Audience Perception Of The Effectiveness Of Radio Jingles On Covid 19 Preventive Measures (A Case Study Of Raypower FM)

Project and Seminar Material for Mass Communication

Audience Perception Of The Effectiveness Of Radio Jingles On Covid 19 Preventive Measures (A Case Study Of Raypower FM)


Abstract


This study sought to analyse the role of Raypower FM in disseminating Covid-19 preventive measures using jingles and bridging the gap of poor access to covid-19 information service. The specific objectives were to establish the basis and rationale of radio programming in Raypower FM; examine the relevance of their Covid-19 jingles; and the perception of the audience on the existing radio-based Covid-19 preventive measures aired by the Raypower FM. The study population comprised of 53 personnel from Raypower FM and 355,000 audience listeners aged between 15-49 in Abuja. Using a purposive sampling method and the Yamane (1967) sample size formula, identified respondents included eight persons from Raypower FM and 400 audience listeners. Semi-structured questionnaire and interview guides were used to collect data from the audience listeners and key informants respectively. Quantitative data was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Content analysis of qualitative data was done. The findings show that women as a significant audience in this study are not included in the design of context specific programming at Raypower FM even though (77%) of the audience affirmed that they had been influenced to have better perception of covid-19 preventive measures. The radio stations provide health related information that enlightens and entertain their audience, however, the content is not evidence-based or context specific. Majority of the audience remain neutral on whether the radio jingles on covid-19 preventive measures have influenced their perception towards radio health programms. Including audience in the program design and conducting periodic research to understand their perceptions towards the programs are some recommended ways to ensure evidence-based and context specific programming to audience in Abuja that can boost their uptake of healthcare services. This research also forms a benchmark upon which approaches and guidelines for dissemination of Covid-19 preventive measures to improve access to those services by audience can be implemented.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background to the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Purpose of the Study
  • 1.4 Objective of the Study
  • 1.5 Research Questions
  • 1.6 Scope and Limitations of the Study
  • 1.7 Significance of the Study
  • 1.8 Theoretical Framework
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organization of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Related Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Review
  • 2.2 Theoretical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Research Design
  • 3.3 Study Area
  • 3.4 Population of the study
  • 3.5 Sample and Sampling Procedure
  • 3.5.1 Sample Size for Audience Listeners
  • 3.6 Instrumentation
  • 3.7 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.10 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.11 Ethical consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Analysis and Result Presentation

  • 4.1 Data Presentation

Chapter Five:

Conclusions and Recommendations

  • 5.2 Conclusions
  • 5.3 Recommendations
  • 5.4 Suggestions for further Research
  • REFERENCES
  • APPENDIX

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Since the advent of radio, the importance of radio as a vehicle for community voluntary sector, civil society, agencies, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO’s) and citizens to work in partnership to promote specific community development has been widely studied. A consensus developed that these stations often serve their listeners by offering them a variety of content that is not provided by the larger commercial radio stations and similarly represents programming produced by the community with a focus on local concerns and issues,(Sterling, O‟Brien, and Bennett 2007).This research analyzed the role of radio stations in disseminating Covid-19 preventive measures in Nigeria.

One of the crucial components in the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action was the recognition and limelight on the right of audience to enjoy the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health. (UNDP,1990 )as cited by (Nwagu & Ajama, 2011) More than 75 percent of audience in Nigeria live in the resource and infrastructure starved rural and remote communities (KNBS,2010).These audience play essential and dynamic roles in the rural economies, being actively involved in agriculture mainly, which is the basic sector of the Nigeria rural economy. The health of these audience is critical to food production and sustenance of families. However, in comparison with their urban counterparts, the health status of the Rural residents, is poor; they are seldom educated and are more likely to suffer from lack of access to proper covid-19 information. One major explanation of this observation is information poverty; Rural residents lack adequate access to covid-19 information sources and literacy to meet their covid-19 information needs (Nwagu & Ajama, 2011). To make informed choices and access the required healthcare services the Rural residents must have easily available, accurate, and timely information, and they must use it.These observations apply exactly to the Rural residents in Abuja ranked 5th among 15 counties with the highest maternal mortality cases in Nigeria. The research sought to analyse the role radio stations are playing to bridge the gap of poor access to covid-19 information by these audiences.

