Effects Of Igbo Traditional Belief On The Academic Achievement Of A Girl Child (A Case Study Of Abagana In Anambra State)
This study will focus on the effects of igbo traditional belief on the academic achievement of a girl child, Abagana in Anambra state as case study. The study is was specifically focused on finding out how Igbo Traditional Belief influence Girl child academic achievement in Abagana In Anambra State; exploring other factors that influence girl child academic achievement in Abagana In Anambra State and exploring the strategies that can be adopted to improve girl’s education in the cultural diversity in Abagana In Anambra State.The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 60 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are staff and student from secondary schools in in Abagana In Anambra State.
Table of Content
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
- 1.10 Organizations of the Study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Cultural Factors that Influence Girl-Students’ Academic Achievement
- 2.2 Other Factors that Influence Girl-Students’ Academic Achievement
- 2.3 Strategies that can be Adopted to Improve Girl’s Education in the Traditional Diversity
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Size Determination
- 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the Study
- 3.9 Reliability of the Study
- 3.10 Ethical Consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Data
- 4.3 test of Hypothesis
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background to the Study
The greatest enemy and greatest evil which keep people in darkness, bound to their traditions and superstitions is illiteracy; It also makes people resistant to change and new ideas and isolated from progress, thus unaware and incapable of meeting the demands of their changing environment and ever progressing world (Nasution in Omolewa1985). Today, girl-child education is a matter of concern for nations in the world. Girl-children are discriminated against thereby making it difficult for them to exercise their rights; they are victims of various traditional and cultural practices, they suffer degradation, they are objects of poverty, their faces are only to be seen but their voices not to be heard, they are seen as being sub-servient to their male counterparts; they are the inferior set, their place is in the kitchen. A number of negative thoughts and actions are expressed on the girl-child. To set the girl-child free from all these negative hold, there is need for her sound education. Giving her education will give her sound mind to reason, to liberate her from poverty, and develop her as well as the nation in which she lives. With education, the girl child can become a self-sufficient adult who has more decision and control over her life. Jatau in Esomonu (1999) believes that the burden of nation building rests much on women. She goes on “we need women to create a blissful home, have well-educated and well-behaved children it is after these that the task of nation building can be a success”. This will start from the education of the girl-child. The importance of educating the girl-child is further brought to the fore by Abacha (1997) while stating his view to support the fact that development has to be participatory and sustainable. He believed that “Progress is only feasible if we create a Nigeria made up of a united people with a united purpose… our nation needs men and women who are bold, and imaginative, dedicated and committed, people who put honor, service and patriotism above everything else. These men and women are not only needed in politics, they are also needed in business, in our traditional institutions, youth organizations, in academics and other professions”.
The above statement indicated that, society should stop looking down on women and they should be seen as first-class citizen and not rated as second-class citizens. Through education the girl-child (who transforms later into a woman) will be empowered to be strong and resourceful in such a way that she is able to contribute maximally to the sustenance and development of the society in which she lives. According to Alkali (2000) cited in Adedokun & Olufunke M. (2010) if all limiting barriers against women are removed, “women can lead, lead to the battle, and if necessary fight for her society and win for her people”. Educating a girl child therefore will bring about self-awareness, increased self-assertiveness in the society, raising the consciousness of women to encourage their participation in national development (Awe 1992, cited in Adedokun & Olufunke M. 2010). Paying particular and close attention is therefore important, to the education of the girl-child. Finding the right solution to the issue of girl-child education will not only move the girl-child forward but pushes the nation to a greater height. Considering the virtues embedded in the issue of girl child education, the issue should be rated very high.
