Television Advertising And Consumer Patronage Of Soft Drinks
This study examined television advertising and consumer patronage of soft drink in Uyo urban. The population of the study consisted of 436,606 persons. Using Taro Yamane formula, the sample for this study consisted of 400 persons who have acknowledged patronizing soft drink at one point in time. The study employed the use of survey with questionnaire as instrument for data collection. Findings from the study revealed that Uyo urban residents are familiar with television advertising and they purchase their choice of soft drink due to the advertisements on television. However, the advertising message, the price of the product and the use of celebrities are the features that will enhance consumer patronage in television advertising. The findings of this study therefore buttress the need for advertisers to improve purchase of soft drinks by looking at where their competitors are pricing their products and consider selling theirs either for less money or a higher price.
1.1 Background of the Study
Nigerian consumers are increasingly becoming uneasily satisfying especially in the area of exposure to advertising messages. This is largely due to their expectation of good value for the money spent. Pike (2008) asserts that marketers are now faced with escalating media costs, often in tandem with declining advertising budget, thus leading them to increased interest in below-the-line promotional opportunities. According to Kotler (2009), marketing is totally about customers, hence the core mission of marketers is to provide the solution to customers needs and wants by identifying and meeting them. There are four main factors on which marketing have been built up; these are four elements of the marketing mix: place, product, price and promotion. Advertising, as a component of the promotional mix further enhance creation of customers’ awareness towards organizational products and then the need to patronize such products if it meets the needs, expectation and satisfaction of the consumers (Belch & Belch, 2003). Morden (1991) is of the opinion that advertising is used to establish a basic awareness of the product or service in the mind of the potential customer and to build up knowledge about it. Kotler (2002) sees advertising as one of the four major tools companies use to direct persuasive communications to target buyers and public noting that it consists of non-personal forms of communication conducted through paid media under clear sponsorship. According to Kotler (2002), the purpose of advertising is to enhance prospects’ responses to the organization and its offering. The major purpose of advertising is to communicate, educate and market a product/ service, idea or cause, though a channel or media that is accessible to target audience. However, the marketing function recognizes the strategic value of advertising as an element of the promotional mixifirm use in selling their goods and services according to Ozoh (1998).
Advertising is a distinct promotional element that serves as a bridge between the advertisers and the target market. Through advertising, the advertisers deliver his massage to the target market. Also in a mass market, where it is quite impossible to reach the multitude of prospects for a brand personally, advertising offers not only the cheapest means, but an effective way of entering into the targets consciousness to get them acquainted with the product with the product or services so there is need for advertisement in order to get the targets acquainted with the product or services. Moreover, many organizations or industries believe that advertising their products will command or attract many consumer for such product. Advertising pervades our lives. It is impossible to read newspaper, magazine, and journal or watch television, listen to radio or even travel the streets of our cities without being bombarded by commercial messages. Our country derives benefit from information about products and services. On the other ide of the fence, companies with products or services to sell, regard advertising as a valuable and indeed indispensable marketing tool. a proximately 3% of the gross national product is currently devoted to advertising, so advertising is a large and essential way of doing business.
Research of old see broadcast audience (TV viewers)as passive, hence they provided the passivity theory or buller theory which states that the media has a powerful effect on the audience and this means that once the advertising message gets to audience, it has an immediate impact on them. however, later research has proved otherwise. it is true that some kinds of communication on some kinds of product brought to the attention of some kinds of people, under some kind of conditions have some kind of effect, according to berelson as cited in Nwosu (2005, p.40). This does not mean that the audience is not without their own critical-mind on a product. Television advertisements have been found to be of immense benefits.
Business organization involves them with advertisement in order to create awareness about their products and services and boost sales. By definition, advertising as the advertising practitioners council of Nigeria (APCON) defines it “is a form of communication through media about products, services, or ideas, paid for by an identified sponsor” (cited in Ozoh, 1998).Fletcher (1979) as cited by in Ozoh (1998,p.2) opines “it is the dissemination of sales message through purchase time and space. The authors of contemporary Advertising (Bovee and Arens 1986) define, it as the “non-personal communication of information usually paid for and usually persuasive in nature about a products, services or ideas by an identified sponsor through the various media.
Furthermore, advertising is a form of communication through the media about products, services, ideas, personalities or organizations, paid for by an identified sponsor. It is also a profession, a body of reminsee involved in the conceptualization, planning, creating, packaging and placing of advertising plays a major information role, making known available product and services to the intending consumers, and offering the products and services as attractively possible, thus enabling the consumer to make a choice, Wright and Warner(1997) opine that advertising has the unique function to create differentiation among product brands and services that are otherwise difficult to distinguish”.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The primary aim of every business organization is to make profit and this profit in achieved through the patronage of the class of people the business organization regard as its primary customers. Advertising is a method of impersonal communication using such media as the press, radio, Bill board, television and so on. However, there are a number of problems which need to be carefully stated before any decision can be made about whether to spend any money on advertising at all, let alone how to spend it. For example many people believe that advertising is a waste of money and that media expenditure would be better spending on personal selling. All these are issue in television advertising, hence the need to undergo a study on influence of television advertising on consumer choice of soft drink.