The Coronavirus (Covid-19) is an infectious disease causes respiratory infections ranging from the common cold to more severe respiratory difficulties. It originated from the Hunan seafood market at Wuhan, China where live bats, snakes, raccoon dogs, wild animals among others were sold in December 2019 (Shereen et al., 2020, pp. 91–98) and was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization on 11 March 2020 (WHO, 2020). Since its identification, the virus is said to have accounted for about 512,311 deaths globally out of a swooping statistic of 10,514,028 positive cases which sadly increases exponentially daily (WHO, 2020). The first victim of the virus in Nigeria was an Italian man who arrived in the country on the 25 February 2020. He was admitted to an Isolation Centre in Yaba Lagos after showing symptoms of the virus (NCDC 2020). Subsequently, the cases increased and, as at the time of this paper, almost 28,711 positive cases and 11,665 recuperated persons have been identified (NCDC, 2020).
The research seeks to contribute to the growing scholarship on radio worldwide and its role in promoting access to covid-19 information to this exceptional group cohort who are significant role players in community development, decision-makers in terms of medical and treatment decisions; main family caretakers and driving force behind covid-19 information seeking in the family.

Majority of the residents face significant challenges in having access to excellent quality and timely Covid-19 preventive measures that enables them to access needed services and support (Pullen, Fiandt & Walker, 2011; Schofield, Bloch, Herman, Murphy, Nankervis& Singh, 2008).In the current design of the basis and rationale of programming at the radio stations there is a gap in determining how messages should be packaged At the same time ,access to appropriate covid-19 information through the radio stations enables audience to access needed services, which is crucial in the promotion of their families. Research studies have demonstrated that having access to excellent quality and timely information enables audience to access needed services and support (Pullen, Fiandt & Walker, 2011; Schofield, Bloch, Herman, Murphy, Nankervis& Singh, 2008).Furthermore excellent quality covid-19 information can successfully substitute for consultation with health professionals, thereby enhancing residents sense of autonomy and potentially having positive fiscal benefits. In Nigeria many radio stations may be lacking a clear step by step road map which guides them in content generation and even loosely defining their concept in changing behaviour to a strategic jingle with a measurable impact on the intended audience. This situation presents a problem where health topics that are aired by the radio stations are not able to meet their covid-19 information needs making them irrelevant. Yet the availability of the correct health content will improve the health knowledge and change the health behaviors of the illiterate and poor communities, as it does not require any reading skills or money for endless purchasing (Zamawe, Banda & Dube, 2016).


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Excellent quality covid-19 information can successfully substitute for consultation with health professionals, thereby enhancing audiences sense of autonomy and potentially having positive fiscal benefits. However, this is not the case in most parts of the rural areas who are majority of radio listeners in Africa. According to a study investigated by Johnson’s CMIS, some of the traditional information sources available to the Rural residents are local drug hawkers, friends and family, drug sellers, traditional healers, oracle homes, faith healers and chemist. Although the role of traditional sources cannot be discredited in health care delivery in any rural African setting, the unstandardized nature of the knowledge of diseases the practitioners possess as well doubt of their knowledge of human body, among others makes the sources unreliable for delivering adequate Covid-19 preventive measures. In Nigeria Raypower FM has been identified as a powerful source of information especially among the vulnerable poor. But despite the significant roles the radio stations play, a majority of the residents are likely to suffer from lack of access to proper covid-19 information to meet their information needs .In Abuja which is the focus of this study lack of access to proper Covid-19 preventive measures causes the spread and negligence by the residents.

Access to appropriate covid-19 information through the radio stations enables audience to access needed services, support and substitute for consultation with health professionals, thereby enhancing Rural residents’ sense of autonomy and potentially having positive fiscal benefits. Understanding the step by step road map which guides the stations in content generation and even loosely defining their concept in changing behavior to a strategic and participatory program with a measurable impact on the intended audience who are the audience is important .The health topics aired by the radio stations are not able to meet the covid-19 information needs of the Rural residents making them irrelevant .Yet the availability of correct health content will improve the health knowledge and change the health behaviors of the illiterate and poor communities and empower them to access heath care services.
There is evidence that diverse nature of radio stations jingles plays a key role in enhancing quick and targeted information dissemination.

The results of this research act as a guide for radio stations in designing a clear step by step framework for disseminating Covid-19 preventive measures for audience. Secondly, this study is expected to form a benchmark upon which approaches and guidelines for dissemination of Covid-19 preventive measures to improve access to those services by audience can be implemented.


1.3 Purpose of the Study

To asses audience perception of the effectiveness of radio jingles on Covid 19 preventive measures: a case study of Raypower Fm


1.4 Objective of the Study

This study was designed to analyse the role of radio stations in the dissemination of Covid-19 preventive measures using jingles.

