Effects Of Socio-Economic Background Of Parents On Academic Achievement Of Their Children In Schools

Project and Seminar Material for Child and Basic Education

Effects Of Socio-Economic Background Of Parents On Academic Achievement Of Their Children In Schools


Abstract


This study analysed the effects of socio-economic background of parents on academic achievement of their children in schoolsin Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State. The study sought to determine the influence of parents’ income, educational level, occupation and parental involvement in education on students’ academic achievement. A descriptive survey design using a sample of 158 students, 17 teachers and 11 parents’ representatives was used to execute the study. Questionnaires were used to collect information from students and teachers while interview schedule was used to collect information from parents. Quantitative data from the questionnaires was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics using Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS). The qualitative data was managed through thematic techniques. Target population was parents’ representatives, teachers and students in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State. The findings of the study were that parents income influences students’ academic achievement, parents’ level of education influences students’ academic achievement, parents’ occupation influences students’ academic achievement and parental involvement in education influences students’ academic achievement to a great extent. In order to improve students’ academic achievement the study recommends that; schools should put in place systems to enhance parental involvement in education, the government should increase bursary allocation to students from poor families to retain them in school and parents should be highly sensitized about the benefits of parental involvement in education.


Table Of Contents


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title
  • Declaration
  • Approval
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Content

Chapter One

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background to the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Research Problem
  • 1.3 Purpose of the Study
  • 1.4 Objectives of the Study
  • 1.5 Research Questions
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Limitations of the Study
  • 1.8 Delimitations of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Significant Terms

Chapter Two

Review Of Related Literature

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Parents’ Income and Students’ Academic achievement
  • 2.3 Parents’ Level of Education and Students’ Academic achievement
  • 2.4 Parents’ Occupation and Student’s Academic achievement
  • 2.5 Parental Involvement in Education and Students’ Academic achievement
  • 2.6 Theoretical Framework

Chapter Three

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Research Design
  • 3.3 Location of the Study
  • 3.4 Target Population
  • 3.5 Sample Size and Sampling Procedure
  • 3.6 Research Instruments
  • 3.6.1 Instrument Validity
  • 3.6.2 Reliability of Instrument
  • 3.7 Data Collection Procedure
  • 3.8 Data Analysis Techniques
  • 3.9 Ethical Considerations

Chapter Four

Data Analysis, Interpretation And Presentation

  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Questionnaires Return Rate
  • 4.3 Background Characteristics of the Respondents
  • 4.4 School Type
  • 4.5. Students’ Academic achievement in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State
  • 4.6 Discussion of Research Objectives

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations

  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Summary of the findings
  • 5.3 Conclusions of the study
  • 5.4 Recommendations of the study
  • 5.5 Recommendation for further research
  • References
  • Appendices

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

A person’s education is closely linked to their life chances, income, and wellbeing (Battle and Lewis 2002), therefore it is important to have a clear understanding of what benefits or hinders one is educational attainment. Several topical areas are mostly commonly linked to academic achievement of student, such as school factors, family factors and peers factors. Generally, academic achievement is how well a student an individual achieves a set objectives.
School environment factors such as school size, neighborhood and relationship between teacher and student also influence test score (Crosnoe, Johnson and Elder 2004). Also, family background has been found to influence student’s academic achievement and socio-economic statues, parental involvement, and family size are particularly important factors (Majoribanks, 2006). Peer influence can also affects student’s performance in that peer pressure and peer conformity can lead to an individual participating in risk taking behavior which has negative effect on academic achievement.

Hunt, 2005 and Miller et al, 2005 define social class as literacy of social order or group more or less hereditary but with provision for movement up and down the ladder, all the class are endowed in unequal degree with right and privilege, obligation degree duties in accordance with their position in the social scales. In the Nigerian society, the social class one belongs depends on the educational level, occupation and environmental factors such as circumstance of birth, thus the home becomes and important socializing agent especially in the important socializing agent especially in the early development of the person’s education (Aguokogbuo 2005). At birth an individuals is totally dependent on his/her parent and others grown-up individual in his/her immediate family for guidance. Man is an embodiment of nature and nurture, nature here means biological inheritance from biological parent while nurture is environmental influences. At birth an individual is firmly rooted in or dependent on the parent for socialization process and such a way, social attitude, value norms etc are captured by the individual. According to Locke as cited in Augokogbuo (2005) a man at birth has no innate ideas but rather his mind is tabula rasa (clean slate) thus the original nature of man is neither good or bad but neutrally. A child becomes whatever the society makes of him.

