Physical And Health Effect Of Waste Disposal System

Project and Seminar Material for Public Health

Physical And Health Effect Of Waste Disposal System


Abstract


Itam dumpsite is the place where solid waste in the city of Uyo is being disposed of. Improper management of waste affect the health of the population living nearby the polluted area or landfills. Waste disposal workers and other employees in these landfill facilities are at a greater risk. Exposure to improperly handled wastes cause skin irritations, blood infections, respiratory problems and growth problems. It is supervised and run by the Uyo city council. This research introduces improper garbage disposal at Itam dumpsite, explaining how it is being managed and an overview of scavenging at the dumpsite. It examines how improper waste disposal has impacted on human health especially in the communities near the dumpsite. According to the study done, three diseases are common in the compound with typhoid fever being the highest with 37.9%, malaria at 34.4% and cholera at 29.7% out of the total 90 respondents. The study showed that dumping of solid waste is improperly done because of supervision which has resulted in dumping of solid waste off the landfill.

This showed that improper dumping of solid waste has contributed highly on the disease outbreak not just in Chunga Compound but Uyo city at Large. This is because most scavengers come from all over the city of Uyo to scavenge at the dumpsite. In Uyo, only, an estimated 15 per cent, of the municipal solid waste generated, is collected, resulting in a build-up of waste in open spaces and along streets in or around the city, (UN-HABITAT, 2007: 14. A sample of respondents of the project was selected for semi-structured interviews to explore their purpose and activities. A total of 60 individuals responded to the survey, representing 66.7% of the three groups as the three groups which were sampled has 90 members. This groups include Health care workers, Scavengers, community residents and community health workers. Despite a small sample, the researcher collected data successfully.


Table of Content


Chapter One

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objectives of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Question(s)
  • 1.5 Assumptions
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Rationale / Justification
  • 1.8 Limitations

Chapter Two

Literature Review

  • 2.0 Introduction
  • 2.1 Management of Solid Waste at a Global Scale
  • 2.2 Collection and Disposal of Garbage
  • 2.3 Diseases Associated as a Result of Poor Waste Management
  • 2.4 Legal Framework that Governs Waste Management in Zambia
  • 2.5 Reactions of the Government to Improve Waste Disposal
  • 2.6 The Local Authority and Community Reaction to Poor Waste Management.
  • 2.7 Theoretical Framework
  • 1.8 Conceptual Framework

Chapter Three

Methodology

  • 3.0 Overview
  • 3.1 Research Strategy and Approach
  • 3.2 Research Design
  • 3.3 Data Analysis and Interpretation
  • 3.4 Reliability and Validity
  • 3.5 Data Collection Techniques / Instrumentation
  • 3.6 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four

Presentation of Findings


Chapter Five:

Discussion of the Findings

  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Analysis of Data

Chapter Six

Conclusions and Recommendations

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendations
  • References
  • Questionnaire

Chapter One


Introduction

The ramifications of improperly disposing of waste products are immense. Not only does improper garbage disposal turn the environment into a nasty, polluted cesspool but it also has the potential of making people sick. The improper disposal of solid waste can lead to severe health outcomes by creating the environment for the proliferation of vectors such as rats, cockroaches and mosquitoes. Further, improper waste disposal can lead to the pollution of the air and water sources leading to such diseases as respiratory tract infections (RTIs) cholera, dysentery and typhoid fever. It can cause skin conditions like scabies and Trachoma (a preventable eye disease in which the eyelashes eventually invert, leading to blindness). Parasites living in dirty water can cause diseases like dracunculiasis and schistosomiasis. (Riquelme ; Méndez; & Smith; 2016)

The management of garbage disposal at Itam dumpsite has continued to cause negative environmental impact such as pollution of air, soil and water. This has eventually caused a lot of problems to human health and the spread of diseases caused by insects and rodents from the garbage heaps.

The management of solid waste continues to be a major challenge in urban areas throughout the world particularly in urban areas especially in the rapidly growing cities of the developing world (Foo, 1997). A high rate of population growth and increasing per capita income have resulted in the generation of an enormous volume of solid waste, which poses a serious threat to environmental quality and human health (Snigdha, 2003). Access to sanitation services and clean adequate water are therefore regarded as crucial to the health and wellbeing of people. As more cities become industrialized, the congenital problem of waste management comes along with it. This study seeks to fill the gap by looking at how waste is being transported, deposed, community attitudes towards waste disposal and what Uyo city council need to do to work together with the health sectors in order to improve the health status of the community.


