Arthritis And The Health Of The Aged

Project and Seminar Material for Public Health

Arthritis And The Health Of The Aged


Abstract


The broad objective of this study is to assess the effect of Arthritis on the aged in Amakohia community, Imo State. The study will employ a quantitative descriptive survey design, using a semi-structured questionnaire. The results also indicated that advanced age, insurance, regular smoking, diabetes, obesity, and osteoporosis were positively associated with Arthritis, while appropriate sleep duration, and insufficient vitamin A intake were negatively associated with Arthritis. Though cause and effect cannot be determined, modification of factors that are subject to change may help to reduce the risk of developing Arthritis.

The level of practice and adoption of control measures along the elderly male population was significant. This shows that there is still a lot of work to be carried out as regards education, awareness and diagnosis of individuals for Arthritis. Based on the findings of this study the following recommendations are made; Community and patient education on the disease and its predisposing factors should be enhanced; Patient literacy on the drug types used to manage Arthritis and why the DMARDs should be initiated as soon as a diagnosis is made; and Public knowledge about the expected adverse effects, and control behaviours for putting emphasis on what should be done in case of an occurrence should be enhanced as well as the preventive healthy lifestyle.


Table Of Content


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Certification page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of content

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background To The Study
  • 1.2 Statement Of Problem
  • 1.3 Objectives Of The Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Significance Of The Study
  • 1.6 Delimitation (Scope Of Study)
  • 1.7 Limitations
  • 1.8 Operational Definition Of Terms

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Conceptual Review
  • 2.2 Risk Factors For Development Of Arthritis
  • 2.3 Management Of Arthritis
  • 2.4 Theoretical Review
  • 2.5 Empirical Review

Chapter Three

3.0 Methodology

  • 3.1 Design
  • 3.2 Sample Size
  • 3.3 Sampling Technique
  • 3.4 Instruments For Data Collection
  • 3.5 Method Of Data Analysis

Chapter Four

4.0 Results And Discussion

  • 4.1 Results
  • 4.2 Discussion Of Findings

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary, Conclusion And Recommendations

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendations
  • References

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background To The Study

Arthritis is a disease that affects the Joints. It is usually associated with ageing. Arthritis according to Ebong, (2009) is a chronic degenerative condition of the joint. The disease causes extreme joint pains and inflammation of the joint, thus, limiting movement. Although arthritis is more common in old age, it can affect all humans irrespective of age (Medilexican int’l 2004-15 update)

According to Pfizer (2014) the word arthritis is derived from the Greek words: “arthrons”, meaning a joint and – “itis”, meaning inflammation. Inflammation typically involves redness, heat, swelling and tenderness. Arthritis is not a single disease with a single cause. There are several types of arthritis. A further explanation on arthritis by Peters (2009) asserts that, there are more than 100 types of arthritis. It’s a condition that affects more than 46 Million United State adults, and the number that is expected to increase to 67 Million adults by the year 2030.

Most types of arthritis are caused by a combination of several factors working together. These include the genetic make-up, a previous injury, a physically demanding job especially one with repetitive movement, obesity that places extra weight on the joint and severe blow or strain. Ebony (2013) stated that arthritis is the most important cause of disability, resulting from autoimmune diseases. Micro-organism such as bacterial or viral infection invasion at the knee and ankle often times triggers the inflammation.

Arthritis are of various types namely; osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, gout arthritis and juvenile arthritis. This study discusses three common types namely: osteoarthritis, rheumatoid, and gout arthritis. Diagnostic techniques include history taking, physical examination and observation of the joint to establish swelling, stiffness and limitation of movement. There are no known treatments for most types of arthritis. Thus management of arthritis includes physical and occupational therapy. Exercise and consumption of nourishing foods helps in the prevention and relief of joint pains. Other forms of care include the use of heat in the form of wax bath. Therapeutic management is mainly for the relief of pains.

Following the United States report in 2014 by Pfizer recording high number of adult with arthritis and a future generation doubling the figure, it becomes necessary to research into few types of arthritis commonly found in Ikot Effiong Nta Community, Calabar Municipality with a view of offering solution to this occurrence.


1.2 Statement Of The Problem

Research has shown that arthritis and musculoskeletal conditions are contributors to illness, pain and disability and highly prevalent, they place a significant burden on the community. It accounts for a large number of deaths among adults especially the ageing or those whose lifestyle is sedentary.

Despite the effort made by relevant professionals like Rheumatologists, Nutritionist occupational therapists and other physicians to curb the occurrence of arthritis, higher incidence of arthritis is still observed. It becomes pertinent to ask if arthritis is obviously not avoidable or controllable. The high incidence of arthritis can be related to poor knowledge of the value of exercise or inadequate nutrition?