Education is regarded as an important tool for achieving national objective, it is a venture that every society and individual needs. In line with the April 2000 education for all commitment, the Nigerian government in the National Policy for Education (2004) section I, sub-section c posited that every Nigerian child shall have a right o equal educational opportunities irrespective of any real or imagined disabilities each according to his ability. The Nigeria Education commission popularly referred to as Ominde Commission (RoK, 1964) was mandated with charting a new education policy for the country. One of its mandates was to address the issue of education inequality across the races and regions in the country. The Ominde report identified Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State and North Eastern regions as warranting higher grand allocation, boarding schools and mobile schools as immediate strategies to uplift school participation. A charitable Trust called Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State Life Foundation (OLF) was set up in December 2005 by Gabriel Teo with the objective of assisting the marginalized in this county through education and acquisition of livelihood skills (Gabriel, 2005). According to Gabriel (2005) the main beneficiaries of OLF are: Orphans, children of subsistence farmers, nomadic pastoralists and single parent families without any regular source of income. Despite all incentives and efforts by the Government and NGOs to enhance quality and participations in education, this region still perform dismally in academics.

Harris (2006) posited that for proper social and emotional development, students require a strong and reliable primary care giver who provides unconditional love, guidance and general support. They also require safe, predictable, and stable environment. Children raised from arid regions like Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State are much less likely to have these vital needs met than their counterparts from regions with favorable climatic conditions. Most families in these regions tend to practice pastoralism. This occupation entails moving from place to place in search of greener pastures and water for animals. Parents tend to be overworked; they are overstressed and authoritarian with children and fail to form solid, healthy relationship with their children leading to emotional and social challenges which may translate to poor academic achievement (Ahnert &Pinquart, 2006).

Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State continues to exhibit dismal academic attainment despite the Nigerian government commitment to foster quality and equity in education in all counties in the country.


1.2 Statement of the Research Problem

Low socio-economic status or poverty, which forms a specific culture and way of life, is a growing issue in Nigeria, the number of Nigerians living in poverty is continually increasing, poverty indicates the extent to which an individual does without resources. Resources can include financial, emotional, mental, spiritual, and physical resources as well as support systems, relationship, role model and knowledge of hidden rules. Poverty or low socio-economic directly affects academic achievement due to the lack of resources available for student success.
Low achievement is closely correlated with lack of resources, and numerous studies have documented the correlation between low socio-economic status and low achievement. Even in the United States of America (USA) the gaps in achievement among poor and advantage students are substantial (Rowan 2004).

Through multiple studies, the U.S department of education (2001:8) has indicated result that clearly demonstrated that student and school poverty adversely affected student achievement the US department of education (2001) found the following key findings regarding the effect of poverty on student achievement in a study conducted on third through fifth grade student from 71 high poverty schools. The student scored below norms in all years and grades tested, student who lived in poverty scored significantly worse than other students. Schools with the highest percentage of poor student scored significantly worse initially, but close the gap slightly as time progressed. Similar individual studies have found similar results. In his fiscal 2010 budget proposal; President Obama called for neighborhood modeled after the Harlem children’s zone to improve the lives of their children living poverty (Aaron 2009).

The difference in performance has also been found in the United State of America among students whose parent receives welfare or cash income through the aid of families with independent or private source of income. Also in Nigeria, the performance of secondary student in internal and external examination such as West Africa Examination Council (WAEC), NECO etc in the past five to six years have been abysmal and nothing to write home about, this poor performance has been attributed to poor school facilities, lack of school needed material, poor standard of living and poverty. These are the problems that has warrant this research work, in other to know how this challenges can be tackled and lasting solution to be proffered the roles of the family in promoting the academic achievement of their children good standard of living for the people, as well as the provision of adequate learning facilities for our schools.


1.3 Purpose of the Study

The class strata in Nigerian society based on socio- economic ground have become common phenomena. There is unequal distribution of wealth (resources) among citizens. Thus there arise the educated and the illiterate poverty stricken masses. This study therefore considered the influence of those stratified classes on student’s academic achievement. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of parental socioeconomic background on students’ academic achievement in public secondary schools in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State.


