Knowledge And Practice Of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Among Final Year Student In Health Science, Evangel University

Medical and Health Science Project and Seminar Material

Knowledge And Practice Of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Among Final Year Student In Health Science, Evangel University


Abstract


This study on the knowledge and practice of cardiopulmonary resuscitation among final year student in health science, Evangel University was focus on three major objectives. The objectives aimed to assess the level of cardiopulmonary resuscitation knowledge among final year student in health science in Evangel University; ascertain the attitude of final year students towards cardiopulmonary resuscitation in Evangel University; and assess the level of cardiopulmonary resuscitation practice among final year student in health science in Evangel University. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of final year student in health science in Evangel University. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 160 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. While the hypotheses was tested chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the level of final year students knowledge and practice of cardiopulmonary resuscitation is not poor. Therefore, it is recommended that policy makers should prioritize, and clearly articulate, a policy regarding compulsory BLS education in there syllabus and position on the provision of compulsory training schedule and certifications for their degree registration. To mention but a few.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a critical, life-saving skill for healthcare professionals (HCPs) in emergency departments (EDs) and other health care settings. Although the clinical outcome of CPR depends on multiple factors, such as the initial condition of the patient and the duration of cardiac arrest, performing high-quality CPR significantly improves patient outcomes[1]. Presentation to the ED with cardiac arrest is most commonly seen among adults; however, it can also occur and is particularly challenging for HCPs to manage in children and neonates.

Cardiac arrest is a sudden and unexpected cessation of blood circulation due to failure of the heart to pump effectively[1]. Sudden cardiac arrest is a life-threatening emergency with poor survival rates. It could result from heart attack, suffocation, drowning, electrocution and any other cause of impairment to blood circulation or breathing[2,3].

Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a leading cause of mortality with about 0.5 to 1 deaths per 1000 population annually[4]. However, there is paucity of data on the incidence of sudden cardiac deaths in Nigeria. The figures are likely worse in a developing nation like Nigeria with increasing incidence of cardiovascular diseases and limited resources[5–9].

Early cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a vital component in the chain of survival, the layperson being the most important link in Emergency Cardiovascular Care (ECC). Bystander-initiated CPR is known to improve survival outcomes among cardiac arrest victims[10]. Thus, several organizations like the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation, the European Parliament and the World Health Organization [11,12] recommend that CPR training be included in secondary school curriculum in order to increase the number of people with Basic Life Support (BLS) skills thereby improving the rate of bystander CPR. This has taken effect in several primary and secondary schools across Europe and the United States[12]. We are however not aware of any such program for students at any level of education in Nigeria as BLS training remains the exclusive preserve of medical trainees, health professionals and paramedics[13]. Hence, we conduct this study in order to assess the awareness status and attitude of university final year students towards learning and practicing CPR.

Accordingly, comprehensive CPR is a critical skill for HCPs employed in the ED [2]. International standards recommend CPR as a requirement for graduation from medical school and junior doctors should be proficient enough to perform CPR from their first day of practice[3]. Furthermore, the inclusion of CPR early in medical curricula is thought to increase medical students’ awareness and appreciation of this vital skill[2]. Despite being well-established and one of the most effective resuscitative measures for patients in cardiac arrest, lack of knowledge, insufficient training, and inadequate practice of CPR have been documented among medical students in Nigeria[4,5,6,7,8]. Therefore, this study seeks to determine the knowledge and practice of cardiopulmonary resuscitation among final year student in health science.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Knowledge of basic life support (BLS) is the bedrock of effective resuscitation; acquiring this very important skill commences from medical schools. The benefits of BLS cannot be overemphasized; that is why in most western countries, even secondary school students and laymen are taught and engaged on BLS activities.[1] It is estimated that about 500,000 people die annually in the United State of America[2 4] from cardiac arrest related events; among common determinants of survival include the ability to effectively execute the BLS drill during resuscitation.[5,6] Tsegaye et al.,[7] in their reported documented a good knowledge of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) (93.3%) among medical students in Africa; while Ade et al.[8] in Ghana reported a dismal 20% of respondents with good knowledge of CPR among medical student; however, there is a dearth of studies on CPR among Nigerian medical students. Therefore, this study seeks to determine the knowledge and practice of CPR among medical students in Nigeria.


1.3 Objective of Study

The main purpose of this study was to examine the knowledge and practice of cardiopulmonary resuscitation among final year student in health science, Evangel University.

Specifically, this study will;

  1. Assess the level of cardiopulmonary resuscitation knowledge among final year student in health science in Evangel University.
  2. Ascertain the attitude of final year students towards cardiopulmonary resuscitation in Evangel University.
  3. Assess the level of cardiopulmonary resuscitation practice among final year student in health science in Evangel University.

1.4 Research Questions

The study was guided by the following research questions:

  1. What is the level of cardiopulmonary resuscitation knowledge among final year student in health science in Evangel University?
  2. What is the attitude of final year students towards cardiopulmonary resuscitation in Evangel University?
  3. What is the level of cardiopulmonary resuscitation practice among final year student in health science in Evangel University?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

  • Ho: The level of final year students knowledge and practice of cardiopulmonary resuscitation is poor.
  • Ha: The level of final year students knowledge and practice of cardiopulmonary resuscitation is not poor.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will emphatically analyse the knowledge and practice of cardiopulmonary resuscitation among final year student in health science with the aim of identifying knowledge gaps if any; this will assist on overhaul of the medical curriculum.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study will focus generally on the knowledge and practice of cardiopulmonary resuscitation among final year student in health science. The study will geographically be delimited to Evangel University, Ebonyi state.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

As with any human endeavor, the researcher experienced small impediments while performing the study. Due to the scarcity of literature on the subject as a result of the discourse’s nature, the researcher incurred additional financial expenses and spent additional time sourcing for relevant materials, literature, or information, as well as during the data collection process, which is why the researcher chose a small sample size. Additionally, the researcher conducted this inquiry in conjunction with other scholarly pursuits. Additionally, because only a small number of respondents were chosen to complete the research instrument, the results cannot be applied to other secondary schools outside the state. Regardless of the limits faced throughout the investigation, all aspects were reduced to ensure the best outcomes and the most productive research.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Knowledge

Knowledge is defined as information that was acquired through learning or experience

Practice

Frequency repeated or customary action habitual performance, a succession of a similar kind.

Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) consists of the use of chest compressions and artificial ventilation to maintain circulatory flow and oxygenation during cardiac arrest.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the knowledge and practice of cardiopulmonary resuscitation among final year student in health science, Evangel University. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the knowledge and practice of cardiopulmonary resuscitation among final year student in health science, Evangel University. The study specifically was aimed to assess the level of cardiopulmonary resuscitation knowledge among final year student in health science in Evangel University; ascertain the attitude of final year students towards cardiopulmonary resuscitation in Evangel University; and assess the level of cardiopulmonary resuscitation practice among final year student in health science in Evangel University.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents are final year student in health science in Evangel University.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. The level of cardiopulmonary resuscitation knowledge among final year student in health science in Evangel University is not poor.
  2. The final year students has positive towards cardiopulmonary resuscitation in Evangel University.
  3. The level of cardiopulmonary resuscitation practice among final year student in health science in Evangel University is not very inadequate.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. Policy makers should prioritize, and clearly articulate, a policy regarding compulsory BLS education in there syllabus and position on the provision of compulsory training schedule and certifications for their degree registration.
  2. The medical staff should be equipped with up to date knowledge of CPR, so that they are able to impart appropriate knowledge to the students.
  3. Student and teaching faculty should be provided with in-service education to update their knowledge regarding CPR.

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