The Identification And Quantification Of Phthalate Ester Phthalate Ester In Asa River, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria

Project and Seminar Material for Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering

The Identification And Quantification Of Phthalate Ester Phthalate Ester In Asa River, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background of the study

The Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) Act Section 38 of Cap 131 LFN (1990) also defines pollution to mean man-made or man-aided alteration of chemical, physical, or biological quality of the environment to the extent that it is detrimental to that environment or beyond acceptable limits. Water pollution results when unwanted substances enter in to water, which changes either the physical, biological 0r chemical quality of water which can result to harmful to environment and human health (Mehtabet al., 2017). Since the 1990s, the issues of water pollution has became major concerned in almost all rivers in Africa, Asia and Latin America. The weakening of water quality is expected to rise over the next decades and this will increase threats to human health, the environment and sustainable development. An estimated 80% of all industrial and municipal wastewater is get in to the environment without any prior treatment, leading to the growing deterioration of overall water quality with detrimental impacts on human health and ecosystems in general (UN Water Report, 2018).

Man made activities such as improper waste disposal, agricultural practice, pesticide and fertilizer application, discharge of plastics and polythene bags in to water bodies. Urbanization and weak management systems are the common leading factor for the influencing water quality in the world (Mehtabetal., 2017).

Discharge of domestic waste, industrial effluent, marine dumping, radioactive waste are main causes of water pollution. Chemicals are disposed off and industrial waste can accumulate in lakes and river, proving harmful to humans and animals (Mehtabet al., 2017). Toxic from industrial waste are the major cause of immune suppression, reproductive failure and acute poisoning. Infectious diseases, like cholera, typhoid fever and other diseases gastroenteritis, diarrhea, vomiting, skin and kidney problem can transfer through polluted water. Polluted water can contaminate plant leading to render it to be unfit for human consumption as well as animals which can have effect to their health when feed (Mehtabet al., 2017). Water pollutants are killing sea weeds, mollusks, marine birds, fishes, crustaceans and other sea organisms that serve as food for human(Mehtabet al., 2017).

It is reported that 75 to 80% water pollution is caused by the household sewage, Waste from the industries like, sugar, textile, electroplating, pesticides and paper are polluting the water, Polluted river have intolerable smell and contains less plant and animals(Mehtabet al., 2017). 80% of the world’s population is facing threats to water security (Mehtabet al., 2017). Large amount of domestic sewage is disposed in to river and most of the sewage is untreated. Domestic sewage contains toxicants, solid waste, plastic litters and bacterial contaminants and these toxic materials causes water pollution. Different industrial effluent that is drained in to river without treatment is the major cause of water pollution. The harmful material discharged from the industries is responsible for surface water and ground water contamination. Contaminant depends upon the nature of industries. Toxic metals enter in to water and reduced the quality of water drastically. 25% pollution is caused by the industries and is more harmful then domestic waste (Mehtabet al., 2017).

Water safety and quality are the essential key factor for development and well being .providing access to safe portable water is the most important tool in promoting health and poverty reduction. As the international authority on public health and water quality ,many organization make global effort to prevent water bone diseases this is achieve through promoting health based on regulation to government and pattern to promote effective risk management practice to communities and household. 70% the proportion of global population using a safely managing drinking water services, 2 bilion people worldwide are using contaminated water with feaces (UN water REPORT, 2018). The demand for water has been increasing at a rate of about 1%per year over decades as important to function for population growth and economic. The water quality from the rivers and the well has a considerable altered every time for that reason, these water protection are generally consider to ensure its quality .surface water such as river are mainly used for multiple purpose such as domestic, water supply, agriculture , tourism recreational and human as well as economic .Many parameters influence the water quality as result of human induce factors (Andreea,2018)

Contemporary global water demand has been estimated at about 4.600km3 per year and projected to increase by 20–30% to between 5,500 and 6,000 km3 per year by 2050 UN Water Report, 2018).

Water use increases at the global level for population growth, economic development and the other factors Over the period 2017–2050, the world population is expected to increase from 7.7 billion to between 9.4 and 10.2 billion, with two thirds of the population living in cities. More than half of this anticipated growth is expected to occur in Africa (+1.3 billion), with Asia (+0.75 billion) expected to be the second largest contributor to future population growth which seriously can increase the need of safe drinking water for their survival (UN Water Report, 2018). Domestic water use, which roughly accounts for 10% of global water withdrawals, is expected to increase significantly over the 2010–2050 period in nearly all regions of the globe. In relative terms, the greatest increases in domestic demand should occur in African and Asian sub-regions where it could more than triple, and it could more than double in Central and South America. This anticipated growth can influence water quality if the water is not protected in the nearest future (UN Water Report, 2018).

Water quality is generally used to explain the chemical, physical and biological properties of water usually, in respect to its suitability for a specific purpose. However, scientific measurements are used to prove water quality as; it is the quality of natural water that make it to be suitable for both aquatic, plants and animals. Water quality standard linked to water use and to the state of economic development (USGS, 2007). According to the WHO (2006), the environment is considered polluted when it is altered in composition or condition directly as a result of activities of man so that it becomes less suitable for some or all of the uses for which it would be suitable in its natural state. In Nigeria, the increase of the urban population makes governments to find it difficult to provide adequate sewage and water infrastructures. While water borne diseases has been eliminated in the developed countries, outbreaks of cholera and other similar cases of diseases still occur with high frequency in the developing countries such as Nigeria. Water quality has been heavily influenced worldwide by industrial and agricultural chemicals (Terry, 1996).

