Assessment Of Facebook Usage For Education Development Among Tertiary Institution Students (A Case Study Of Adeleke University Students, Ede, Oshogbo)

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Assessment Of Facebook Usage For Education Development Among Tertiary Institution Students (A Case Study Of Adeleke University Students, Ede, Oshogbo)


Abstract


This study focused on the Assessment Of Facebook Usage For Education Development Among Tertiary Institution Students Using Adeleke University Students, Ede, Oshogbo As Case Study. The study is was specifically focused on identifying the special motives that drive students to use Facebook; finding out an average time students spend on this site collectively per day and ascertaining the extent of students addiction to Facebook usage.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 100 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are Students Using Adeleke University Students, Ede, Oshogbo.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of the problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the study
  • 1.4 Research questions
  • 1.5 Significance of the study
  • 1.6 Scope of the study
  • 1.7 Limitation of the study
  • 1.8 Definition of terms
  • 1.9 Organizations of the study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical framework
  • 2.3 Empirical framework

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the study
  • 3.3 Sample size determination
  • 3.4 Sample size selection technique and procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of data collection
  • 3.7 Method of data analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the study
  • 3.10 Ethical consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE 

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Introduction of infrastructure and technological innovations into countries have always been the adversaries and blessing opportunities for socio economic and political life of human beings. Every technological innovation has been a topic of debate and centre of researchers’ attention and same is the case with the development of social networking sites. Various researchers have conducted studies to pinpoint the several impacts of these sites on their users and findings suggested both bright and dark aspects. Hence, many countries gained open access to the Internet due to rapid advances in information technology within last twenty years (Kuppuswamy & Narayan, 2010).
In fact, the Worldwide Web, originally created in 1990 for US military forces, has become not only an effective instrument for the management of US army, but later a convenient tool that issued by civilians for communication, entertainment, and learning purposes. One ofthe most popular and recognized platforms used on the Internet are social networking sites such as Facebook.

Facebook being at the forefront of the social media craze, has over 500 million active users on its website every month. It is emerged on February 4, 2004, when a 19-year-old sophomore Harvard student named Mark Zukerberg founded the revolutionary site to connect Harvard University students (Grossman, 2010). But later, this site allows users to build social networks with hundreds or even thousands of people around the world of which university students are one of the primary demographics using Facebook, with features such as photos, wall posts, and status updates becoming seemingly irresistible to those who want to connect with their friends (Gold, 2011).

Even though Facebook is by now used by a much wider variety of users, university students are still its “biggest fans”. Results from a recent paper Ellison et al. (2007) reported that 94% of College students are active Facebook users, spending 60-90 minutes online each day communicating with their Friends List of 150–200 people. Similarly, Wiley and Sisson (2006; as cited in Pempek et al, 2009) conducted a large survey on college students from universities in the developing countries indicated that 91% of students use the Facebook. Ethiopia is also as one of developing countries has intoxicated with around one million users of Facebook in which half of them are higher education students (Kassashow, 2012).

Though this social network generates billions of dollars for the developer and assists to contact a relatives detached for long period of time within fraction of seconds, it has impact on the users in general and on students’ academic performance in particular. So, this research Assessment Of Facebook Usage For Education Development Among Tertiary Institution Students (a Case Study Of Adeleke University Students, Ede, Oshogbo.


1.2. Statement of the Problem

The quick rise in popularity of social networking sites began in the second half of the last decade partlybecause of their extensive usage by school and university students. According to Ellison, Steinfield & Lampe (2011), for example, a significant number (approximately 73%) of Internet-using teenagers have joined social networking sites by the end of 2009, with almost half of them (38%) visiting social networking sites daily.

Currently Facebook is used by many people to connect with their friends and relatives around the globe (Brydolf, 2007). And the use of Facebook platforms has grown so fast that it has even attracted the attention of university students; they are so engrossed in the sites that they have almost completely forgotten about their academic work. University students are considered victims of the social media sites more than any group of people as they negatively impact their academic performance (Pasek & Hargittai, 2009). Students easily get tempted to use the various social media platforms when trying to obtain learning materials online. In most cases, the students end up spending almost all their times on the social media and forget about the course materials they originally intended to look for.