1.1 Background

Garbage and other solid waste pose a threat in the city of Uyo. There is no proper management of dumping garbage and solid waste at Itam dumping site which has contributed to a high number of water borne and respiratory tract diseases such as typhoid, cholera and acute respiratory tract infections, respectively. For instance, in 2018, 98 deaths from cholera were recorded in Uyo (WHO/MoH 2018). For Uyo, the city generates about one million tonnes of waste annually, according to the city’s Waste Management Unit (WMU). But only half of this is taken to the designated dump site.

Therefore, this study takes into consideration the concerns from government and other stakeholders to eradicate these diseases by suggesting ways of proper waste management.

This study will try and understand the reasons as to why the Uyo City council has been failing to supervise the proper management of dumping garbage and solid waste at Itam damp site. The study will help identify the barriers to the proper implementation of projects dealing with wastes management at Itam damp site. Finally, the study will help come up with recommended measures to improve waste management at Itam damp site.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Garbage and solid waste pose a threat to human health in Uyo, especially if management of dumpsites are not properly supervised. Safe and acceptable solid waste management practices are of serious concern to the health of the public. The concerns come from both poor policies and proposed solution from government and other stakeholders in managing solid waste. There is improper supervision on how waste is being managed by the Uyo city council at Itam dumpsite. Currently, residents and vendors have been dumping wastes outside or just near the dumpsite causing a lot of health hazards to the residents in the community, and in the process degrading the land.

Further, human scavengers have been left to patronize the Itam dumpsite at will in full view of the local city authorities.

This study will analyse the barriers to proper waste management and propose measures which need to be put in place by Uyo city council so as to find better and environmental friendly ways of waste management at the dumpsite.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The purpose of this study is to investigate the health problems associated with improper waste disposal and management at the Chunga dump site in Uyo’s sub-district and come up with proposed solutions to improve waste management situation.

Specific Objectives

  1. To investigate the diseases that affect humans due to poor waste management.
  2. To describe the measures which the health facilities (Ministry of Health) have put in place to minimise the impact of diseases associated with improper waste management.
  3. To explore possible sustainable mitigation measures to challenges of improper waste management at Itam dumpsite.

1.4 Research Question(s)

  1. What diseases affect humans due to poor waste management,
  2. What measures have the health facilities (Ministry of Health) put in place to minimise the impact of diseases associated with improper waste management?
  3. What possible sustainable mitigation measures exist to minimise the challenges of improper waste management at Itam dumpsite?

1.5 Assumptions

  1. People who live near the dumpsite and scavengers are more likely to suffer from diseases associated with poor waste management.
  2. An informed community takes the lead in prevention of diseases.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The possible results of this study on the impact of poor waste management on human health atItam dumpsite will be used by Ministry of health and other stakeholders to formulate policies and guidelines for the local community, neighbouring places and other relevant authorities on environmental health to prevent outbreaks of diseases and its management in Uyo city. It will also help stakeholders in planning and formulating future policies with regards to prevention disease and control of disease outbreak in the city of Uyo.


1.7 Rationale / Justification

Itam dump site in located in Uyo, this is where all solid waste is dumped from all corners of Uyo city. Many people dump in their waste using different transportation ranging from trucks, wheelbarrows and individual, various companies contracted by LCC and different communities and individuals carry and dump their waste at the site. The dumpsite was mainly planned for a smaller population and household of Uyo not foreseeing the growing population of the city which has greatly increased. This has caused a lot of disease outbreak such as typhoid, cholera and acute respiratory tract infections.

According to WHO report dated 9 October 2017 a total number of 282 Rapid Diagnostic Test were performed, of which 230 were positive. Of 310 culture tests, 53 were positive for Vibrio Cholera (48 from Chipata, 4 from Kanyama and 1 from Bauleni). Water quality monitoring is ongoing in all sub-districts, with intensified activity in Kanyama, Matero and Chipata. The results so far show that nearly 42% of tested water sources are contaminated with either faecal Coliforms or Escherichia Coli.

