The Impact Of Satellite Television On Nigerian Culture
This research work is set to see how satellite television has affected the knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, customs and any other capabilities and habits acquired by Nigerians as a member of the society. The first chapter explains the introduction of the study, statement of the problem, purpose of the study, significance of the study, delimitation of the study, limitation of the study, historical background of Osun State Polytechnic, Iree and definition of terms. Chapter two is on the detailed discussion of literature review of satellite television and Nigerian culture. Also chapter three involves the research method adopted for the research work which formed the basis for the data analysis and discussion for the study in chapter four. The last chapter which is chapter five gives the summary, conclusion and recommendation in order to make Nigerians know the effectiveness of satellite television transmission on Nigerian culture.
1.1 Background of the Study
A communications satellite is an artificial satellite that relays and amplifies radio telecommunications signals via a transponder; it creates a communication channel between a source transmitter and a receiver at different locations on Earth. Communications satellites are used for television, telephone, radio, internet, and military applications.
The term media refers to source of information and news such as newspaper, magazine, radio, and television that reach and influence large number of people (Oxford Dictionary). Media has a variety of forms like broadcast media, digital media, outdoor media, print media, etc. Among all these forms of media the researcher focuses on broadcast media which transmits information electronically particularly via television and films.
Films play functional roles while their main objective is to affect emotion. Films as an art form are instruments for persuasion, instruction or entertainment are very powerful weapons to conquer the mind. Therefore, a film exposes, liberates, unites, reproaches, reprimands, scorns and can repel or attract attention either for positive or for negative reaction. Other forms of media affect our culture and are fast fading into oblivion. Films have a very inexplicable bond between itself and the audience as the audience willingly suspends disbelief when viewing. A film also employs the concept of verisimilititude or realism in the narrative. This captures the audience mind and value in totally (Opubor and Nwuneli, 1992: 29)
Edward B. Taylor (2001) defines culture as “a complex whole which include knowledge, belief, art, moral, law, custom, and any capability habits including both material and non material things acquired by man in a society’’
Culture teaches individuals how to communicate and understand their world through the context of language, tradition, behavior and value and shape the way they see themselves and others. According to developmental theories, students are active learners, drawing from direct physical and social experiences as well as culturally transmitted knowledge to construct their own view of the world around them (Breadekam and Copples, 1997)
Media has become a central force in our global society, affecting every aspect of life and culture of students in any discipline. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to assess the impact of Western films and satellite television programs on Nigerian culture.
1.1.1 Background of Osun State Polytechnic
Osun State Polytechnic, Iree also known as OSPOLY is a tertiary learning institution in Iree, Osun State, Nigeria. The Polytechnic was formerly a satellite campus of The Polytechnic, Ibadan. It became autonomous on 12 October 1992 when the Governor of Osun State, Alhaji, Isiaka Adeleke, signed the law establishing the institution alongside The Osun State College of Technology located at Esa-Oke in Osun State. Osun State Polytechnic Iree also has Daily Part Time Program (DPT) which is located at Koko campus.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
As the world become more and more globalized, all countries are inevitably experiencing greater information and cultural exchange with the rest of the world. Therefore, subjecting themselves to foreign influences, the westernized Nigerians exhibit few distinct characteristic features such as a tendency to look down upon Nigerian cultures, labeling them as backward and feudal, and lookup to anything Western highly. If there is any thing a westernized Nigerian appreciates is the food like “kitfo” and “doro-wat”. For the rest, a westernized Nigerian dreams to visit Paris and New York instead of Aksum and Lalibela (Fikre Tolosa, 2007).
As stated by Giddens (2005), local traditions are joined by a host of additional cultural forms from abroad presenting people with a confusing array of life style options from which to choose an established identity; and ways of life are giving way to a new form of hybrid identity composed of elements from contrasting cultural sources. Thus a black African young today might continue to be strongly influenced by the tradition and cultural out looks of his tribal roots, and at the same time, he adopts cosmopolitan styles and tastes in dressing, leisure, pursuit, and hobbies and so forth.
