Factors Associated With The Mass Failure Of Students In Integrated Science In Secondary Schools

Integrated Science Education Project and Seminar Material

Factors Associated With The Mass Failure Of Students In Integrated Science In Secondary Schools


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the factors associated with mass failure of students in integrated science in secondary schools in Gwale Local Government Area of Kano State. The study was specifically set to ascertain whether insufficient numbers of qualified teachers affects students’ academic performance in integrated science student in junior secondary school in Gwale Local Government Area of Kano State, determine the extent lack of adequate school facilities affect the academic performance of students in integrated science in junior secondary school in Gwale Local Government Area of Kano State, ascertain whether unavailability of instructional materials for effective teaching affects students’ academic performance in integrated science student in junior secondary school in Gwale Local Government Area of Kano State, determine the extent poor method of teaching affect the academic performance of students in integrated science in junior secondary school in Gwale Local Government Area of Kano State, and determine the extent interest and attitudes of students affect the academic performance of students in integrated science in junior secondary school in Gwale Local Government Area of Kano State. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of some selected teachers and students of junior secondary school in Gwale Local Government Area of Kano State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 200 respondents and 150 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables While the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that insufficient numbers of qualified teachers affect students’ academic performance in integrated science student in junior secondary school in Gwale Local Government Area of Kano State. Furthermore the study also revealed that the extent interest and attitudes of students affect their academic performance in integrated science in junior secondary school in Gwale Local Government Area of Kano State is high. Therefore, it is recommended that the government at all level should as a matter of urgency, purchase instructional aids which should be used by the teachers in their teaching of the student. If done, the problem of poor performance of students in science will be remedied. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Science is an intellectual activity carried on by humans that is designed to discover information about the natural world in which humans live and to discover the ways in which this information can be organized into meaningful patterns. A primary aim of science is to collect facts (data), an ultimate purpose of science is too discern the order that exists between and amongst the various facts. Ezendu (2002) defined Science is a body of knowledge, which is acquired through observation and systematic experimentation.

Khabela (2003) defined Integrated Science as an approach to the teaching of science, of which concepts and principles are presented so as to express to fundamental unity of scientific thought and avoid premature or undue stress on the distinction between the various scientific fields. Also stressing the unified nature of science, Cohen (2007) had this to say. Integrated Science course eliminates the repetition of subject matter from the various sciences and does not recognize the traditional subject boundaries when presenting topics of themes.
Quality teaching in Integrated Science is crucial for developing scientifically literate citizens and improving economic productivity for sustainable development. It enhances student’s achievements, strengthens public confidence in schools and helps students attain conceptual understanding.

The issue of poor academic performance of secondary school students in Integrated Science has been attributed to some factors such as the school environment, peer influence, the family dynamics, etc (Ekeh and Njoku, 2013). Student’s mass failure in Integrated Science is affected by numerous factor including gender, age, teaching faculty, students schooling, father/guardian social economic status, residential area of students, medium of instructions in schools, tuition trend, daily study hour and accommodation as hostelries or day scholar. Many researchers conducted detailed studies about the factors contributing student poor performance at different study levels. Graetz (1995) suggested “A student educational success contingent heavily on social status of student’s parents/ guardians in the society. Considine and Zappala (2002) noticed the same that parent’s income or social status positively affects the student test score in examination. However, this study seek to holistically examine the factors associated with mass failure of students in integrated science in secondary schools.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

It has been observed that in most schools, students fail in their WAEC BECE in integrated science. The past performance of students in Gwale Local Government Area of Kano State in integrated science is too deteriorating and not impressive. The record disclosed that while a few school show good performance in the subject others have not performed so-well. While a few schools recorded as high as an average of 80% over a period of many years. The majorities fall below 40% over many years. The majority of the schools performance in integrated science is very poor.

The continuous poor achievement of secondary school students in integrated science over the decades could be attributed to poor methods of teaching and many other factors. The question is what are the causes of mass failure in integrated science in Junior Secondary Schools? It is likely that among the reasons, the following are noticeable, lack of textbooks for students, lack of instructional materials, inadequate qualified teachers to teach the students, the libraries are not well equipped, students attitude towards the subject. A lot of reasons have been adduced to this, which led to the study on the factors associated with mass failure of students in integrated science in secondary schools.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to find out the factors associated with mass failure of students in integrated science in secondary schools in Gwale Local Government Area of Kano State. Specifically, the study sought to

  1. Ascertain whether insufficient numbers of qualified teachers affects students’ academic performance in integrated science student in junior secondary school in Gwale Local Government Area of Kano State.
  2. Determine the extent lack of adequate school facilities affect the academic performance of students in integrated science in junior secondary school in Gwale Local Government Area of Kano State.
  3. Ascertain whether unavailability of instructional materials for effective teaching affects students’ academic performance in integrated science student in junior secondary school in Gwale Local Government Area of Kano State.
  4. Determine the extent poor method of teaching affect the academic performance of students in integrated science in junior secondary school in Gwale Local Government Area of Kano State.
  5. Determine the extent interest and attitudes of students affect the academic performance of students in integrated science in junior secondary school in Gwale Local Government Area of Kano State.