The cumulative number of reported cholera cases in Uyo as of January 2nd (2018) is 1,901, with 48 deaths, resulting in a high case fatality rate (CFR) of 2.4 percent. The CFR rate is a measure of the severity of a disease. It is defined as the proportion of reported cases of a specified disease or condition that are fatal within a specified time. With proper and timely treatment, the case fatality rate for cholera should remain below one percent.

The poor solid waste management problem has become one of the major concerns for the entire city of Uyo. It is an important element to consider in safeguarding public health and ensuring environmental protection: i.e. protection against short-term direct and indirect health risks due to poor waste collection and disposal by the Uyo city council.


1.8 Limitations

The findings in this report are subject to certain limitations. Some of the major limitations are:

  1. The study was unable to adequately assess health-care waste generation at private clinics because of uncooperative attitude from some administrators. It seems inspite of assurance of confidentiality, there was hidden fear that the findings might be reported to higher authorities for action.
  2. The COVID 19 outbreak made it difficult to finish the research on time due to restriction in accessing the data in health facilities

Chapter Six


Conclusions and Recommendations

This chapter discusses the conclusions and recommendations of the study. The purpose of this study was to investigate the health problems associated with improper waste disposal and management at the Chunga dump site in Uyo’s sub-district and come up with proposed solutions to improve waste management situation.

In order to achieve this objective, various literature was reviewed to get the insights of the diverse thoughts on the subject as well as to guide the explanations of the findings of the results. The chapter also dwells on the conclusion drawn from the research findings and analysis and thereafter make recommendations based on the findings.


Conclusion

The research conducted detected numerous factors and constraints that negatively impact on human health due to improper dumping of solid waste at Itam dumpsite. Provision of waste containers in the markets, waste collection vehicles and other logistics could prevent indiscriminate waste dumping, burning and other forms of waste disposal to curb the menace of environmental hazards solid waste generates. Introduction of good integrated waste management system could promote more recycling of waste materials into compost, bio energy and other forms of raw materials that could be used by industries as well as reducing environmental pollution. These can be achieved if LCC focuses attention more on securing the dumpsite by increasing security management, incorporating prudent policies as well as allocating enough funds to conduct community sensitisation and conducts disease awareness campaigns on a regular basis in corroboration with Public health office for all operations to work efficiently to achieve formidable result. Introduction of Public Private Partnership (PPP) in the waste management sector could also help to address some technical, economic and financial challenges in solid waste management.

Government has come up with measures which has led to disease control this is evident that Zambia has not experience cholera cases in the year 2019 to 2020. Hygiene measure in community and health facilities have also been put in place.


Recommendations

The study however has finalised by providing policy recommendations on how to improve welfare of city’s poor under the current development framework and the discussion of the recommendations is shaped by different social protection conceptual frameworks.

  1. Ministry health should start early community sensitization for them to catch up with other areas, which comes unpassable during rainy season.
  2. Members of the public in the Waste Management Districts should be educated on the policy guidelines regulating the operations of private companies collecting garbage
  3. Public health team to distribute chlorine on time in the community for water treatment in order to overcome cholera.
  4. Sensitization of cholera, typhoid fever and malaria should be an on-going thing not when rainy season is near.
  5. Uyo City Council to engage other stakeholders like private sectors in terms of Garbage collection in the community and dumpsite management
  6. On preventive measures, Government should put hand pump boreholes in areas where they use shallow wells waters for cooking and drinking.
  7. The government must establish community health education centres where members of the community can access information regarding proper solid waste disposal and diseases outbreak.
  8. Families must be assisted in determining what is going on in their household which can be led to disease outbreak and tremendous restructuring, rethinking, shift the culture in the community and the culture we have at approaching the problem.
  9. Scavengers should not be encouraged at the dumpsite
  10. Conduct waste management review meetings at the dumpsite and encourage physical check by LCC management in corroboration with health facilities.
  11. Train community-based volunteers who will be used for continuous sensitisation on the impact of improper solid waste disposal on human health.
  12. In order to attract successful private investment in solid waste management, LCC need to establish a strategic framework tailored to local conditions

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