1.4 Objectives of the Study

The objectives of the study were as follows:

1.4.1 Main Objective

The main objective of the study was to determine the effects of socio-economic background of parents on academic achievement of their children in schools in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State.

1.4.2 Specific Objectives

In order to achieve the main objective the study aimed at achieving the following specific objectives:

  1. To determine the influence of parents’ income on students’ academic achievement in public secondary schools in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State.
  2. To examine the extent to which parents’ level of education influences students’ academic achievement in public secondary schools in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State.
  3. To establish the level to which parents’ occupation influences students’ academic achievement in public secondary schools in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State.
  4. To determine the extent to which parental involvement in education influences students’ academic achievement in public secondary schools in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State.

1.5 Research Questions

1.5.1 Main Research Question

To what extent does parents’ socio-economic background influence students’ academic achievement in public secondary schools in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State?

1.5.2 Specific Research Questions

The study was guided by the following research questions:

  1. To what extent does parents’ income influence students’ academic achievement in public secondary schools?
  2. How does parents’ level of education influence students’ academic achievement in public secondary schools?
  3. How does parents’ occupation influence students’ academic achievement in public secondary schools?
  4. How does parental involvement in education influence students’ academic achievement in public secondary schools?

1.6 Significance of the Study

The study will be of significance to the parents, teachers and educational researchers because the information collected by the researcher will actually contribute to their general understanding of the influence of parental socio-economic background on students’ academic achievement. The Ministry of Education and policy makers in education sector may also use the findings in this study to address the problem of poor academic achievement in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State.

This study will also contribute to the body of knowledge in general by providing direction to future researchers who may wish to further their investigation on similar topic. Through this study, religious organizations and nongovernmental organizations will understand the influence of parents’ socio-economic background on students’ educational success and thus obtain appropriate knowledge on how best to contribute/participate in education sector.


1.7 Limitations of the Study

The main limitation of this study was transportation problems due to poor road network system and long distance from one school to another in the locale of study. Therefore, the study was limited to the areas that are easily accessible. This is because it would be very expensive for the researcher to access the really hard to reach areas.
Another limitation for this study was difficulty in separating objective responses from subjective ones especially on the sensitive issue touching on parents’ income level. The researcher overcame this limitation by assuring parents that the information given would only be used for academic purpose and also ensured that they were interviewed separately.


1.8 Delimitations of the Study

According to Dusick (2011) delimitations are those characteristics selected by the researcher to define the boundaries of the study. They involve what to be included and those not to be included in the study.

The study only looked at the effects of socio-economic background of parents on academic achievement of their children in schools. The study covered the performance of senior secondary school in Ojo local government area and look at the effect of parental status on their academic achievement. Hence, research will be restricted to secondary schools in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State.


1.9 Definition of Significant Terms

Socio- economic background:

This refers to individual’s/group’s demographic, social and economic position in relation to others. In this study, socio-economic background was measured in terms of parents’ level of income, level of education, and occupational status.

Occupation:

Is an activity that serves as one’s regular source of livelihood. In this study, occupation was measured in terms of parents’ work content, occupational prestige (formal or informal occupation), occupational class and occupation as an indicator of education/skills and income.

Level of education:

This means the stage one reached educationally from primary level, secondary level, tertiary level/ college or university stage.

Academic achievement:

Is the outcome of the students after assessments. This study measured academic achievement basing on the average grades scored by students in exams (whether A, B, C, D or grade E).

Education:

Is the act or process of imparting or acquiring particular knowledge or skills, especially at a school, college, or university. In this study education was measured through the analysis of data such as scores/grades obtained from educational assessments to infer the abilities and proficiencies of students.

Income:

This refers to the monetary payment received for goods or services, or from other sources, as rents or investment. In this study income level was measured basing on the total monetary payments of parents’ goods or services, rents or other investments. Parental involvement in education: This refers to the amount of participation a parent has when it comes to schooling and her child’s life. In this study parental involvement in education was measured in terms of: Parent-teacher communication, parents’ visits to school, parental supervision of students’ educational progress, assistance of students with assignments at home and parental participation in school meetings.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations

5.1 Introduction

This chapter discusses summary of the findings, conclusions, recommendations and suggestions for further research following research objectives.