Odaga and Henerald (1995) maintained that the socio-economic and socio-cultural factors influencing female education at the household and community levels are closely interwoven. These factors have led to low investment in female education and hence, low societal demand for female education. Oladunni (1996) cited the girl as being a victim of customs and traditions which ensure that she remains permanently disadvantaged. Factors responsible according to her include early marriage which keep her out of school and endangers her life through premature pregnancies and difficult child birth, obnoxious widowhood rites, male preference and other harmful traditional practices which all contribute to making a girl-child a second class citizen and more vulnerable. Other factors are lack of knowledge. Low purchasing power, low income earning capacity and other discriminations leading to poor health status.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The girl-child, and indeed women the world over, especially in Africa and Nigeria has had their destiny sealed from birth by tradition and culture on account of their biological sex. They have been called the weaker sex in order to justify societal discrimination and oppression against them. They must remain silent hewers of wood and drawers of water, bearers of children, and toilers of arduous labor from sun-rise to sun-down. They can be seen but not to be heard in both the private and the public spaces of decision making. The girl-child by the natural status ascribed to her by male defined norms of societal conduct and behavior remains a property to be owned and commoditized. Consequently, her rights are circumscribed by tradition, custom, and the chauvinism of male patriarchy. No community will remain undeveloped if it has the required human capital and the best instrument for developing any society is to invest in human capital (Richardson, 2009). This is because the acquired knowledge and skills will guarantee the economic and social liberation of the individual and by implication enhances their contributions to community and national development (Efe, 2001).
Illiteracy has been the greatest cankerworm which has eaten deeply in us and devastated the implementation of various wonderful policies of developing countries. Illiteracy has a positive relationship with poverty. Unfortunately, illiteracy is highly rated among the women than men which means illiterate mothers will raise illiterate daughters who are most likely to marry early and have no access to education if their husbands do not comply. The girl child often faces discrimination from the earliest stages of life, through childhood into adulthood. Her low status is reflected in the denial of fundamental needs and rights and in such harmful attitudes and practices as a preference for sons, early marriage, female genital mutilation, domestic abuse, incest, and sexual exploitation, discrimination, less food and less access to education. Forty per cent of Nigerian children aged 6-11 do not attend any primary school with the Northern region recording the lowest school attendance rate in the country, particularly for girls. Despite a significant increase in net enrollment rates in recent years in Nigeria, it is estimated that about 4.7 million children of primary school age are still not in school (UNICEF Report, 2005).
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objectives of this study is to find out the Effects Of Igbo Traditional Belief On The Academic Achievement of a Girl Child (a Case Study Of Abagana In Anambra State), specifically the study intends to:
- Find out how Igbo Traditional Belief influence Girl child academic achievement in Abagana In Anambra State
- Explore other factors that influence girl child academic achievement in Abagana In Anambra State.
- Explore the strategies that can be adopted to improve girl’s education in the cultural diversity in Abagana In Anambra State
1.4 Research Questions
- What are the Igbo Traditional Belief that influence girl child education in Abagana In Anambra State?
- What other factors influence Girl child education achievement in Abagana In Anambra State?
- What strategies can be adopted to improve girl’s education in the cultural diversity in Abagana In Anambra State?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
- Ho: there is no significant relationship between Igbo Traditional Belief and girl child academic achievement
- Hi: there is significant relationship betweenIgbo Traditional Beliefand girl child academic achievement
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study will enable the stakeholders in the area of education in Abagana In Anambra State to address the issues of girl-child. It is also hoped that the Ministry of Education will find this work beneficial in planning their educational budget so that the rural population of Abagana In Anambra State is placed on the pedestal of equal and adequate educational opportunities for all citizens.
Through the findings and recommendations of this research, guardians may be more enlightened on their responsibilities towards the girl child education in Abagana In Anambra State. It is likewise trusted that this will in turn enhance girl child education which will lead to their contributions on the developments of Abagana In Anambra State.
It is important to note that by highlighting some of the traditional influencing girl child education, this study will give social workers, policy makers, community members, governmental and non-governmental organizations insights on how to tackle this issue at the grass roots level. This study will also highlight benefits in educating the girl child for a better society not only for the present age, but rather for who and what is to come.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This research work focus mainly on young girls within Abagana In Anambra State. Furthermore, due to the complex nature of the research project, respondents from Abagana In Anambra State will be the main focus of the research.
This is so because the researcher will not be able to conduct a census study on the entire the State due to the geographical complexity.