1.3 Research Objectives
The following are the objectives of this work revealed that Uyo urban residents are familiar with television advertising and they purchase their choice of soft drink due to the advertisements on television. However, the
- To find out if Uyo urban residents are familiar with television advertising on soft drinks
- To find out if television advertising has any influence on consumers choice and purchase of their of drinks in Uyo.
- To find out if television advertising message the price of the product brings about brand loyalty.
- To find out if the the use of celebrities in soft drink adverts on television will enhance consumer patronage .
1.4 Research Questions
With a view to obtaining answer to the problems of this research work, the following research questions are posed.
- Are Uyo urban residents familiar with television advertising on soft drinks?
- Does television advertising has any influence on consumers choice and purchase of their of drinks in Uyo?
- Will television advertising message the price of the product brings about brand loyalty?
- Does the use of celebrities in soft drink adverts on television enhance consumer patronage of soft drink in uyo?
1.5 Significance of the Study
The essence of television advertising is to influence consumers in decision making on their choice of beverages based on what they watch. This study is relevant for advertising agencies and the media who sees the need to receive and disseminate television advert to the public. Also, the study would help researchers and other scholars in ascertaining the influence or effects of television advertising on brand choice of audience it will help audience in the selection of products.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The effect of this work is targeted at determining the responses among television viewers concerning television advertising on consumer’s choice of soft drink. The study is therefore limited to Uyo Metropolis in Akwaibom State.
1.7 Limitation of the Study
The major limitations of this study is that the newness of the topics as assigned by the project supervisor posed a big challenge to the researcher. Lack of material such as textbook, journals, internet print-outs relevant to carry out the research and renovation of school library were banners to the study. The researcher also encountered some constraint that was likely to hamper the pace of the study including the respondents unwillingness to participate in the study by refusing to give answers to the survey instrument, to overcome this kind of limitation, the researcher explained the purpose of the study to his respondents and solicited for their cooperation. Despite all these limitations, the research was successfully carried out.
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms
The under listed terms are defined in with their usage in the study, influence, operationally, influence means the indirect power over something. It could be as a result of something, somebody or a group of people.
It is a piece of electrical equipment with a screen on which you can watch adverts with sound and moving pictures.
It refers to any paid for or sponsored messages, which is disseminated through the media and aim at informing and persuading to purchase a product or services.
In this context, consumer refers to a person who buys and uses finished goods and services.
This refers to the selection of something among possible alternatives.
A soft drink is a drink that usually contains water, a sweetener, and a natural and/or artificial flavoring.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
This focus of this study is to examine television advertising and consumer patronage of soft drink using Uyo urban metropolis of Akwaibom state as case study. It find out if Uyo urban residents are familiar with television advertising on soft drinks. It find out if television advertising has any influence on consumers choice and purchase of their of drinks in Uyo. The study find out if television advertising message the price of the product brings about brand loyalty. It find out if the the use of celebrities in soft drink adverts on television will enhance consumer patronage. The population of the study consisted of 436,606 persons. Using Taro Yamane formula, the sample size for this study consisted of 400 persons who have acknowledged patronizing soft drink at one point in time. The study employed the use of survey research design with with well structured questionnaire as instrument for data collection. Data was analyzed using frequencies and tables.
Advertising is a system of communicating a sponsored message to a potential audience about the existence of a particular product, good or service. Thus, advertising communicates the features, quality and uses of the new product to the consumers. Advertising informs customers of the existence of a new product. Advertising informed customers because it is a form of non personal communication of information usually paid for and usually persuasive in nature about products, goods and services, or ideas by identified sponsors through various media.
Findings from the study revealed that Uyo urban residents are familiar with television advertising and they purchase their choice of soft drink due to the advertisements on television. However, the advertising message, the price of the product and the use of celebrities are the features that will enhance consumer patronage in television advertising.
From the findings of the study, the following recommendations are made
- Soft drink companies should intensity efforts in nourishing good customers‟ relationship. There should also be growing movement towards integrating all the messages created by their various communication agencies and sent out by various departments within the company in order to achieve consistency.
- In order for soft drink brands to prosper against its rivals, they have to be innovative and alert to whatever subtle move made by other competitors‟ in order to continue occupying its leadership position.
- The place of research in advertising is very crucial. Findings or research is the foundation of advertising. Soft drink companies should endeavor to carry out research from time to time. A business world is full of uncertainties and risk. Research and findings can help reduce these risks to manageable proportions. It will also guide the management to take informed marketing and advertising decision.
- Advertising strategy or tool cannot be overlooked in the business organization despite the fact that advertising spending is reducing when compared with promotional spending hence soft drink brands should put this in consideration.
- There is need for business organization who intends to run television adverts on their product to do to do cost-benefit analysis of every advertising programme
- Business organization should see the need of evaluating every programme of advertising in order to know its contributions to the fulfillment of the firm’s objectives and if those adverts pull patronage to them as expected.
- There is need for soft drink companies to determine advertising spending through the preparation of advertising budget. This can be based on advertising objectives which include increasing sales volume, informing customers of a new product or creating awareness of an old or new product in the mind of the consumers and customers.
- This study examined not only consumers of soft drinks, but also the employees and distributors of the company’s products. Therefore advertising should not focussed on consumers alone but all who are concerned about the success of the firm’s new and as well as old products in the market place.
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