5.2 Summary of the findings.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of socio-economic background of parents on academic achievement of their children in schoolsin Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria. Data were collected using questionnaires and interview schedules. Teachers and students filled the questionnaires while parents were engaged in interview schedule. The data collected was coded and analyzed using Statistical Package of Social Science using descriptive and inferential statistics. The summary of the findings is discussed below:

a) Parents’ Income Influences Students’ Academic achievement in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State.

The first objective for this study was todetermine the extent to which parents’ income influences students’ academic achievement in public secondary schools in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State

The study revealed that parent income had a significant coefficient with p-value = 0.001. This implies that parents’ income level is positively correlated with students’ academic achievement. The findings on parent’s income also found out that a unit increase in parents’ income would result in an increase of students’ performance by 0.453. The correlation coefficient of the relationship between parents’ income and students’ academic achievement from this study is +0.75 from students’ opinions and +0.95 from teachers’ opinion. This means that there is a strong positive correlation between parents’ income and students’ academic achievement in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State. In other words increase in parents’ income enhances students’ academic achievements.

b) Parents’ level of education influences students’ academic achievement in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State.

The second objective for the study was to establish the extent to which parents’ level of education influences students’ academic achievement in public secondary schools in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State. This study revealed that parent education level had a significant coefficient of 0.002. The findings from the study also indicated that a unit increase in parents’ education would result to improvement in student performance by 0.091.
Correlation coefficient for the relationship between parents’ level of education and students’ performance in this study is +0.82 from students’ opinions and +0.90 from teachers’ opinion. This means that there is strong positive correlation between parents’ level of education and students’ academic achievement.

c). Parents’ occupation influences students’ academic achievement in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State

The third objective for this study was to establish the level to which parents’ occupation influences students’ academic achievement in public secondary schools in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State. The results from this study shows that parent occupation had a significant coefficient with p-value = 0.035. The findings further revealed that a unit increase in parents’ occupation would result in an increase in students’ performance by 0.245.
Finally, the correlation coefficient for the relationship between parents’ occupation and students’ academic achievement is +0.89 from students’ opinions. This implies that there is a strong positive correlation between parents’ occupation and students’ academic achievement.

d). Parental involvement in education influences students’ academic achievement in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State

The fourth and last objective of this study was to establish the extent to which parental involvement in education influences students’ academic achievement in public secondary schools in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State. The results from this study show that parents’ involvement had a significant p -value of 0.021. The findings further revealed that a unit increase in parents’ involvement in education would result in an increase of students’ performance by 0.33. Finally the correlation coefficient between parental involvement in education and students’ academic achievement is +0.89. This implies that there is a very strong positive correlation between parental involvement in education and students’ academic achievement.


5.3 Conclusions of the study

The conclusions of this study were drawn basing on the research objectives as shown below:

a) Parents Income and Students’ Academic achievement

From the findings of this study the researcher concluded that there is a significant positive correlation between parents’ income and students’ academic achievement in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State. This is because higher income parents are able to pay school fees in time, avail the necessary learning materials and set a more conducive learning environment at home unlike low income parents who do not have financial ability to cater for students’ educational needs.

b) Parents’ Level of Education and Students’ Academic achievement

The researcher concluded that there is a significant positive correlation between parents’ level of education and students’ academic achievement in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State. This is because parents with high level of education highly appreciate the value of education and thus set a more conducive learning environment for their children and can help their children with assignments/homework as compared to their counterparts with lower educational level.

c) Parents’ Occupation and Students’ Academic achievement

It can also be concluded that there is a significant positive correlation between parents’ occupation and students’ academic achievement. Students whose parents are in good formal employment exhibit higher academic attainments than those whose parents practice nomadic, peasantry or non-employed.

d) Parental Involvement in Education and Students’ Academic achievement

Finally from the findings of this study the researcher concluded that parental involvement in education influences students’ academic achievement. Parental involvement in education according to this study entails attending school meetings, monitoring students’ educational progress, assisting students with assignment at home, setting rules and regulations at home to check on students’ discipline, provision of learning materials and payment of school fees among others.


