Causes And Effects Of Outbreak Of Cholera In Jere Local Government Borno State

Medical and Health Science Project and Seminar Material

Causes And Effects Of Outbreak Of Cholera In Jere Local Government Borno State


Abstract


Cholera is a severe enteric infection contacted by eating food or drinking water infected with a bacterium called Vibrio cholerae.

The level of environmental degradation and the inability of the government to meet the needs of the people adequately have grossly affected the living standard of the people. This is portrayed by the unavailability of portable and clean water and waste scattered all over the environment emitting bacteria which are washed away by rainwater in to many body waters. This situation leads to contaminated water and food substances.

Consequently the level of consumption of contaminated foods and water is the cause of the contact of cholera. The problem facing the study is to appraise the causes and effect of outbreak of cholera in jere local government of borno state.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Cholera is a severe enteric infection which is as a result of the ingestion of bacterium Vibrio. It is an infectious disease which causes severe watery diarrhea, dehydration and even death if untreated. World Health Organization, (2000). It is contact by eating food or drinking water infected with a bacterium called Vibrio cholerae. It is found in faecally contaminated water or food. Cholera is contacted when there is insufficient access to safe water and proper sanitation. It can also be contacted in areas where basic environmental infrastructures are lacking or have been damaged. The areas affected by conflicts and wars are particularly vulnerable to cholera outbreaks. The displacement of people and overcrowded settings, where potable water and sanitation constitute a challenge, also would lead to cholera. Therefore it is of paramount importance to monitor and evaluate the environment so as to detect the outbreak of the disease and put in place adequate intervention measures. This requires the Coordination of the different sectors involved and implementation of strategies to limit the effect of cholera on populations. The study seeks to appraise

The causes and effect of outbreak of cholera in jere local government of borno state.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The level of environmental degradation and the inability of the government to meet the needs of the people adequately has grossly affected the living standard of the people. This is portrayed by the inavailability of portable and clean water and waste scattered all over the environment emitting bacteria which are washed away by rainwater in to many body waters. This situation leads to contaminated water and food substances .Consequently the level of consumption of contaminated foods and water is the cause of the contact of cholera. The problem facing the study is to appraise the causes and effect of outbreak of cholera in jere local government of borno state.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The Main Objective of the study is to appraise the causes and effect of outbreak of cholera in jere local government of borno state; The specific objectives include

  1. To determine the nature of cholera.
  2. To determine the causes and effect of outbreak of cholera.
  3. To determine the causes and effect of outbreak of cholera in jere local government of borno state.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What is the nature of cholera?
  2. What is the causes and effect of outbreak of cholera?
  3. What is the causes and effect of outbreak of cholera in jere local government of borno state?

1.5 Statement of the Hypothesis

The statement of the hypothesis for the study is stated in Null as follows

  • HO The causes of cholera in jere local government of borno state is high.
  • HO The effect of outbreak of cholera in jere local government of borno state is negative.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The study proffers an appraisal of the causes and effect of outbreak of cholera in jere local government of borno state. It provides relevant data for the effective formulation and implementation of policies to enhance the realization of envisaged objective.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The study proffers an appraisal of the causes and effect of outbreak of cholera in jere local government of borno state.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

The study was confronted with logistics and geographical factors.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Cholera Defined

Cholera is a severe enteric infection which is as a result of the ingestion of bacterium Vibrio. It is an infectious disease which causes severe watery diarrhea, dehydration and even death if untreated. It is contact by eating food or drinking water infected with a bacterium called Vibrio cholerae. It is found in faecally contaminated water or food. Cholera is contacted when there is insufficient access to safe water and proper sanitation.

Health Care Delivery System Defined

World Health Organization defines health systems as a system consisting of all organizations, people and actions directed at promoting, restoring or maintaining health. This includes efforts which influence health determinants and health-improving activities. A health system encompasses publicly owned facilities which delivers personal health services, health insurance organizations, a mothers care for a sick child at home; vector-control campaigns, efforts of private health care providers.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Preamble

This chapter presents the summary and conclusion that can be drawn from the study. It also presents the researchers recommendations with regards to the findings of the study and proposed areas for further studies by other researcher.


5.2 Summary

The Main Objective of the study is to appraise the causes and effect of outbreak of cholera in jere local government of borno state; The specific objectives include

  1. To determine the nature of cholera.
  2. To determine the causes and effect of outbreak of cholera.
  3. To determine the causes and effect of outbreak of cholera in jere local government of borno state.

Findings from the study reveal that the causes of cholera in jere local government of borno state is high and the effect of outbreak of cholera in jere local government of borno state is negative and reject the alternate.


5.3 Conclusion

This paper aims to investigateCauses and effects of outbreak of cholera in jere local government borno state
The study focused on Causes and effects of outbreak of cholera in jere local government borno state. Data used for the study will be gotten from health practitioners and residents of jere local government borno state. The study is delimited to Causes and effects of outbreak of cholera.

The population of the study consists of the health practitioners and residents of jere local government borno state.
As a result of the inability of the researcher to effectively study the whole population strength, a representative number was chosen as the sample size population, 100 respondents was used as the sample size. Data was collected from primary and secondary sources. Primary data was obtained through questionnaire and personal interviews with the respondents. Tables and simple percentage was used as technique of analyzing the research questions.


5.4 Recommendations

Careful perusal of the preceding pages will have suggested many preventive measures; which will be most successful if not so much directed against cholera as against all causes of ill-health. First, all those personal means usually rem commended to maintain the highest state of bodily vigor, are to be employed here. Clothing should be warm, and flannel next the abdomen is useful. Secondly :It is essential that all such sources of malaria as gas-works, leaky cesspools, open soil pits, mixen or manure heaps, grave yards, poultry yards, cattle sheds, pigsties, slaughter-houses, &c, be removed from the vicinity of human dwellings ;or if this cannot be done, there is no choice but to abandon the houses as unfit for human residence. One or the other must give way. Near country houses, ditches should be cleaned and kept free from impurity, wet land be drained, farm-yards be decently ordered, and the over-growth of plantations and hedges be limited. The proper location of residences is of great importance in preventing cholera. β€œThe habitations of a people should be raised on dry, drained land of a certain ” elevation, washed by rains, and ventilated by the breezes of heaven.” There should be shelter to the north and east, and free exposure to the south and west. Situations or houses irremediably unhealthy should be quitted ;nor are landlords justified in building houses, a commodity of which the law of supply and demand, is so peculiar, in unhealthy spots.

Because cholera can be an acute public health problem – with the potential to cause many deaths, to spread quickly and eventually internationally, and to seriously affect travel and trade – a well-coordinated, timely, and effective response to outbreaks is paramount. Response activities should always be followed by the planning and implementation of preparedness activities that will allow future cholera outbreaks to be dealt with more effectively.

A strong cholera preparedness plan and programme is the best preparation for outbreaks in countries at risk of cholera, whether or not they have yet been affected, or countries in which seasonal recurrence of the disease may be expected.


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