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are organic chemicals that have high vapour pressure at ordinary room temperature. Examples of VOCs are semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), such as phthalate, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, hex aldehyde, benzaldehyde, benzene (Dodson et al., 2012). Phthalate are esters of phthalic acid which is widely used as plasticizer and none plasticizing (Kanchanamayoo, 2012). Phthalates are class of widely used industrial compounds that are generally applied as plasticizers in industrial products such as polyvinyl acetate, polyvinyl chloride (especially soft PVC), adhesives and coatings, as plasticizers they add flexibility to the synthetic organic polymers (Haji et al., 2014).Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals (NCEH 2005) showed that these compounds are also found in personal care products, especially in hair spray, fingernail polish , perfumes it is also found in water and sediment, they are everywhere in the environment.

1.2 Statement of the problems

Environmental problems respect no limit but intimidate the health and wealth of nations. The UN Third World Water Forum in Japan March 2003 projected in their statement that the world water crisis would affect many countries in the world by the year 2050, when up to 7 billion people in 60 countries could face serious water shortage, 1.2 billion people do not have access to safe drinking water, more than two million die each year from diseases related with unwholesome water (Wito, 2004). Also, 2.4 billion people do not have access to proper sanitation, 50% of all solid waste is uncollected and 3 billion people have to survive on less than US$ 2/day (Truong et al., 2003). UNESCO also projected in its report that average supply of water available per person will drop by one third within 20 years, climatic adjust will account for 20% of the decline in water supply through erratic rainfall and a rise in sea level. While pollution continues to increase unabated, with 2 million tonnes of waste dumped daily into surface waters (Truong et al., 2003).

Fresh water scarcity is predicted to be converted into the greatest single danger to global strength, human health and international food supply. The stress on water resources is continuously increasing in developing countries and managing water resources in a sustainable approach is a challenging mission; the problem include water quality degradation, toxic waste dumping and sanitation intrusion leading to conflicts and confrontations among various water users (Sukandaet al., 2004).

The country‘s population as at 2006 census was 140.1 million with a population growth rate of 3.3% and a population density of 152 persons per square kilometer of which the urban population stands at 42.1 millions, peri-urban population of 55.83 million and rural population of about 42 millions Hazardous wastes and industrial effluents represent a far more insidious and pernicious substances in rapidly developing municipal communities. Unlike for the highly putrescible mountains of municipal solid wastes, studies revealed that Nigeria has no environmentally secured industrial waste disposal site. (Ho et al,. 2012). Effluents are discharged into water bodies or find their ways into the underground water resulting in heavy pollution loads in the form of color, turbidity, odour, heat, suspended solids, dissolved solids, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), various inorganic elements, volatile organic compounds, toxic chemicals and general public health nuisance. (Ho et al,. 2012).

In Nigeria, most of the industries are situated along the river banks for easy availability of water and also disposal of the wastes. These wastes often contain a wide range of contaminants such as petroleum hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons and heavy metals, various acids, alkalis, dyes and other chemicals which greatly change the pH of water. The waste also includes detergents that create a mass of white foam in the river waters. All these chemicals are quite harmful or even fatally toxic to fish and other aquatic populations (Adewoye, 2013). It is found that one-third of the total water pollution in Nigeria comes in the form of industrial effluent discharge, solid wastes and other hazardous wastes. Most of these defaulting industries are petrochemical industries, sugar mills, soap and detergent, distilleries, leather processing industries, paper mill, agrochemicals and pesticides manufacturing industries and pharmaceutical industries. For such industries the surface water is the main source for waste disposal (Elleta, 2006; Ogundiranet al., 2015).

1.3 Justification of the study

In Nigeria, few studies were conducted on phthalates ester in relations to contamination of underground and surface water. Since Phthalate Acids Esters (PAEs)in soil can be absorbed and infiltrate into groundwater by rainfall, groundwater may therefore be one of the important reservoirs for PAEs, while PAEs in surface water may directly permeate into groundwater through water flow. Urgent attention is therefore necessary to mitigate water pollution problems in Nigeria’s rivers by monitoring as well as enforcement of emission standards by industries and government is not well achieved. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the quantification and identification of phthalate ester in Asariver, Ilorin, Kwara State. Asa River is not only used for suitability for human consumption but also in relation to its agricultural, industrial, recreational, commercial uses and its ability to sustain aquatic life.

1.4 Aim and Objectives

1.4.1 Aim

To assess the identification and quantification of phthalate ester phthalate ester in Asa River, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria

1.4.2 Objectives
  1. To identify the types of phthalate ester in Asa River, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria
  2. To quantify the amount of phthalate ester in Asa River, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria
  3. To proffer ways to reduce the presence of phthalate ester in our river

1.5 Project Organisation

The work is organized as follows: chapter one discuses the introductory part of the work, chapter two presents the literature review of the study, chapter three describes the methods applied, chapter four discusses the results of the work, chapter five summarizes the research outcomes and the recommendations.

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