Influence Of Gender, School Location And Student’s Attitude On Students Academic Achievement In Basic Technology In Lagos State

Final Year Research Project and Seminar Material on Technology Education

Influence Of Gender, School Location And Student’s Attitude On Students Academic Achievement In Basic Technology In Lagos State


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the influence of gender, school location and student’s attitude on students academic achievement in basic technology in Apapa, Lagos State. The study was specifically set determine whether there is a significant gender difference in students academic achievement in basic technology, determine whether school location have a significant influence on students academic achievement in basic technology, and determine whether student’s attitude have a significant influence on their academic achievement in basic technology. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of Basic technology teachers ans students of some selected junior secondary schools in Apapa, Lagos State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 200 respondents and 150 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, while the hypotheses were tested using Pearson Correlation statistical tool, SPSS v23. The result of the findings reveals that there is no significant gender difference in students academic achievement in basic technology. The study also revealed that school location have a significant influence on students academic achievement in basic technology. Therefore, it is recommended that school authorities, Parents’ Teachers Association, State Primary and State Secondary Education Boards and other educational stakeholders should help and encourage students to develop positive attitude and keen interest towards learning any subject. To mention but few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Academic achievement represents performance outcomes that indicate the extent to which a person has accomplished specific goals that were the focus of activities in instructional environments, specifically in school, college, and university. The problem of students’ under-performance in secondary schools in Nigeria has been a much discussed educational issue. In solving any problem however, it is pertinent to understand the causes of such problems. Many causes or agents have been studied as the etiological starting point for investigating the phenomena of school failure or success. These causes are looked into from several perspectives including the role of the students, teachers, parents or family, school environment, society, government etc. Notable works among these are effects of: teachers’ competencies (Akiri & Ugborugbo, 2009), parents’ economic status (Osonwa et al, 2013), continuous assessment (Kolawole & Ala, 2014; Okwu & Orum, 2012), educational funding (Ugwulashi, 2012). However, much attention have not been given to gender, school location and student’s attitude as determinants of students academic performance in Basic technology, which is the focus of this study.

Gender is the range of physical, biological, mental and behavioural characteristics pertaining to and differentiating between the feminine and masculine (female and male) population. The importance of examining performance in relation to gender is based primarily on the socio-cultural differences between girls and boys. In a nutshell, what are regarded as complex and difficult tasks are allocated to boys whereas girls are expected to handle the relatively easy and less demanding tasks. As a result of this way of thinking the larger society has tended to see girls as a weaker sex”. Consequently, an average Nigerian girl goes to school with these fixed stereotypes.

In view of the belief that students’ gender may have impact on the students’ academic performance, this study will study the relationship between them if any. Gender differences in achievement have been examined for some time resulting in a substantial body of literature (Jegede & lyang (1990); Okeke (1990) etc. Some of these researchers pointed out that there is no significant gender difference in students’ academic achievement and retention in various subjects while others found significant difference with either the boys or the girls performing better.
In terms of the influence of school location on the academic performance of students, there are the socio-metric factors such as the kinds of social activities around the school environment of the students. In a case where the language of the people around the school is pidgin, this could gradually affect the child in learning good English at school. Furthermore, schools located in an environment where there is noisy traffic, noisy sound of machine from ply-wood industry, hotel and bar will negatively affect the academic performance of the students because the noisy environment will disturb them from concentrating while learning.

Furthermore, the influence of student’s attitude on their academic performance, it was discovered that the way students perceive a subject determines their interest and success or failure in that subject. Some students perceive basic technology as a no go area because of the negative impression passed down to them by the past generations, who had bad experience with unqualified basic technology teachers; that the subject is the most difficult subject in the school, that basic technology is not meant for everybody, not everybody passes it, it is meant for those with special talent, some were born to do basic technology while others were not (Audu, 1995). On hearing all these negative expressions before school age or getting admission into school, the child psychologically develops and nurses fear for the subject and comes to the lesson with these bad notions and bias, which disassociate learning patterns, which are impossible to build upon. This notion has done a lot of harm to the teaching and learning of basic technology. Basic technology phobia is the condition that these bad notions lead to. That is, fear followed by low productivity and consequently leads to low academic achievement in basic technology.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

A great deal of research provides evidence that study habits and school location are both significant variables, which determine the academic performance of students. Yet, in spite of the perceived importance of study habits and school location to academic performance, it seems that education institution still pay little attention to understanding these factors (Baquiran, 2011).Classroom observations show that under the same conditions, namely same teachers, same subject, same teaching methods, same administration, same enrollment criteria, same time of the day for an specific subject and same education level, some students perform well while others do not. The question arises as to what are the aspects that influence this difference in performance, and what is the best way to arrange the study process of multicultural groups of students, so that all learn and perform accordingly with schools’ expectations.

