Effect Of Oil Types On The Physio-Chemical And Organoleptic Qualities Of Akara

Project and Seminar Material for Agricultural Engineering AE

Project and Seminar Material for Agricultural Engineering AE


Akara is a tasty snack enjoyed by different sections of the population.  This project investigated the effect of oil type on the sensory and chemical properties of akara produced from three different oil samples.  The cowpea samples were soaked, washed, dehulled, grind, mixed with ingredients, and fried in the various oil samples.  The results of sensory evaluation and proximate analysis indicate a level of significant difference, with WOW, XOX and YOY having the following results Protein 10.39a, 9.36b, 9.26b, fat: 22.72b, 27.85a, 26.56a, Ash: 1.86ac, 1.74bc, 2.06a, Fibre: 3.27a, 3.3a, 3.18a, moisture 50.33b, 51.76b, 7.33b respectively, also sample Wow showed the most significant difference amongst the samples on the basis of organoleptic property.

Table Of Contents

Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgment
  • Abstract
  • Table of contents

Chapter One

1.0. Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Aim and objectives
  • 1.3 Justification of the study
  • 1.4 Scope of the study

Chapter Two

2.0. Literature Review

  • 2.1. History of cowpea
  • 2.2. cowpea
  • 2.2.1. Growth habits
  • 2.2.2. Cultivation
  • 2.2.3. Characteristics of cowpea
  • 2.2.4. Utilization and nutritional qualities
  • 2.2.5. Diseases
  • 2.2.6. Varieties
  • 2.2.7. Harvesting
  • 2.2.8. Drying and storage
  • 2.2.9. Uses of cowpea
  • 2.3. Types of oil used for frying
  • 2.3.1. Soyabean oil
  • Unsaturated fatty acid in soyoil
  • linoleni acid
  • oleic acid
  • saturated fatty acid in soyoil
  • Stearate acid
  • Palmitate acid
  • 2.3.2. Groundnut oil
  • 2.3.3. palm kernal oil
  • 2.4. Effect of frying on oil
  • 2.4.1. Anisidine value
  • 2.4.2. Polar components
  • 2.5. Colour of oils
  • 2.6. Smoke point
  • 2.7. Evaluation of frying medium used in he production of Akara
  • 2.7.1. Use of charcoal as a frying medium
  • 2.7.2. Use of firewood as a frying medium
  • 2.7.3. Use of gas burner

Chapter Three

3.0. Materials and Methodology

  • 3.1. Materials/apparatus
  • 3.1.2. Methodology
  • 3.2. Quality parameters of the proximate analysis of the akara
  • 3.2.1. Determination of protein
  • 3.2.2. Determination of fat content
  • 3.2.3. Determination of crude fibre
  • 3.2.4. Determination of total ash
  • 3.2.5. Determination of carbohydrate
  • 3.2.6. Determination of moisture content

Chapter Four

4.0. Result and Discussion

  • 4.1. Result of proximate composition of akara fried with different types of oil.
  • 4.2. Result of the organoleptic scores of akara fried with different types of oils

Chapter Five

5.0. Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1. Conclusion
  • 5.2. Recommendation
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


1.1. Background Of The Study

The word Akara is Yoruba. In West Africa they call it Akara, in North West Africa and Ghana they call it Kose which is still Akara. Akara is called Akareje in Bahia and Brazil. Akara is “food” for the God’s. In Yoruba mythology and religion many deities and divinities eat Akara. Most of these deities are personified. Orisa Ibeje (goddess of twins) eats Akara, Ogun (god of Iron) eats Akara. Obatala (god of creation) eats Akara sangos (god of thunder) eats Akara. Olokun (goddess of the sea) eats Akara. Orunmiula (the custodian and the father of all divinities) eats Akara. Over 500 million West African eat Akara. Daily Akara is gluten free, dairy free and vegan friendly. The context of the sacred diet which Akara constitutes the ingredients most be pure. (www.tribaltastes.com).

Akara (Black eyed pea fritters) vigna-unguiculata, usually called cowpeas in English speaking Africa, also called China beans, and black eyed beans) are native to Asia, the middle East, and perhaps Africa. They were cultivated in the mediterranean region in ancient times, and have been grown all over Africa for centuries. In Western Africa they are used to make a batter from which fritters are made. These fritters (known as accra, akara, akla, binch akara, bean balls, kosai, koose, kose, koose and kwasi) are commonly prepared at home for breakfast, for snacks, or as an appetizer or side dish. They are also fast food, sold by vendors on the street in market places and at bus stations. The same recipe, with a very similar name is also known in the carribbean (www.congocookbook.com).

1.2. Aim And Objectives


To assess the effect of oil types on the pysiochemical and sensory properties of fried bean balls (Akara).


To determine the physiochemcial properties of fried bean balls (akara) such as the

  • Crude fibre
  • Crude protein
  • Moisture
  • Carbohydrate
  • Ash
  • Fat

To determine the sensory quality of “akara” obtained from the use of PALM KERNEL OIL, GROUNDNUT OIL and SOYBEAN OIL in terms of the Colour, Aroma and Taste

1.3. Justification Of The Study

Although this research is a requirement for the award of higher national diploma, this study is also targeted at discovering the effects of different types of frying oil on the physiochemical properties of fried beans balls (a product which is usually or readily consumed by students as a tasty snack).

It also focuses on the prediction of the acceptability of the product based on the acceptance of that obtained from an oil type, which will eventually transform the economic life of the retail snack sellers.

It also intends to determine the health risk possibility on the part of the consumers of “akara” produced from an oil types.

1.4. Scope Of The Study

This work covers the processing of beans into processed beans cake. It also encircles the analyses of the products to investigate the physical, chemical and sensory properties (sensory appeal) of the products as a means to determining the type of oil which is best for making “akara”.

This work, however, does not encompass the investigation of the shelflife of the products it also does not involve scaling up of the composition of the bean slurry (ie extra addition of other ingredients apart form the conventional ones) to produce a new “akara” taste.

Chapter Five

5.0. Conclusion And Recommendation

5.1. Conclusion

From the results of the analytical procedure, it holds that, asides from serving as a medium of heat transfer not bring about cooking of the bean slurry via frying, after permeation of the oil to integrate the heat and alter the state of the slurry into coherent balls, the oil types used ah a significant effect of the quality and properties of the “akara” eventually produced, both in terms of sensory attributes and nutritional potential. The result obtained also indicate that although the nutrients quality can be affected, not all parameters of proximate analysis are influenced by the oil type, such parameters as crude fibre, carbohydrate and Ash contents of “akara” are to affected by the oil type, while the moisture, fat and crude protein contents are significantly affected by t hype of oil used (as in the case o that fried with soyabean oil)

Another conclusion drawn up during the course of this work is that the oil type used for frying bean slurry into “akara” balls significantly affects the sensory properties of the “akara” produced (as in the case o that fried with palm oil) and could serve as a major deciding factor in terms of the level of patronage gotten from customers, shelf-life of the “akara” produced eventually, amongst others.

5.2. Recommendation

from the conclusion drawn up earlier, a good recommendation would be that the oil to be used for frying “akara” should be capable of transferring sufficient heat, if a longer shelf-life (even for a few more hours) is needed eg soyaoil, amongst the three samples.

Also, except for consumes that prefer the colour and flavour of “akara” fried with palm oil, the use of palm oil in frying “akara” should be avoided so as to prevent glut and consequent wastage due to lack of patronage.

Conclusively, the type of oil used for frying “akara” should be that which would not be too dense as to be retained in the fried food, and hence added to the caloric value of the “akara” an thus affect the morphology of the consumer by inducing excessive weight gain.

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