The specific objectives were to:

  1. Establish basis and rationale of radio jingles in Raypower FM.
  2. Examine the relevance of Covid-19 jingles aired by the Raypower FM to audience in Abuja.
  3. Assess the perception of audience towards existing radio-based Covid-19 preventive measures aired by the Raypower FM.

1.5 Research Questions

The study was based on three main research questions, namely:

  1. What is the basis and rationale of radio programming in the Raypower FM?
  2. What is the relevance of Covid-19 jingles aired by the Raypower FM to audience?
  3. What is the perception of the audience on the existing radio-based Covid-19 preventive measures broadcasted by the Raypower FM?

1.6 Scope and Limitations of the Study

The study was confined to Raypower FM broadcasting in Abuja, with a thematic focus on analysing the basis and rationale of radio programming in Raypower FM, the relevance of Covid-19 jingles aired by the Raypower FM and the perceptions of the audience listeners towards the radio health programs aired by the Raypower FM.Respondents were residents of reproductive age from Abuja and selected staff of Raypower FM. The stations‟ programmes‟ format, language of broadcast, the target audience,program schedule, level of interaction with the listeners in the community and the types of programmes aired were examined.

The study was limited by the research design and sample group. The use of respondents‟ perceptions as opposed to more objective measures, was another limitation. (Merchant, Stringer and Theivananthampillai 2010) state that subjective performance evaluations are based on personal impressions and judgments, which make them difficult to anticipate. The questionnaires did not assess respondents‟ in-depth understanding of health programs beyond recall of the title of the programs. During the one-on-one interviews with the radio station personnel, responses were skewed due to the perceived sensitivity of the sought information from the respondents‟ perspective. In addition, the response rate for the audience interviewed was 80% instead of 100%.
These limitations did not however negatively affect the quality and outcome of the study.


1.7 Significance of the Study

Addressing the role of radio in the dissemination of Covid-19 preventive measures for residents is crucial to the field of communication for several reasons. One of them is that there is growing body of evidence on the rapid growth of radio stations around the world (Buckley, 2008). Given such growth, and the increasing general acknowledgement of the role played by audience in society, and the importance of health in the scheme of things. Currently there is little evidence to show the significant role these stations play in bridging the gap of poor access to covid-19 information by audience

Promoting communication media such as radio stations programmes on/for audience will facilitate access to important information and give a voice to the traditionally voiceless audience. In addition, it will be an avenue for audience to voice issues that affect their lives and shift them from the domestic and marginalized life into the outside world.

The results of this research act as a guide for radio stations in designing a clear step by step framework for disseminating Covid-19 preventive measures for audience. Secondly, this study is expected to form a benchmark upon which approaches and guidelines for dissemination of Covid-19 preventive measures to improve access to those services by audience can be implemented.


1.8 Theoretical Framework

According to (Mentzer and Carlini, 2008), a good research is supported by theory. The main concern of this study was to analyzethe role of radio stations in the dissemination of Covid-19 preventive measures in Abuja. The framing theory was found to be best suited to help assess the study objectives and justify main arguments from the study findings. The framing theory as put forth by Goffman (1974) states that people interpret what is going on around their world through their primary framework. The basis of framing theory is that the media focuses attention on certain events and then places them within a field of meaning (Baran and Davis, 2009; Goffman, 1974). Research argues that news frames function to suggest how audiences can interpret an issue or an event. In fact, news frames can exert a substantial influence on citizens beliefs attitudes and behaviours. According to Scheufele & Nisbet 2007 media frames help in setting up debates among citizens as part of a frame contest in which one package gains influence because it resonates with popular culture or series of events. In 1997 Republican pollster Frank Lutz researched Republican campaign messages and distilled terms and phrases that resonated with specific interpretive schemas among audiences and helped shift attitudes. He coined the popular word. It’s not what you say ,it’s how you say it. This means that the effects of the message are not a function of content but of differences in the modes of presentations. Different studies have examined subsets of on frame building. Some have argued that the way news is framed in mass media is a result of social and professional routines of journalists (van Dijk, 1985), “driven by ideology and prejudice” (Edelman, 1993, p. 232), or shaped by an interaction of journalists’ norms and practices and of the influence of interest groups (Gamson & Modigliani, 1987) as cited by (Tewksbury & A. Scheufele, 2009).
In analyzing the role of radio in the dissemination of Covid-19 preventive measures in Abuja the research seeks to analyze the basis and rationale of programming-with a focus on how these four stations frame or plan their programming. This focuses on, establishing the program formats, choice of content to air and timing for airing those messages and the language used. In designing their programming do the radio stations identify programs that have power to influence how audiences interpret and evaluate issues that affect them?

