History Of Sugarcane Production And Marketing In Makarfi Local

Project And Seminar Material For Agricultural Science Students

History Of Sugarcane Production And Marketing In Makarfi Local


This abstract provides an overview of the history of sugarcane production and marketing in Makarfi Local Government of Kaduna State, Nigeria, spanning the period from 1991 to 2023. Sugarcane is a significant agricultural commodity with economic importance, contributing to rural livelihoods and the overall agricultural sector. This study examines the historical trends, challenges, and opportunities related to sugarcane production and marketing in Makarfi Local Government. It explores the factors that influenced the growth and development of the sugarcane industry in the region, including agricultural policies, market dynamics, technological advancements, and socio-economic factors. By analyzing historical data, agricultural records, and interviews with key stakeholders, this study sheds light on the changes and transformations that have occurred in the sugarcane industry during the specified timeframe. It highlights the growth in sugarcane cultivation, the adoption of improved farming practices, and the expansion of sugarcane processing and marketing activities. Moreover, the study identifies the challenges faced by sugarcane farmers and marketers in Makarfi Local Government. These challenges may include inadequate access to credit and financing, limited infrastructure, fluctuating market prices, and issues related to pests and diseases. Understanding these challenges is crucial for formulating appropriate strategies and interventions to support the sustainable growth of the sugarcane industry. The study also explores the marketing aspects of sugarcane in Makarfi Local Government, including the distribution channels, market structures, and value chain linkages. It analyzes the role of various actors in the sugarcane market, such as farmers, middlemen, processors, and consumers, and assesses the efficiency and competitiveness of the marketing system. The findings of this study contribute to the existing knowledge on sugarcane production and marketing in Nigeria, particularly in the context of Makarfi Local Government. The historical analysis provides insights into the growth trajectory of the sugarcane industry and the factors that have influenced its development. These findings can inform policymakers, agricultural stakeholders, and researchers in designing targeted interventions and policies to enhance the productivity, profitability, and sustainability of the sugarcane sector.In conclusion, the history of sugarcane production and marketing in Makarfi Local Government of Kaduna State from 1991 to 2016 reflects the challenges, opportunities, and transformations within the industry. By understanding the historical context and addressing the identified challenges, stakeholders can promote the growth and competitiveness of the sugarcane sector, contributing to rural development, agricultural diversification, and economic prosperity in the region.

Chapter One

General Introduction

1.1 Introduction

Sugarcane is one of the important commercial crops in Makarfi Local Government of Kaduna State. Some of the areas that produce sugarcane include Makarfi, Soba, Kubau, Kudan and Giwa etc. Makarfi local government is one of the 23 local government areas in Kaduna state. The local government shares boundaries with four (4) local Governments namely, Rogo local Government in Kano State in the East, Kudan Local Government to the South East, Ikara Local Government to North West and Soba Local Government in the South West[ Kaduna state government. Makarfi Local Government Development Plan: 2018-2020. P1.].Makarfi local government serve as the headquarters of sugarcane production in Kaduna state and that is why the local government was name as the Home of Sugarcane.[Mal. Musa likoro, Sugarcane Farmer and Trader , 49years, Interviewed in Makarfi Market , 25/10/2018.] The sugarcane produced in the local government was initially for home consumption but later it began to be produced in large quantity and then taken outside the local government. The major market of sugarcane in the local government is in Makarfi. Sugarcane is an important commercial crop in the areas as it is one of the main sources of income to both producers and marketers and also a source of revenue to the government.[Ibid]

The main intention of this work is to study the history of sugarcane production and marketing in Makarfi local government as well as its importance to the people of the area.

This work is structured in six chapters, Chapter one serves as general introduction for the whole work. Chapter two provide an overview on economic geography of Makarfi Local Government Area. Chapter three discusses the production, processingof Sugarcane in the local government, while chapter four analyzes the marketing and distribution of sugarcane in Makarfi local government area. Chapter five discusses the socio-economic importance of sugarcane and Chapter six concludes the work.

1.2 Statement of Research Problem

Over a long period especially before independence a lot of academic works studied valuable crops in different parts of the country such as cocoa, cotton, groundnut, palm oil etc. However, Sugarcane is produced in almost all local governments of Kaduna state. But Makarfi Local Government is one of the few local governments where sugarcane is produced in large quantity for commercial purpose.[A. C , Wada, A Gbado and A. A Ndarubu. “Outlook On Agriculture” 2006, Vol 35, Number 1. P65] However, the position of Makarfi local government in the production of Sugarcane in Kaduna state remained neglected by scholars, less attention was given to the sugarcane production and marketing in the area. In view of this, this study intends to fill this gap and contribute to the economic history of the area.