Arthritis can deform adults and impede movement due to severe pains and swollen joints. Based on the high incidence and effect of arthritis, the researcher intends to examine arthritis and the health of the aged in Ikot Effiong Nta, Calabar Municipal Area of Cross River State in order to advance solutions to prevent its occurrence.


1.3 Objectives Of The Study

The major objective of the study is to describe arthritis and the health of the aged in Ikot Effiong Nta, Calabar Municipal Area of Cross River State.

The specific objectives will be:

  1. To identify osteoarthritis and the health of the aged.
  2. To examine rheumatoid arthritis and the health of the aged.
  3. To discuss gout arthritis and the health of the aged.

1.4 Significance Of The Study

  1. This work will be of immense importance to the aged, government/non-governmental agencies and other researchers.
  2. To the aged, findings of this study will help identify the causes and effect of arthritis on health and seek immediate attention towards preventing it occurrence.
  3. The research findings will assist Government and Non-governmental agencies in providing facilities such as recreational centers, medical aids to ameliorate disabilities and mortalities due to arthritis.
  4. Finally, findings of this work will also serve as a bed-rock (framework) for further studies by being a handy and standard reference material.

1.5 Research Questions

  1. How does osteoarthritis affect the health of the aged in Ikot Effiong Nta?
  2. To what extent does rheumatoid arthritis affect the health of the aged in Ikot Effiong Nta?
  3. How does gout arthritis affect the heath of the aged in Ikot Effiong Nta?

1.6 Delimitation (Scope Of The Study)

This study is limited in scope to arthritis and the health of the aged in Ikot Effiong Nta Community, Calabar Municipal Area of Cross River State. It is also confined to common types of arthritis which are adopted as sub-variables for this work as follows:

  1. Osteoarthritis and the health of the aged.
  2. Rheumatoid arthritis and the health of the aged.
  3. Gout arthritis and the health of the aged.

1.7 Limitations

The research was limited by the following challenges namely inadequate time. Secondly the respondents were unwilling to provide responses that would ease the study. Lastly, financial constraint made the production of questionnaire and coverage of a wider area of study impossible.


1.8 Operational Definition Of Terms

Arthritis:

Is an inflammation of one or more joint.

Adults:

Persons who are fully grown and developed.

Effect:

Is the result of an action or cause.

Disabilities:

A physical or mental condition that limit a person’s movement, senses or activities.

Disease:

Is a definite pathological process having a characteristics set of sign and symptoms.

Health:

Is the state of complete physical, mental and social well-being not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.

Inflammation:

A localized protective response elicited by injury or destruction of tissues, which serves to destroy, dilute or wall off both the injurious agent and the injured tissue.

Rheumatism:

Any disease marked by inflammation and pain in the joints, muscles, or fibrous tissue, especially rheumatoid arthritis.

Cartilage:

Cartilage is a connective tissue found in many areas of the body including: Joints between bones e.g. the elbows, knees and ankles.

Obesity

Is a condition where a person has accumulated so much body fat that it might have a negative effect on their health.

Therapy:

This is the attempted remediation of a health problem, usually following a diagnosis. In the medical field, it is usually synonymous with treatment

Occupational Therapy:

Is the use of assessment and treatment to develop, recover, or maintain the daily living and work skills of people with a physical, mental, or cognitive disorder.


Chapter Five


5.0 Summary, Conclusion And Recommendations

5.1 Conclusion

Data from the study reveal that the entire studied participant had good information about Arthritis, has been reported in some studies (Sreedharan et al., 2001; Isara and Ofili, 2010). The results also indicated that advanced age, insurance, regular smoking, diabetes, obesity, and osteoporosis were positively associated with Arthritis, while appropriate sleep duration, and insufficient vitamin A intake were negatively associated with Arthritis. Though cause and effect cannot be determined, modification of factors that are subject to change may help to reduce the risk of developing Arthritis.

The level of practice and adoption of control measures along the elderly male population was significant. This shows that there is still a lot of work to be carried out as regards education, awareness and diagnosis of individuals for Arthritis. There is therefore need to improve education, and information awareness as this would increase the collective knowledge and freedom level from Arthritis.


5.2 Recommendations

Based on the findings of this study the following recommendations are made;

  1. Community and patient education on the disease and its predisposing factors should be enhanced.
  2. Patient literacy on the drug types used to manage Arthritis and why the DMARDs should be initiated as soon as a diagnosis is made. This is because many patients preferred the analgesics to DMARDs due to cost implications. They are not aware that the analgesics will not slow the disease progression and joint damage.
  3. Public knowledge about the expected adverse effects, and control behaviours for putting emphasis on what should be done in case of an occurrence should be enhanced as well as the preventive healthy lifestyle. Many patients prefer stopping a drug and not reporting the incident unless probed.

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