1.4 Research Questions

In assessing the purpose of the study, this research project will answer the following questions:

  1. Does insufficient numbers of qualified teachers affect students’ academic performance in integrated science student in junior secondary school in Gwale Local Government Area of Kano State?
  2. To what extent does lack of adequate school facilities affect the academic performance of students in integrated science in junior secondary school in Gwale Local Government Area of Kano State?
  3. Does unavailability of instructional materials for effective teaching affects students’ academic performance in integrated science student in junior secondary school in Gwale Local Government Area of Kano State?
  4. To what extent does poor method of teaching affect the academic performance of students in integrated science in junior secondary school in Gwale Local Government Area of Kano State?
  5. To what extent does interest and attitudes of students affect their academic performance in integrated science in junior secondary school in Gwale Local Government Area of Kano State.

1.5 Research Hypotheses

  • Ho: There are no significant factors affecting the teaching and learning of integrated science in Gwale Local Government Area of Kano State.
  • Ha: There are significant factors affecting the teaching and learning of integrated science in Gwale Local Government Area of Kano State.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study focused on identifying the factors associated with mass failure of students in integrated science in secondary schools in Gwale Local Government Area of Kano State and suggest the remedies to be taken in order to rescue the situation. This study also play an important role to the curriculum planners and implementers since it can guide them in identifying which areas to put more emphasis on in order to improve students performance of integrated science in secondary schools. This research can also help to identify the major factors that lead to poor performance of integrated science in secondary schools in Nigeria the finding of this evaluation study will shed light on how the real situation is and give valuable recommendations according to the findings. Several research works has been reported and proposed recommendations, however the situation is getting even worse over the years meaning that the best feasible and sustainable solutions must be found.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study borders on the factors associated with mass failure of students in integrated science in secondary schools in Gwale Local Government Area of Kano State. The respondent for this study will be obtained from some selected secondary schools in Gwale Local Government Area of Kano State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

This research project, like all human endeavors, had some challenges that threatened to derail the study’s completion. One of the reasons is that the time allotted for this work was so limited that the researcher did not have enough time to complete the task thoroughly. During data collection, the researcher also had to put forth extra effort to understand the respondents’ interview schedules, several of whom fell into the incomprehensible age group. Also, there were financial and transportation constraints to deal with. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, interview).


1.9 Definition of Terms

Academic Performance:

Is the outcome of education to the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their educational grades.

Poor Performance:

It is unsatisfactory outcome results of examinations, which is failure and cannot help a candidate in any way. Poor performance denotes by letter F which ranges from 21to 0.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the factors associated with mass failure of students in integrated science in secondary schools in Gwale Local Government Area of Kano State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the factors associated with mass failure of students in integrated science in secondary schools in Gwale Local Government Area of Kano State. The study was specifically set to ascertain whether insufficient numbers of qualified teachers affects students’ academic performance in integrated science student in junior secondary school in Gwale Local Government Area of Kano State, determine the extent lack of adequate school facilities affect the academic performance of students in integrated science in junior secondary school in Gwale Local Government Area of Kano State, ascertain whether unavailability of instructional materials for effective teaching affects students’ academic performance in integrated science student in junior secondary school in Gwale Local Government Area of Kano State, determine the extent poor method of teaching affect the academic performance of students in integrated science in junior secondary school in Gwale Local Government Area of Kano State, and determine the extent interest and attitudes of students affect the academic performance of students in integrated science in junior secondary school in Gwale Local Government Area of Kano State.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 150 responses were validated from the enrolled participants, where all respondent are some selected teachers and students of junior secondary school in Gwale Local Government Area of Kano State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. Insufficient numbers of qualified teachers affect students’ academic performance in integrated science student in junior secondary school in Gwale Local Government Area of Kano State.
  2. The extent lack of adequate school facilities affect the academic performance of students in integrated science in junior secondary school in Gwale Local Government Area of Kano State is high.
  3. Unavailability of instructional materials for effective teaching affects students’ academic performance in integrated science student in junior secondary school in Gwale Local Government Area of Kano State.
  4. The extent poor method of teaching affect the academic performance of students in integrated science in junior secondary school in Gwale Local Government Area of Kano State is high.
  5. The extent interest and attitudes of students affect their academic performance in integrated science in junior secondary school in Gwale Local Government Area of Kano State is high.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. The government at all level should as a matter of urgency, purchase instructional aids which should be used by the teachers in their teaching of the student. If done, the problem of poor performance of students in science will be remedied.
  2. The low achievement level in Integrated science at junior secondary school level demands for revolutionary ideas to motivate students in learning the Integrated science. Teachers should use modern methods of teaching including use of computers in teaching Integrated science in order to motivate and sustain students’ interest in sciences as far as possible and in most science.
  3. The government, parents, school administration and the society at large should work together to ensure that the teaching and learning environment is conducive to the teachers and students for effective learning to take place. They should give support by providing the necessary materials and equipment required which includes well equipped.
  4. Teachers should be more innovative in preparing teaching and learning materials to help them modify their teaching strategies in order to embrace the benefits of interactive teaching, including longer and increased students’ conceptual understanding.
  5. Comprehension, enhanced learning and easy remembering is enhanced by inquiry and interactive teaching approach. Therefore, science educators should employ computer, modeling and animations through technological innovativeness while preparing educational materials. Curriculum material preparation principles should also be observed while preparing these materials.

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