5.4 Recommendations of the study

The recommendations of this study were formulated basing on the research objectives as shown below:

a) Parents’ income and students’ academic achievement

Due to low parents’ income in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State as established in this study the researcher recommended that the government should increase bursary allocation to the students from poor families to retain them in school and enhance their academic achievement.

b) Parents’ level of education and students’ academic achievement

It was established in this study that most of the parents in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State are uneducated and that their low level of education frustrates their involvement in students’ academic achievement. In light of this fact it was recommended that schools in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State should put in place appropriate systems to enhance parental involvement in education.

c) Parents’ occupation and students’ academic achievement

The researcher found out that most parents in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State were peasant farmers who earn very little income per month. In light of this fact it was recommended that the government should boost the economic background of households in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State through investing in more income generating projects in the region.

d) Parental involvement in education and students’ academic achievement

This study established that there is low parental involvement in students’ education in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State. In light of this factit was recommended that parents should be highly sensitized about the benefits of parental involvement in education. They need to know that parental involvement in education goes beyond merely school fees payment but creation of conducive learning environment at home, monitoring students’ progress in education among others.


5.5 Recommendation for further research

In relation to this study further research can be done on the following:

  1. Influence of government bursaries on students’ retention rate in public secondary schools in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State.
  2. School factors that influence parental involvement in students’ academic achievement in public secondary schools in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State.

Project Material Download

Dollar and Foreign Payment


Click Here to Purchase Material (₦3,000)

–OR–

FOR CLIENTS OUTSIDE NIGERIA:

Click Here to pay with Debit Card ($15)

You may also like:

⚠️ Searching for a different topic? Perform a quick search


Follow us on Facebook                       Contact Our Help Desk

Follow us on Facebook

 Contact Our Help Desk


Effects Of Socio-Economic Background Of Parents On Academic Achievement Of Their Children In Schools

Disclaimer

This research material “Effects Of Socio-Economic Background Of Parents On Academic Achievement Of Their Children In Schools” is for research purposes and should be used as a guide in developing your research project / seminar work. For no reason should you copy word for word (verbatim) as samphina.com.ng will not be liable for any who copied the material.

The aim of providing this material is to reduce the stress of moving from one school library to another all in the name of searching for research materials. This service is legal because, all institutions permit their students to read previous projects, books, articles or papers while developing their own works. According to Austin Kleon “All creative work builds on what came before”.

samphina.com.ng is only providing this material “Effects Of Socio-Economic Background Of Parents On Academic Achievement Of Their Children In Schools” as a reference for your research. The paper should be used as a guide or framework for your own paper. The contents of this paper should be able to help you in generating new ideas and thoughts for your own research. Use it as a guidance purpose only.


How to defend your research work

This is a general guide on how to defend your research work:

1. Prepare For Questions:

If you are preparing for questions that may be asked during your defense, then your answers will flow smoothly and effectively. This will prove your knowledge on the subject e.g “Effects Of Socio-Economic Background Of Parents On Academic Achievement Of Their Children In Schools“, and strengthening your argument. Ask friends and family, read your work for them to listen to your presentation, and write down questions. You may be lucky the panel will ask you those you have already prepared on.

2. Strong Summary:

Summarizing your chapters will help keep your audience focused because it is easy for a mind to drift, so providing summaries will ensure your panel will follow along, even if they lose focus for a brief moment. Visual aides, such as graphs and power-point presentations can be very helpful. If you are going to use these, make sure you will practice your presentation with them.

3. Be Confident in Your Research Work:

Not knowing your topic “Effects Of Socio-Economic Background Of Parents On Academic Achievement Of Their Children In Schools” inside out will cause you to struggle and ultimately fail with your defense. You need to know the subject from every angle to ensure you are fully prepared for any question that may come your way.

4. Conclusion:

Reinforce your findings to conclude your defense. The finale of your presentation should focus on proving the work that has been done. You may need to recap on what has changed and remained unchanged, if is necessary.

5 . Listen:

Before you get defensive or recite a particular answer, make sure you truly understand the question being asked. Being a good listener is an important quality, because providing an inaccurate or off-topic answer will also weaken the validity of your paper.

Samphina Academy

Samphina Academy is an Online Educational Resources Center that is aimed at providing students with quality information and materials to aid them in succeeding in their academic pursuit.