Criminalizing Rape: The Way Forward To End Sexual Molestation

Project and Seminar Material for Criminology And Security Studies

Criminalizing Rape: The Way Forward To End Sexual Molestation


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine criminalizing rape as the way forward to end sexual molestation using Mbok Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State as a case study. The study was carried out to ascertain the prevalence of rape in Nigeria, determine the causes of rape in Nigeria, find out whether the Nigeria government plays a significant role in combating the incidence of rape in the society and find out if criminalizing rape will help to curtail the prevalence of rape. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of resident in Mbok Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State.In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 147 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables and mean scores. While the hypotheses was tested Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the prevalence of rape in Nigeria is high. Furthermore, the study revealed that the causes of rape in Nigeria includes: Indecent dressing, Alcoholism, Use of hard drugs and Psychological factors. Therefore, it is recommended that there is need for proper parental guidance and up bring among their wards and children so as to teach them the right morals and give them proper up bring based on the morals and values of the society. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
  • 4.5 Discussion of Findings

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The issue of sexual molestation is not an abstract as it continues to unveiled its ugly mask in every society. The brutal nature of this shameless masquerade has eaten deep within Africa, especially in today’s Nigeria.
Sexual assault or molestation is an act in which a person intentionally sexually touches another person without that person’s consent, or coerces or physically forces a person to engage in a sexual act against their will. Sexual assault takes many forms including attacks such as rape or attempted rape, as well as any unwanted sexual contact or threats. Usually a sexual assault occurs when someone touches any part of another person’s body in a sexual way, even through clothes, without that person’s consent. It is a form of sexual violence, which includes child sexual abuse, groping, rape (forced vaginal, anal, or oral penetration or a drug facilitated sexual assault), or the torture of the person in a sexual manner (CLEEN F. 2005).

In recent times the issue of Rape as form of sexual molestation have been more pronounced in Nigeria. Rape is the act of forcefully having sex with someone against their will. Others have defined rape as a sexual penetration by one person against another person without the consent of the victim (wikipedia). However victims of rape have no age limit as babies, and the aged are vulnerable to this menace. Interestingly 90% of victims of rape are female.
Rape is a denial of women self-preservation; it is the intrusion of their privacy, it is an inhuman and violent act. Rape victims are usually ashamed, humiliated, afraid, and there is little or no law to protect them. Even the law enforcement officers that are meant to protect these victims also assault them in different ways, even sexually(Kawu 2013) .

Anytime the issue of rape is mentioned, people tend to give it an emotional reaction as the victim might need a close shoulder to rely on to relieve them of the trauma, that is quite understandable but that is not enough. The increase in rape case in Nigeria need to be criminalized and thus There is need to get to the root of the matter and understand it, by undertaking an in-depth research so as to take well-informed actions. Otherwise we will remain in the dark on how to curb this scourge and the alarming dimensional increase witnessed in recent times. Therefore it is upon this premise that this study is set to examine Criminalizing Rape: The Way Forward To End Sexual Molestation.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Rape continues to be a significant crime problem in Nigeria. The Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) reported 130,260 rapes in2014 and 173,310 rapes in 2019. The National Women’s Study estimated that 683,000 rapes occurred in 2018 and that 13 percent of all women and girls have been raped during their lifetimes (Udewkwe 2013). Sadly, the incidence of all types of rape is highest among young people. Amnesty international gave a gruesome picture of the rape scourge in Nigeria when in one of its publications, a few years ago painted the picture of how hopeless the Nigerian case is, quoting a victim of rape: “There were three men, I have pains even today, they used my daughter too, she is 12 years old. They also raped my sister. Another man raped a woman who was four months pregnant and she lost the child. They were military men. Everyone in the village saw them, they didn’t hide, they didn’t care, I didn’t tell the police because I feared them” (Amnesty international, 2007).

In Nigeria, it is not uncommon for rape to go unreported. Some victims and their families, fearing stigmatization, police extortion and a lack of trust in the judicial process, choose not to report cases to the authorities. There have also been instances where those brave enough to report are targeted with derogatory comments at the police station.In May 2020 There was widespread outrage in Nigeria following the murder of a 22-year-old university student in a church where she was studying in the southern city of Benin. The family of Uwavera Omozuwa, known as Uwa, say she was brutally raped and bludgeoned to death. which have led to street protests, an online petition signed by thousands and a Twitter hashtag #WeAreTired and #justiceforUwa. Many Nigerians point to a legal system they say makes it hard to convict suspected rapists and blames women when they are victims of sexual assault. On 1st May 2021, twitter recieved a flood hashtag requesting a for justiceforIniUmoren a philosophy graduate gruesomely raped and murdered in her job search/interview by One Uduak Akpan( who confessed that raping of young women have been his family business) in Akwaibom State( Premuim Times). From the statements above, it is crystal clear that the rape scourge is on the increase all across the world. Rape is not a delightful sight to behold. It is so devastating for the victims, even when the assaulter are persecuted in rare cases. There is therefore an urgent need for this menace to be tamed and this can be achieved when especially in Nigeria where the scourge is assuming an alarming proportion. Therefore it is against this backdrop that this study is set to examine Criminalizing Rape: The Way Forward To End Sexual Molestation.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The overall aim of this study is to critically assess the criminalizing of rape: the way forward to end sexual molestation.