Furthermore, Ellison et al (2011) claim that students tend to participate in such website activities while doing their homework so that it may have negative effect on their academic performances by interrupting them from the learning process. Therefore, it is becoming difficult to ignore the fact that there might be a direct correlation between Facebook usage and student academic performance shown at schools and universities. Since the problem is relatively new, the researcher believes several attempts to be made for an idea of answering this question. As well as, there is no research conducted yet on this topic in college under the study and those research conducted in developed countries on this area has methodological gaps. Consequently, the researcher was much indebted to conduct research on this topic to fill those gaps.


1.3. Objectives of the Study

The overall objective of this study is an Assessment Of Facebook Usage For Education Development Among Tertiary Institution Students (a Case Study Of Adeleke University Students, Ede, Oshogbo).

  1. To identify the special motives that drive students to use Facebook.
  2. To find out an average time students spend on this site collectively per day.
  3. To ascertain the extent of students addiction to Facebook usage.

1.4. Research Questions

On the premises of the stated objectives, four research questions were formed to guide this study:

  1. Does Facebook usage have impact on students’ academic performance?
  2. What are the special motives that drive students to use Facebook?
  3. On average how much time do students spend on this site collectively per day?
  4. To what extent student are addicted to Facebook usage?

1.5 Significance of the Study

It is anticipated that the results obtained would add to the wealth of information currently available on Facebook usage, its impact on college students’ academic performance as it is newly emerging and instantly advancing technology which would be indispensable for policy makers, development practitioners, service providers, current users, and potential users. Hence, the output of this research can contribute to these endeavours by creating awareness at the grass root level. More specifically, it will assist any interested body as showcase who are responsible for academic performance of students at College level in general and Adeleke University Students, Ede, Oshogbo in particular.

In addition to the above mentioned, in the academic world, everyone viewed social media as a distraction and lead the student to procrastination in their academics. Some students, however, also claim that visiting social media sites during class time helps them deal with the boredom they experience in college. This study would provide information on the impact of Facebook to college students and how it can be used in-relation with their academics. In addition, the findings of the study are expected to contribute a little towards bridging the existing literature gap on understanding the impediments and blessing opportunities of Facebook in the academic environment. And also helps the researcher to gain Masters Degree in Business Administration.


1.6. Scope of the Study

Although it was preferable to conduct this research in all colleges found in state and on impacts of social network as the whole, due to financial, and time constraints this research only focuses on assessing the impact of Facebook usage on students’ academic performance in college under the study specifically on undergraduate regular students enrolled in main campus of Adeleke University Students, Ede, Oshogbo. This University is selected as a site of the current study due to that it is the only government college with large number of students serving currently for a total population of about 10,255 students as data of this campus registrar office and no study has been conducted on this topic in the college under the study so far.


1.7. Limitation of the Study

No study is without limitation Creswell (2008). Accordingly, this study is subject to the following limitations that future studies should address to shed more light on the subject under investigation.

  1. The focus of this study is limited with students who maintain a Facebook account and its impact on their academic performance. However, the result would have been comprehensive if non Facebook users were included and their academic performance/CGPA was compared with Facebook users. Therefore, a study that makes it possible to analyze this issue should be introduced in further studies.
  2. Student self-reporting answer regarding the Facebook use and its impact on their academic performance is mainly the topic of this research but it also depends on students’ true or false opinions. Thus, implementing a true experimental design will also provide rewarding research to other researchers.
  3. The present study participants were only comprised of traditional full-time undergraduate students of main campus only. But, the students of branch and Extension, and weekend students have not been given attention in the study to investigate the phenomenon. Other

1.8 Operational Definition of Key Terms

The definitions adopted by researchers are often not uniform. Therefore, this section outline the definitions used throughout the thesis.

Social Media:

They are forms of electronic communication which facilitate interactive base on certain interests. Social media include web and mobile technology. Boyd & Ellison (2008) defined Social Media as a group of internet based application that allows the creation and exchange of user generated content.

Social Networking:

The use of internet to make information about yourself available to other people especially people you share an interest with to send messages to them.

Social Networking Sites:

A website where people put information about them and can send to others.

Facebook

Simply Facebook is a most popular free social networking website that allows users to create profiles, upload photos and video, send messages and keep in touch with friends, family and colleagues.


1.9. Organization of the Thesis

This study is divided into five chapters.

