Audience Perception Of Facebook As A Marketing Medium

Project and Seminar Material for Marketing

Audience Perception Of Facebook As A Marketing Medium


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This study was carried out to assess audience perception of Facebook as a marketing medium using Abaraka Delta State as a case study. The study was specifically set to assess audience perception on the extent online marketing is carried on Facebook platform, assess audience perception on the extent marketing activities carried out on Facebook platform are credible, assess audience perception on whether online marketing carried on Facebook platform attracts consumers patronage, and assess audience perception on whether online marketing carried on Facebook platform influences consumers buying behaviour. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of Facebook users in Abaraka Delta State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 147 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables and percentage, while the hypotheses was tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the extent online marketing is carried on Facebook platform is high. Furthermore, the study showed that the extent marketing activities carried out on Facebook platform are credible is low. The study recommends that social media advertising should be consolidated into the advertising and marketing plans and strategies of businesses so as to consistently enhance customer patronage and loyalty. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Inttroduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Marketing is defined by the American Marketing Association as “the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large.” The term developed from the original meaning which referred literally to going to market with goods for sale. From a sales process engineering perspective, marketing is “a set of processes that are interconnected and interdependent with other functions” of a business aimed at achieving customer interest and satisfaction.
Philip Kotler defines marketing as :-marketing is about Satisfying needs and wants through an exchange process.

The Chartered Institute of Marketing defines marketing as “the management process responsible for identifying, anticipating and satisfying customer requirements profitably.” A similar concept is the value-based marketing which states the role of marketing to contribute to increasing shareholder value. In this context, marketing can be defined as “the management process that seeks to maximise returns to shareholders by developing relationships with valued customers and creating a competitive advantage.

The advancement in the internet in recent years has increased the options available to businesses today; the social media platforms being a good example (Boulianne, 2009). It is no secret that the general availability of the internet has given individuals the opportunity to use online platforms as mediums of communication, from email to Twitter and Facebook, which has led to business interactions without the need for physical meetings (Picard & Robert, 2011). Furthermore, as part of the growth the internet experienced, the social media platform has become a major communication channel. The online world has become a new vehicle for social communication that has connected people to different online communities. Paquette (2013) reckons that the social media community has grown to more than 12.5% of the entire world population. This has presented another communication channel for various businesses and brands today.

The term social media can be defined as a range of tools and services that facilitate direct user interaction online. Social media are web based services which are otherwise called “social networking Sites” (Miller, 2016). Social media refers to a network of connections and communications among various gatherings or people (Kaplan, 2010). Stelzner, (2016) defined social media as a platform that was centered on the concept of a read and write web, where the audience and users are past the passive viewing of web content and move on to actually contributing to the content. In simple terms, social media covers anything that makes use of the Internet to enable conversations and most often take the form of social networking sites, blogs, and Wikis (Celine, 2012). Furthermore, Chaffey (2016) defined a social network site as an online service that permits users to create and modify a profile, either public or semi-private, accumulate a list of connections, as well as view the list of their connections and others utilizing the services. Social Media (SM) refer to network of relationships and interactions among different users (groups or individuals) (Kempe & Chin, 2003). Social media platforms include popular networking sites like the Facebook and Twitter as well as bookmaking sites like Reddit (Ashley, 2015). Online communities and social networking sites are an Impactive web technology for social interactions and sharing information (Lu & Hsiao, 2010). Social Media such as Facebook, Instagram and Twitter enable users to maintain great connections among themselves as well with others by achieving more than one task and facilitating the way of communicating and sharing different information (comments, thoughts, videos and images) (Kietzmann, 2011).

One of the important contributions of social media is in the way it has changed the method of communication between consumers and marketers (Hennig-Thurau, Gwinner, Walsh & Gremler, 2004). Informational society has always had a significant influence on consumer buying decision and product evaluation, however, with the advent of social media, a new channel to acquire product information has been provided which allows peer communication (Kozinets, 2009). Today’s consumers have access to many different sources of information and experiences, which have been facilitated by other customers’ information and recommendations (Senecal & Nantel 2004). This is an important point as customer involvement through social media is a key factor in marketing (Do-Hyung, Jumin & Ingoo, 2007).

The trend in the development of the Web 2.0 and the dynamic nature of social networking sites in the recent times is expanding the horizon of marketing,featured before now, mainly in the mainline media. The popularity of Facebook sites has opened up lots of opportunities and changed how personal and marketing information is communicated to the audience whom greater percentage of the users constituting30.9% of the entire 1.4 billion subscribers are young adults within the age range of 18to 25 years and also form the average age range of undergraduate students in various universities in Nigeria (Facebook Reports, 2015). Apart from the research exploring the context of Facebook and marketing in social networking sites, it also explores Facebook marketing, its objective and subjective components that make the source credible to the audience.

