basis for our analyses. We shall present them to our respondents for answers


1.2 Statement Of Problem

A country like Nigeria with diverse culture and human resource & need radio commentaries or news talk capable of interpreting events bordering global and societal issues. Obviously these news-commentary are staunchly provided to listeners on a daily basis

Unfortunately about 80% of radio listeners ignore news- talk once they have listened to actual news broadcast but radio listeners are 100% attentive to sport commentaries. If all radio commentaries are said to interpret events occurring earlier on illuminating the hidden fact (news behind the news) to the layman then it is to be preferred to actual broadcast.

Moreover generally the Nigeria audience seems not to appreciate radio commentaries as their western counterpart who listen to radio and write feedback to their radio stations such as BBC which in turn offers them a round the clock service.


1.3 Significance Of The Study

The foregoing objectives apart the present study must be seen to be significance or relevant to mass communication at least on two grounds.

First, it focuses on Nigeria media consumer on news- commentaries which is a medium essentially designed for news broadcast and its obligatory effort interpreting new to its listeners through commentaries.

The second point or relevance of this study is its typology. Being an audience research this study seeks to emphasis that communication without feedback is incomplete. We might wrap up this relevance of feedback in the words of Quall and Brown

“ In any communication system feedback from receivers to a communicator is a necessary ingredient fro maximum efficiency. This is the only true indicator of the effectiveness to reach the people and it provides the only safe basis for alteration of any format”


1.4 Research Question

  1. Do the news commentary ever steer a middle course at times disagreeing with government policy and at the other time selling it
  2. To what extent have the suggestion and opinion offered by the news talk as solution to societal problems been adopted in the society.
  3. What are the criteria from selecting among others the news talk to be aired?
  4. Considering the frequency that news talk are and have the purpose tended to induce the desired effect
  5. How often are the suggestions and opinions contributed in the news talk adopted by the lecterns
  6. Does Nigeria radio news talk influence the attitude and opinions of the listening public?
  7. How many media consumer listen to and make use of any Nigeria news talk

1.5 Research Hypothesis

To provide some dues as the direction of this inquiry the following hypothesis have been put forward to us.

  1. H1: Radio audience in Nigeria do listen to new talk because the letter are mere repetition of actual broadcast.
    H0: Radio audience in Nigeria do not listen to new talk because the letter are mere repetition of actual broadcast
  2. H2: Things are likely to continuously exhibit this trend toward Nigeria radio news talks so long as strong foreign counterparts exist.
    H0: Things do not continuously exhibit this trend toward Nigeria radio news talks so long as strong foreign counterparts exist.
  3. H3: That spot commentaries are livelier and therefore more interesting than new talk
    H0: That spot commentaries are not livelier and therefore more interesting than new talk.

1.6 Definition Of Term

We are obligated to define the conceptual and key operational definitions are given blow:

  1. Commentary
  2. Listeners
  3. ESBS and FRCN
  4. Effectiveness
  5. Method of presentation
Conceptual Definition
1. Commentary:

This offer listener information on current issues or research of current relevance which helps in directing the minds of the entire audience including those in authority and subjects.

2. Impact:

According tot the oxford paper- back dictionary it means idea in as much as this is valid? Impact here shall be operationally seen to be effective in result of radio news talk. It provides such detailed and in-depth opinion as would enable the listeners to interpret the significance of news

3. Listener:

These are the audience of radio news talk.

4. ESBS and FRCN:

ESBS stands for Enugu state broadcasting service and FRCA stands for federal radio corporation of Nigeria

5. Effectiveness:

This means that ESBS /FRCN commentaries are achieving the intended result aims and objective to which it was established

6. Method of Presentation:

This is the technique to which commentary is delivered to the target audience through radio.


1.7 Assumption

All the studies of the research work will be passed on survey method. The survey research method will be adopted because in any experimental research the researchers have studied without injecting extraneous variables. On the other hand the survey research usually involved studying the attitudes of pole, which cannot be predicted.
It is therefore believed that at the end of this research work a reliable and depended able result will be achieved.


1.8 Limitation Of The Study

We shall not hesitate to state the inherent factors which we encountered in the course of our research that may likely influence our working sampling result one of these factors is that of all our intended diversified respondents only the ones belonging to the middle class or upper stratum of the society responded positively to listening to news- talk or commentaries. And this makes the result slanted to only the opinions of this class of people.
Another limitation was that of the “ fear syndrome” in Nigeria respondents, some people whom other wise would have been good material for our research we discovered were reluctant to make any comment for fear of being quoted so we are only making use of the available and willing respondents.


Chapter Five


Summary And Recommendation For Further Study

This study was carried out to ascertain the impact of radio news commentaries in Nigeria radio listeners and to weight these impacts if any


5.1 Summary

Six research question including the research hypothesis were structured in line with the purpose of the study and result were analyzed using frequency and percentage.

Result obtained form the overall response to our research question all justify our first and second preposition that the respondents under study do not listen to radio commentaries because they are regarded as mere repetition of straight news report.

The care of the matter is that majority are not even aware of news commentaries. Therefore it is even the knowledge few who exhibits this nonchalance. Another confirmed hypothesis is that sport commentaries are more enjoyed by listeners and are therefore more preferable to new commentaries.

The question then is should the later now take the shape of sport commentaries to licit listeners attention see our recommendation.


5.2 Recommendation

In view of our research finding we hereby make our modest recommendation on how media house can make its news commentaries impact in Nigeria metropolis.

This is that media houses should create now awareness for its commentaries through radio jingles in station broadcast to educate non- challent listener on the indispensability of news commentary for a proper and more balance understanding of straight news broadcast the media house should also properly define these various purpose for their various commentaries news or sports and reasons for various in style. This is to curb listener preference to only sport commentaries as against news commentaries.

Again media houses should adjust its presentation of news commentaries to very conversational and much liverier than actual regard the two as the same

Otherwise this negative trend towards new commentaries may likely continues so long as listener cannot draw clear- out line or definition between the two.

However the recommendation to solving this research problem is inexhaustible. We believe that further studies in this area by other researchers will reveal more and consequently enhance the impact of radio news commentaries on its listeners


5.3 Conclusion

From all indication and all that is at hand it could be drawn that news commentary do not contribute in information of idea behaviour and attitude of the masses because so many do not listen to it and to the measure to enhance the attention given to news commentaries, a lot of things has been said and suggested toward improving the rate of listening to day issue in a more clearer state.


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