  • The introductory chapter provides a general background of the study and statements of the problem. It also briefly deals with the research question, the aims and scope of the study as well the definitions of key terms used throughout the thesis.
  • Chapter two consists of the related literature.
  • Chapter three provides a fully detailed account of the research methodology, the reasons that the various research strategies were selected and the rationale for the sample selection process. It also deals with the issues of why the particular survey instrument was selected as being appropriate for the current study.
  • Chapter four is the section in which the results of the survey are briefly presented using descriptive analysis.
  • Lastly, chapter five points out the conclusions drawn, and the recommendations forwarded.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the Assessment Of Facebook Usage For Education Development Among Tertiary Institution Students Using Adeleke University Students, Ede, Oshogbo As Case Study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the Assessment Of Facebook Usage For Education Development Among Tertiary Institution Students Using Adeleke University Students, Ede, Oshogbo As Case Study. The study is was specifically focused on identifying the special motives that drive students to use Facebook; finding out an average time students spend on this site collectively per day and ascertaining the extent of students addiction to Facebook usage.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 100 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are Students Using Adeleke University Students, Ede, Oshogbo.


5.3 Conclusions

With respect to the analysis and the findings of this study, the following conclusions emerged;

Firstly, although Facebook is not always used as an official learning tool in universities, undergraduate students are actually using them for a wide array of educational purposes, particularly communication, collaboration, and accessing/sharing academic materials. The already prevalence of Facebook and the undergraduates’ generally positive attitude indicate the great potential of capitalizing on Facebook in HE that is worth educators’ attention.

Moreover, understanding students’ usage habits, the pros, and cons of Facebook may serve as a solid foundation for teachers to make “strategically planned” (Joosten, 2012, p. 39) integration of this platform. Specifically, teachers can better harness Facebook as a course supplement by considering thoroughly how to match specific educational tasks/activities, particular functionalities of Facebook, and outcome expectation (Joosten, 2012) to ensure pertinent application and optimal efficacy in their teaching learning contexts.

Secondly, the aforementioned challenges of Facebook use in HE signal the need for better media education which can be integrated into each course or offered as an independent training unit. For instance, the students’ confusion over information accuracy on Facebook could be mitigated if they were properly trained how to verify online resources and got oriented towards reliable sources for references in advance. Also, the problem of being overwhelmed by excessive learning materials shared through Facebook could be overcome by frequent professional consultation on each student’s self-studying path. In addition, the students would stand a better chance of dealing with the low efficacy of Facebook communication and collaboration, distraction and cyber-bullying if they received regular guidance on self-regulatory skills or proper conducts on social media regarding both academic progress and harmonious socializing. Taking into account the downsides as well as the necessity of media education, teachers in HE can be more proactive in predicting and assisting their students to surmount learning hindrances.

Thirdly, teachers should be mindful that there is a tendency among students to devalue Facebook for education despite their actual high usage and some may suffer tension towards fusing personal life and academic activities on Facebook. Although, because of the course requirements or peer pressure, students appear to use the site actively for learning, some may feel uncomfortable or hold invisible resistance to such integration, which can subsequently discourage their engagement and impact learning outcomes negatively. Therefore, instead of planning and imposing the site on learners’ studies, teachers can ask the students to vote for the decision on Facebook use as they will be the main beneficiaries of such an integration. Moreover, teachers should give them opportunities to raise their opinions, based on which teachers can offer orientation to make the students more prepared and willing for later Facebook application if applicable. The orientation content can be tailored to suit specific learners, but as Joosten (2012) recommends, it may basically cover reasons why the social medium is adopted, what attainments it can facilitate, and students’ expected conduct when using the new tool. Finally, regarding the systematical rigidness and void between formal HE and practicality, for which the Vietnamese case is an example, connected learning fostered by social media can be part of the solution. Examining the mere case of Facebook, this study shows that the site possesses certain advantageous affordances for self-advancing, collective support, and reality orientation while appears rather limited for deep interaction, community connectedness, distinguished academic achievements, and enhancing educational equality. Therefore, Facebook may be a choice for promoting connected learning, but it is recommended that educators should ponder about combining it with other social media such as MOOC platforms for optimal achievements.


5.4 Recommendation

Based on the findings the researcher recommends that;

Facebook is beneficial to the learners; lecturers should educate and guide the students to take advantage of technology and Facebook in particular, for positive academic outcomes. Instead of only using it for socialization they should also use it for academic purposes. Lecturers could develop ways of incorporating the use of Facebook as a tool of communication and learning. Facebook can be used by learners and lecturers to share notes, facilitate discussion on educational topics, schedule classes and give updates on university or class news. Therefore if properly used Facebook like any other social media can shape learning and improve academic achievement.


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