This research therefore focuses on the audience perception of Facebook as a marketing medium they are exposed to on their Facebook pages particularly now that undergraduate students may have access to Facebook sites via a plethora of devices, which gives support to the ideas of a media–driven world and youth dependency on social media for information, education, and entertainment(Carlson, 2010).


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The audience of several Facebook marketing has been lead to make many uninformed decisions. Recently, four affiliated car dealerships in western Massachusetts in Boston agreed to pay a total $175, 000 to resolve allegations that they regularly lured consumers to their showrooms with misleading Facebook advertisements, and refused to make good on their promise as advertised (F&I andShowroom Report, 2014). Being denied opportunity in mainstream media to propagate deceptive advertisements due to government legislations, advertisers now use the social media to spread false promotional messages. Since Facebook has been estimated to have over 1.11 billionusers (Curtis, 2013), the possibility of exposure to true and false marketing strategy on Facebook is inevitable, and this has become a big concern to brand communicators and communication scholars all over the world. Meanwhile, (Plous, 1993; Wildavsky, and Dake, 1990) argue that audience members interpret marketing in a manner consistent with their pre-existing attitudes and beliefs. So, there could never be a question of credible or non credible Facebook marketing since it is the individual’s perceptions that determine what interpretation they make from a particular Facebook marketing. Hence, the audience perception of Facebook marketing remains a subjective matter. This raises the question: what is the audience perception of Facebook as a marketing medium?


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this study is to investigate audience perception of Facebook as a marketing medium. Other specific objectives are to:

  1. Assess audience perception on the extent online marketing is carried on Facebook platform.
  2. Assess audience perception on the extent marketing activities carried out on Facebook platform are credible.
  3. Assess audience perception on whether online marketing carried on Facebook platform attracts consumers patronage.
  4. Assess audience perception on whether online marketing carried on Facebook platform influences consumers buying behaviour.

1.4 Research Questions

The research will seek to answer the following questions:

  1. To what extent is online marketing carried on Facebook platform?
  2. What is the extent marketing activities carried out on Facebook platform are credible?
  3. Does online marketing carried on Facebook platform attract consumers patronage?
  4. Does online marketing carried on Facebook platform influence consumers buying behaviour?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: Online marketing carried on Facebook platform does not influence consumers buying behaviour.
  • Ha: Online marketing carried on Facebook platform influences consumers buying behaviour.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The findings of this study will benefit the firms by helping them know the effectiveness of Facebook Marketing and that too mainly among the youth. A large proportion of daily Facebook users are among the demographic of 16-25. They are an important target point that needs to be catered for. The findings of this study will help the firms realize the importance of youth for the marketing process and to specially customize advertisements to suit their needs. For the students, it will provide information upon the importance of Facebook Marketing and how they are being utilized during the promotion process.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study focuses on audience perception of Facebook as a marketing medium. Hence the study will be delimited to Facebook users in Abaraka, Delta State.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Social Media:

Internet or cellular phone based applications and tools used to share information among people. It involves blogging and forums and any aspect of an interactive presence which allows individuals the ability to engage in conversations with one another often.

Marketing:

Marketing is the process of intentionally stimulating demand for and purchases of goods and services.


1.10 Organizations of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on audience perception of Facebook as a marketing medium using Abaraka Delta State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on audience perception of Facebook as a marketing medium using Abaraka Delta State as a case study. The study was specifically set to assess audience perception on the extent online marketing is carried on Facebook platform, assess audience perception on the extent marketing activities carried out on Facebook platform are credible, assess audience perception on whether online marketing carried on Facebook platform attracts consumers patronage, and assess audience perception on whether online marketing carried on Facebook platform influences consumers buying behaviour.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were Facebook users in Abaraka Delta State.


5.3 Conclusions

In the light of the analysis carried out, the following conclusions were drawn.

  1. The extent online marketing is carried on Facebook platform is high.
  2. The extent marketing activities carried out on Facebook platform are credible is low.
  3. Online marketing carried on Facebook platform attracts consumers patronage.
  4. Online marketing carried on Facebook platform influences consumers buying behaviour.

5.4 Recommendation

The following recommendations were proffered with respect to the findings of the study;

  1. Businesses should effectively intensify their social media advertising efforts so that they can attract customer patronage for their products.
  2. Social media advertising should be consolidated into the advertising and marketing plans and strategies of businesses so as to consistently enhance customer patronage and loyalty.
  3. Social media advertising should adopt a strategy to provide their audiences with critiques that provides appropriate information to the consumers about products in the local market. 
  4. Social Media should contribute more with providing information and creating well informed consumer society. 
  5. Improving social media by creating different programs about what consumer wants and personal needs.

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