There are effects of Western media in societies. They buy what they see on televisions, advertised by their favorite celebrities and what is acceptable by societies based on the fashion that the media has imposed on them (Craig, 2003).
Over the past 20 years, a large number of studies have found out that, those who spend more time watching television are more likely to express viewers’ belief and assumption than light viewers that are congruent with television depiction of life and society (Morgan, 1983)
The exposure to these Western cultural products makes the youth despise their own culture. In addition, exposure to pornography videos and sexually explicit materials challenges the traditional way of sexual expression. This leads the youth to a high risk sexual behavior because of increasing influence of Western cultural products on the youth. Enough study has not been conducted in Nigeria. Therefore, this study was intended to examine the influence of western popular culture (Getachew, 2015).
In reading any material about the impact of Western films and satellite television, there are no previous studies that explain about this issue in the study area. Therefore, this study will identify the impact of Western films and satellite television on Nigerian culture in study area. It also generates some recommendations to address the problem.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The main objective of the study is assessing the impact of satellite television on the cultureof Nigeria.
- To assess the choice of students on the type of movies and films they watch;
- To assess the impact of satellite television programs on students social life;
- To assess the impact of satellite television programs on the life style and appearance of students;
- To assess the impact of Western media on students identity.
1.4 Research Questions
- What are the impacts of satellite television on the culture of Nigeria?
- Assess the choice of students on the type of movies and films they watch?
- Assess the impact of satellite television programs on students social life?
- Assess the impact of satellite television programs on the life style and appearance of students?
1.5 Significance of the Study
The main significance of this study is to create awareness about the impact of satellite television programs by identifying the influence of Western media on Nigerian culture. This research might be the first of its kind and initial for other researchers in study area. Some of the significances of this study are the following:
- The result of this study will give an insight about the impact of satellite television;
- To create awareness of students and parents about the impact of satellite television;
- The study will also be important for school administers to help them to give attention about the impact of Western media.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This research focuses on the impact of satellite television on the culture of Nigeria. The survey took place in Osun state Polytechnic, focusing on random students in the Iree campus, because of time and financial constraints the researcher could not conduct all students.
1.7 Limitation of the Study
The time taken to understand such a topic ˝ the effect of satellite television on the culture of nigeria˝ is not enough. While there are many age groups affected by Western media the focus of this study is only on students, because of financial and time constraint. Absence of prior research in the study area and shortage of reference materials have also been a big challenge.
Conclusion and Recommendations
In general, this research provides a good deal of information on the impact of satellite television on Nigerian culture. Although the researcher cannot generalize from a few samples to the whole students in Osun state polytechnic, the findings of this study, however, indicate the potential impact of foreign media contents and popular cultural products especially on students who are the most active in absorbing foreign media contents and consuming foreign cultural products.
The usage of Western TV by students now seems to have reached a stage that could affect all people’s perception. In terms of Western popular cultural products, exposure to media is likely to result in more favorable perception. The Western media is likely to exert modeling effect on students, making it more likely to costumes and hair styles like characters in films and satellite televisions.
In conclusion, the majority of the samples studied spend their leisure time watching films and satellite televisions. Basically, they watch for the purpose of information and entertainment. But it is observed that satellite televisions affect their social interaction because, they spend their leisure time enjoying satellite television programs rather than socializing. The data showed that the majority of respondents consider television characters as their role models and they consider television program as a mechanism to learn different languages.
Another factor investigated through this research was a cultural practice that was dealing with language, dressing, hair styles and some other practices. students who watch satellite television experience greater degree of effects on their cultural practices. They imitate different styles and appearances of satellite television characters which are different from our culture, tradition and way of life.
The researcher comes up with the following recommendations to minimize the impact of Western media.
It is suggested that local channels should be strengthened and programs should have better contents. Local channel should produce and broadcast quality programs that could help promoting Nigerian values and traditions which improve the image of the people and the country.
Parents need to socialize their students with Nigerian cultural practices values and tradition.
The indigenous mode of dressing should be encouraged and promoted to make use of traditional dress.
Parents must arrange a definite program for their students as to when to attend such channel programs and which films.
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