Hence, it is considered important to know what study habits students and have and, their school location, in case of low-performing students, which of those study habits need to be changed and if possible register the child to another school where the school location is favourable in order to achieve high academic performance.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The overall aim of this study is to examine the influence of gender, school location and student’s attitude on students academic achievement in basic technology in Lagos State. Hence, the study will be channeled to the following specific objectives;

  1. Determine whether there is a significant gender difference in students academic achievement in basic technology.
  2. Determine whether school location have a significant influence on students academic achievement in basic technology.
  3. Determine whether student’s attitude have a significant influence on their academic achievement in basic technology.

1.4 Research Questions

The study was guided by the following research questions:

  1. Is there any significant gender difference in students academic achievement in basic technology?
  2. Does school location have a significant influence on students academic achievement in basic technology?
  3. Does student’s attitude have a significant influence on their academic achievement in basic technology?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

  • Ho1: There is no significant relationship between gender and students academic achievement in basic technology.
  • Ho2: There is no significant relationship between school location and students academic achievement in basic technology.
  • Ho3: There is no significant relationship between student’s attitude and their academic achievement in basic technology.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This research is intended to add to the existing information on the influence of gender, school location and student’s attitude on students academic achievement in basic technology in Lagos State. The results of this study could be of significance to students, teachers, parents, school counsellors, policy makers and the government in assisting and encouraging students to realize the importance of gender, school location and student’s attitude on their academic performance. Students will benefit more from the findings of this study as they will be offered the necessary assistance as and how to develop good attitude towards their studies which will help to improve upon their academic performance.

Also this could serve as a guide to teachers and school counsellors who always have the desire to see their students perform well by giving them the right techniques of developing them.

In addition, the school board and proprietors/proprietress will benefit from the result of the findings which would enable them to evaluate and re-evaluate the performances of their students and assist them in formulating realistic and achievable policy based gender difference,

Finally, the study will serve as a guide and resource document to policy makers and stakeholders in developing curriculum materials and text books, taking into consideration students’ needs and aspirations as they study to pass their examinations both at the secondary and tertiary levels.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study will focus generally on the influence of gender, school location and student’s attitude on students academic achievement in basic technology in Lagos State. The study will geographically be conducted in junior secondary schools in Lagos State.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

As with any human endeavor, the researcher experienced small impediments while performing the study. Due to the scarcity of literature on the subject as a result of the discourse’s nature, the researcher incurred additional financial expenses and spent additional time sourcing for relevant materials, literature, or information, as well as during the data collection process, which is why the researcher chose a small sample size. Additionally, the researcher conducted this inquiry in conjunction with other scholarly pursuits. Additionally, because only a small number of respondents were chosen to complete the research instrument, the results cannot be applied to other secondary schools outside the state. Regardless of the limits faced throughout the investigation, all aspects were reduced to ensure the best outcomes and the most productive research.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Gender:

According to Lahey (2003) is a psychological experience of being a male or female.
Attitude

Attitude:

Is a central part of human identity. Everyday people love, hate, like, dislike, favour, oppose, agree, disagree, argue, persuade etc.

Academic Performance:

It is the outcome of education the extent to which a student has achieved his/her educational goals.


1.10 Organization of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the influence of gender, school location and student’s attitude on students academic achievement in basic technology in Apapa, Lagos State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the influence of gender, school location and student’s attitude on students academic achievement in basic technology in Apapa, Lagos State. The study was specifically set to determine whether there is a significant gender difference in students academic achievement in basic technology, determine whether school location have a significant influence on students academic achievement in basic technology, and determine whether student’s attitude have a significant influence on their academic achievement in basic technology.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 150 responses were validated from the enrolled participants, where all respondent are Basic technology teachers ans students of some selected junior secondary schools in Apapa, Lagos State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. There is no significant gender difference in students academic achievement in basic technology.
  2. School location have a significant influence on students academic achievement in basic technology.
  3. Student’s attitude have a significant influence on their academic achievement in basic technology.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. Female teachers should engage in social persuasion (in the form of pep talks or verbal messages) as well as acting as role models to the female students to induce and encourage them to develop positive attitude towards their studies, which will in turn enhance their grades.
  2. To improve schools and students‘ academic performance, parents or community members in collaboration with the local authority leaders should not be driven by their personal motives when locating schools. Educational authorities should develop, distribute and strictly administer standards to guide all providers (public and private) adhere to the laid standards.
  3. School authorities, Parents’ Teachers Association, State Primary and State Secondary Education Boards and other educational stakeholders should help and encourage students to develop positive attitude and keen interest towards learning any subject.

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