1.3 Aim and Objectives

The mainaim of this research is to examine sugarcane production and marketing in Makarfi local Government. However, the specific objectives are as follows:

  1. Examine the historical background for the production and marketing of sugarcane in Makarfi local government.
  2. Discuss the methods of sugarcane production, processing as well as its marketing channels.
  3. Identify the problems associated with the production and marketing of sugarcane in the area.
  4. Examine the socio-economic importance of sugarcane marketing in Makarfi local government.

1.4 Research Methodology

To achieve the broad objectives stated above, the research was carried out by the use of two sources. These are writing and unwritten or primary and secondary sources. Primary sources include interviews and facts from archival materials, while secondary sources include books and journals are utilized. The researcher consulted sugarcane farmers who have the knowledge of its production and the sugarcane marketers who have the knowledge of its marketing. The researcheralso visited Makarfi local government secretariat and National Archive Kaduna for fact finding.

Both Primary and secondary, written and unwritten materials were used by the researcher to gather all the needed data in the study. The relevant text books, pamphlets and paper presentation were also consulted. The researcher also consulted farmers and marketers of sugarcane that has the knowledge about how sugarcane is cultivated and other offices where information and more materials would be found available from extension workers and other agricultural officers.

1.5 Significance of the Study

As this research on sugarcane production in Makarfi local government area is, it varied at portraying the history, nature and marketing in the area of studies, its Significant is quite enormous. Above all the research will provide an insight into one of the valuable cash crop and export crops that is being neglected in the country. In general, it is hoped that government efforts becomes more visible in sugarcane production, reforms and support to bulk of farmers and traders of Sugarcane so that its potentiality could be in full to the benefit of the country.

1.6 Scope of the Study

This duration of this research is from 1991 to 2023.The year 1991 is the yearwhen Makarfi local government was created when it was carved out of Ikara Local Government. On the other hand 2023 is the year which this project is going tobe terminated because it is the year which first sugar industry in Makarfi was established.The work is also limited to the production of sugarcane and its marketing in the study area as well as its social and economic importance to the people of Makarfi local government area.

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The fore going chapters attempts historical analysis of the origin as well as the socio-economic significance of sugarcane cultivation and marketing in Makarfi local government of Kaduna state, Nigeria.

In chapter one, the background of the research was given Aim and objectives of the study were stated, this in addition to review of existing literatures and the methodology for conducting the research.

In chapter two, attempt was made to study the historical background of Makarfi local government and the chapter also discussed the nature geographical features of the area and the socio-economic activities of the people of the area. The chapter shows that Makarfi local government area going by to its geographical setting is naturally suited for the cultivation of sugarcane and other crops in the area.

Chapter three take a look at sugarcane production in Makarfi local government going back to colonial and post colonial periods. The chapter further discussed method of sugarcane cultivation, soil, rain and temperature requirement.

In chapter four the marketing of sugarcane and its distribution channels were discussed, it further looksat the processing, transportation and pricing of sugarcane which have the ability to encourage it production because of its economic value in the area.

Chapter Five examine the socio-economic impacts of Sugarcane Production and Marketing to the people of the area and lastly chapter six provides summary and conclusion.


From the discussions ahead one can easily see that sugarcane production and its marketing in Makarfi local government area has been going on for several decades and it will continue to be so for many years ahead. More over Makarfi local government area has a lot of agricultural potential in solving the problems of economic development in the area. The important marketing centers and distribution channels in the area were also identified. The studies have also show that the crop has social, economic and political importance to the people. It also shows the significance of sugarcane both as a source of sugar and as a source of income.

There are many challenges faced by the farmers, the main problems faced by the farmers regarding sugarcane production were lack of irrigation water, non-availability of improved varieties of sugarcane, land preparation, high cost of inputs, diseases and insect pest, weeds and marketing problem. It is recommended that the State and Federal government should try to improve sugarcane cultivation in the study area by allocating more funds for irrigational purposes to address the problems of the farmers. Agricultural inputs should be provided to the farmers on subsidized rates and provision of high yielding varieties of sugarcane at the right time and reasonable price in local markets must also be ensured.

Other problems sugarcane farmers face is the conveyance i.e. from farm to factory. The villages in interiors are hard hit due to lack of good roads. Since the sugarcane farmers heavily depend on roads to transport the sugarcane, it is found that the roads in the rural area are generally not good. The roads from the village to the fields are not good and from village to village are still worse. As a result, it is difficult to transport sugarcane to the factory. Therefore, the farmers have reduced growing sugarcane and it is found that they have shifted to cultivate alternative crops.

From the discussion above it shows that Nigeria or northern Nigeria in particular hold a lot of agricultural prospectin terms of economic and social development of the region as seen in the case of Makarfi local government and its environs.


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