Framing theory stipulates that “how something is presented to the audience (called “the frame”) influences the choices people make about how to process that information” (Goffman, 1974). The author further observes that frames are abstractions that work to organize or structure message meaning. The major thrust of the framing theory is in terms of the frame the news or media place on the information they convey. In the same breath several other studies have demonstrated that how people think about an issue, including what they believe are the most important considerations that bear on it, can be influenced by exposure to a frame in the news (Brewer, 2002; Shen, 2004) The frames influence the perception of the news by the audience. Framing theory provides a rhetorical analysis of text (an issue, or the reporting of the issue) to identify perception and/or interpretation and involves the use of metaphor, spin, storytelling, jargon, word choice, and other narrative elements (Calabrese, 2016). How do the radio stations frame content of the radio health programs they broadcast to reflect the needs of the audience as part of their main target audience? What are some of the factors that come into play when framing? Do they factor in issues like language which is simple enough for the audience to comprehend, consider experiential sharing to motivate other audience listeners, do they engage technical experts who are authorities in their fields to provide information based on the program being aired?


1.9 Definition of Terms

Content

These are facets included in a radio program

Dissemination

It is the act of spreading something, especially information widely.

Media theory

This is the multifaceted social-political-philosophical viewpoint that contribute to ideas about the relationship between media and society

Schedule

This is a plan for carrying out a process or procedure, giving lists of intended events and times.

Framing

Media focuses attention on certain events and then places them


1.10 Organization of the Study

This study is divided into five chapters.

  • Chapter one is introduction which consists of the background to the study, statement of problem, research questions, research hypotheses, objectives of the study, the significance of the study, the scope and limitations of the study and finally the organization of the study.
  • Chapter two deals with the literature review which consists of the conceptual literature, theoretical literature, empirical literature, theoretical framework.
  • Chapter three gives the research methodology including research design, population of study, sample size, sampling technique, method of data collection, instrument of data analysis, method of data analysis, validity/reliability of instrument.
  • Chapter four is presentation and analysis of data, discussion of findings.
  • Chapter five gives the summary, conclusion and recommendations.

Chapter Five


Conclusions and Recommendations

5.2 Conclusions

The following were the conclusions for the study aimed at analyzing the role of Raypower FM in disseminating Covid-19 preventive measures in Abuja.

An analysis of the Raypower FM‟ health jingles shows that they are relevant to the Rural residents as they address health matters that affect them directly and indirectly. Given the plight of the residents and the fact that ignorance has hindered their access to the media, using the radio as a platform to create awareness about Covid-19 issues affecting them is crucial.

Sixty-six(66%) agreed that the Covid-19 jingles had influenced their perception about Covid-19 issues with 34% disagreeing. The findings suggest that that the Covid-19 jingles aired by the Raypower FM have significantly influenced the audience‟s perception about Covid-19 issues however; there is still a considerable number of the audience who disagree with this position. This may suggest that that the community based Raypower FM have not fully explored their options in disseminating Covid-19 preventive measures for the Rural residents in Abuja. This might be attributed to the timing (airing) of the health jingles, the content aired might not be relevant or the way the message is being delivered does not meet their expectations. Including audience in the design of programs and conducting periodic research are some recommended ways to ensure evidence-based and context specific programming which will guide the stations to determine if the radio programs aired are influencing their target audience.


5.3 Recommendations

Considering the reviewed literature, the research findings and conclusions made in this chapter and the use of the framing theory, the researcher recommends the following:

  1. To develop content and structure jingles that are effective, the Raypower FM should strive to develop evidence-based and context specific programming by engaging the audience the audience in the program design and encouraging them to air their views and opinions in light of the framing theory, the Raypower FM should factor in the values, opinions and needs of the community that includes matters health.
  2. Secondly, innovative strategies that ensure that audience become active participants in production development and decision making of the jingles should be developed. This way the jingles will be more relevant and so have greater influence and impact on the lives of the Rural residents.

5.4 Suggestions for Further Research

Further research is proposed to consider appropriate structures and policies needed for the above recommendations to be implemented. The present study focused on one county (Kakamega) but it would be interesting to compliment this case study with a wider analysis of community broadcasting on Covid-19 preventive measures for audience in other developing countries. The aim of this would be to identify existing policy, training and organisational models which already favour the kind of radio output that elicits audiences health interest, and the kind of participatory involvement which seems necessary if radio is to contribute to meaningful education and development for audience, and to draw lessons from them.


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