Hence, the study will be channeled to the following specific objectives;

  1. Ascertain the prevalence of rape in Nigeria.
  2. Determine the causes of rape in Nigeria.
  3. Find out whether the Nigeria government plays a significant role in combating the incidence of rape in the society.
  4. Find out if criminalizing rape will help to curtail the prevalence of rape.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research question will guide the study:

  1. What is the prevalence of rape in Nigeria?
  2. Determine the causes of rape in Nigeria?
  3. Does the Nigeria government plays a significant role in combating the incidence of rape in the society?
  4. Will criminalizing rape help to curtail the prevalence of rape?

1.4 Research Hypotheses

  • Ho: criminalizing rape will not help to curtail the prevalence of rape.
  • Ha: criminalizing rape will help to curtail the prevalence of rape

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will be significant to parents, civil societies, international bodies, law makers and judiciary. To parent it will enlighten them on the need to build a strong, healthy and open relationship with their children. To Civil Societies and NGO’s it will enable them to initiates elaborate campaigns against rape and rapist. To Legislator and Judiciary it will enlighten them on the need of upgrading the existing obsolete laws so as to ensure better protection of rape victims. it will enable the international community including united nations on the need to encourage Nigeria to fully implement regional treaties, declarations and resolutions prohibiting all acts of violence against women. finally the study will contribute to the general body of knowledge, serving as a reference material for other researchers and giving room for further studies in related field.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study is hinged on Criminalizing Rape: The Way Forward To End Sexual Molestation. Specifically the study will seeks ascertain the prevalence of rape in Nigeria, determine the causes of rape in Nigeria, find out whether the Nigeria government plays a significant role in combating the incidence of rape in the society and find out if criminalizing rape will help to curtail the prevalence of rape. The study will be delimited to Akwaibom State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

During the course of the study challenges encountered were exclusively but not delimited to the following numerous. These are

Financial constraint:

Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview)

Time constraint:

Time factor pose another constraint since having to cope in this research which went simultaneously within the time schedule of other academic work making it impossible to undertake this study in large more representative skill.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Criminalizing:

Criminalizing is the process by which behaviors and individuals are transformed into crime and criminal. It also means to makeor officially declaring an action as crime hence offenders are turn into a criminal or treated as criminal.

Rape:

Rape is a type of sexual assault usually involving sexual intercourse or other forms of sexual penetration carried out against a person without that person’s consent

Sexual Molestation:

Sexual molestation, also referred to as abuse, is abusive sexual behavior by one person upon another. It is often perpetrated using force or by taking advantage of another

Victim:

A victim is a person who has suffered physical or emotional harm as a result of crime, rape, accident or other event.


1.10 Organisations of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on criminalizing rape as the way forward to end sexual molestation using Mbok Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine criminalizing rape as the way forward to end sexual molestation using Mbok Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State as a case study. The study is was specifically set ascertain the prevalence of rape in Nigeria, determine the causes of rape in Nigeria, find out whether the Nigeria government plays a significant role in combating the incidence of rape in the society and find out if criminalizing rape will help to curtail the prevalence of rape.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent areresident in Mbok Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State.


5.3 Conclusions

In the light of the analysis carried out, the following conclusions were drawn.

  1. The prevalence of rape in Nigeria is high.
  2. The causes of rape in Nigeria includes: Indecent dressing, Alcoholism, Use of hard drugs and Psychological factors.
  3. The Nigeria government plays a significant role in combating the incidence of rape in the society.
  4. Criminalizing rape will help to curtail the prevalence of rape.

5.4 Recommendation

The following recommendations were proffered with respect to the findings of the study;

  1. There is need for proper parental guidance and up bring among their wards and children so as to teach them the right morals and give them proper up bring based on the morals and values of the society.
  2. Government through the legislative arms of government should create laws and orders that will provide crude punishment for those who engaged in rape activities so as to serve as deterrence to others.
  3. There is need for religious leaders, community leaders and teachers at all level of education to sensitize and orients people on the dangers and effect of rape.
  4. There is need to strengthen the law enforcement agency (National Drug and Law Enforcement Agency) in the fight against drug abuse in the society as it was reveal in the findings that drug abuse is one among the major causes of rape among the perpetrators.

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