1.8 Limitation of study
Finance, inadequate materials and time constraint were the challenges the researchers encountered during the course of the study.
1.9 Definition of Key Terms
Fant E. F. (2008) argued that culture is defined as an integrated system of learned behavior patterns created and possessed by people. It is argued that when people become confined to their culture such that they cannot reason beyond, culture becomes what is known as a tradition.
Education is a basic human right for all children. This was recognized over 60 years ago in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, acknowledged and agreed to by many governments across the world. However, in Africa millions of children, particularly girls, are still denied the right to education and are unable to access the knowledge, skills and capabilities necessary to take an empowered and equal role in society Esomonu,N. P. M. (1999)
Girl child education refers to the provision of educational services to the female gender in the argue for societal development.Doughlas, K. (1989).
1.10 Organizations of the Study
The chapter one consist of the introductory part of the study which includes the study background, the statement of the research problem, the study objective and scope of the study.
The second chapter is a critical review of other literatures relevant to the study and its objectives including the theoretical framework for the study. While the third chapter is methods of data collection, sampling and data analysis used in conducting the study. The fourth chapter centres around the research findings including an analysis of how it relates to previous findings. The fifth chapter consists of the summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations base on the study objectives.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:
This chapter summarizes the findings on the effects of igbo traditional belief on the academic achievement of a girl child, Abagana in Anambra state as case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.
5.2 Summary of the Study
In this study, our focus was on the effects of igbo traditional belief on the academic achievement of a girl child, Abagana in Anambra state as case study. The study is was specifically focused on finding out how Igbo Traditional Belief influence Girl child academic achievement in Abagana In Anambra State; exploring other factors that influence girl child academic achievement in Abagana In Anambra State and exploring the strategies that can be adopted to improve girl’s education in the cultural diversity in Abagana In Anambra State.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 60 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are staff and student from secondary schools in in Abagana In Anambra State.
With respect to the analysis and the findings of this study, the following conclusions emerged;
The study findings were that Igbo traditional belief affecting girl child education in Abagana In Anambra State. The findings were that majority of respondents agree with Circumcision that affect the state of girl child education for marriage 21.6%, Early marriage had18.3%, We develop insecure feelings which reduce our concentration on academics had
We are given too much work at home. This denies us study time besides leaving us fatigued had13.3%, The need for bride price has forced girls into marriage had 1 1.7%, our parents delay/ do not pay fees hence we are often at home for fees instead of being in class had 10% and Stereotypic gender role dispositions had 10% of the respondents.
It was also established that other factors other influence Girl education in Abagana In Anambra State.
The findings were that Poverty among parents affects girl education in Abagana In Anambra State 38.3%. Lack of scholastic materials had 16.7%, Sexual violence had 20%, Lack of community emphasis on education had 15% of the respondents and Limited government support had of the respondents. ln comparing the influence of cultural than other factors. The study findings were that cultural are less influencing according to 40% of the respondents while 60% argued that other factors influence more.
It was also established that the interventions established in Abagana In Anambra State. Sanitization of masses of masses had 25%, Rescheduling the circumcision ceremony had 46.7%, provision of school services to girls had 20% and Improved concentration on educational services had 8.3% The researcher presented that 45% of the respondents argued that the interventions ere effective while 55% of them argued that they are not effective. On what should be done to improve the state of affair. The findings were that the need for sensitization amongst parents had 25% Provision of scholastic materials to girls had 50% of the respondents, there is need for political intervention on education 16.7% of the respondents, Ensure effective education policy dissemination and implementation.
Based on the findings the researcher recommends that;
- The government through the Ministry of education should supply sanitary towels to secondary school girls
- The government to enhance affirmative action and enforcement of laws on girls’ rights among others.
- The Ministry of Education to enhance sensitization of parents on the significance of girls’ education possibly through the village Elders and Chief’s and other forums.
- Government should enhance guidance and counseling services in girls’ secondary schools. These can encourage the girls to increase their efforts in learning instead of adopting a withdrawn attitude which leads to failure.
- There is need for local government sensitization on culture and how the concept needs to be handled without interfering with the education.
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