Assessment Of The Impact Of Communicative Teaching Method On The Performance Of Students In English Language
The study on the impact of communicative teaching method on the performance of students in English language in junior secondary school in Kaduna State, Nigeria was specifically aimed at determining the effect of interactive teaching technique which is one of the communicative teaching methods on the performance in English Language of the JSS Students. The research work sought to find out if there was a significant difference or no significant difference in the performance of students in English Language when taught using interactive teaching techniques in JSS. This research work had four objectives. To determine the effects of interactive teaching techniques on students‟ performance in English Language in Junior Secondary Schools. To determine the effects of interactive teaching techniques on the performance of male/female students taught using interactive teaching techniques in English Language in Junior Secondary School. To determine the effects of school type on the performance of students taught using interactive teaching technique in English Language in Junior Secondary Schools. To determine the effects of school location on the performance of students taught using interactive teaching technique in English Language in Junior Secondary Schools. This research work had four corresponding questions and hypotheses. The duration of the research work was eleven weeks. The scope of this study is communicative method, but specifically interactive teaching techniques. John Dewey‟s theory of learning by doing is the theoretical framework for the study. An English Language Performance Test was designed and administered to both the control and experimental groups in the four schools. They were assessed before and after the study was carried out. The pilot study for this research was conducted at G.G.S.S. Kabala Costain and the actual study was conducted G.G.S.S Doka, G.D.S.S Kakuri, G.D.S.S. Kujama and G.T.C Kajuru all in Kaduna state. A total of 205 students participated in the study. Experimental group was made of 100 students while control group was 105. The analysis of the data collected was done using appropriate tools in Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) 20th Edition. The study find out that students taught English Language in JSS in Kaduna state using Interactive Teaching Techniques performed better than those taught without the techniques.
Table of Content
- Title Page
- Table of Content
- List of Tables
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
- 1.10 Organisations of the Study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Introduction
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.2.1 Types and Theories of Learning
- 2.2.2 The Behaviourist Model
- 2.2.3 The Constructive Model
- 2.2.4 The Social Constructive Model
- 2.3 Concept of Learning
- 2.4 Concept of Teaching Methods
- 2.4.1 Methods, Approaches, Procedures, Techniques and Strategies of Teaching English
- 2.4.2 Language Learning Method
- 2.5 Teaching of English Language in Junior Secondary Schools
- 2.6 English Language Teaching Techniques
- 2.7 Structural Approach in Teaching and Learning Performance in English Language
- 2.7.1 Functional and Notational Method
- 2.7.2 Communicative Language Teaching Approach
- 2.7.3 Concepts of Communicative Approach to Language Teaching
- 2.8 Learning Performance and Retention in English
- 2.9 What are Interactive Techniques?
- 2.9.1 Examples of Interactive Teaching Techniques
- 2.9.2 Effectiveness of Interactive Techniques
- 2.10 Empirical Studies
- 2.11 Summary
- 3.1 Introduction
- 3.2 Research Design
- 3.3 Population
- 3.4 Sample and Sampling Technique
- 3.5 Instrumentation
- 3.5.1 Validity of the Instruments
- 3.5.2 The Pilot Study
- 3.5.3 Reliability of Instrument
- 3.6 Procedure for the Instrument
- 3.7 Procedure for Data Analysis
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Data
- 4.3 Answering Research Questions
- 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
- 4.5 Discussion of Findings
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
- 5.4 Suggestions for Further Study
1.1 Background of the Study
Successful teachers have many tools at their disposal in order to reach different students that they encounter. The use of interactive teaching can provide opportunities to students that are normally available in traditional situations. Interactive teaching also focuses on the process of learning and not just presenting information.
The basic idea of interactive teaching is that students must be active. Interactive teaching takes into account that learners have experience and knowledge that they bring to each situation. Instead of just adding more knowledge to that, teachers use the students‟ knowledge to assist in learning more. Instead of just giving the information to the students, teachers encourage them to come up with ideas of how it connects to their own world, thus constructing their own meaning of the material.
The first thing to realize about interactive teaching is that it is not something new or mysterious. If a teacher asks questions in class, assigns and checks homework, or holds class or group discussions, then the teacher already teaches interactively. Basically then, interactive teaching is just giving students something to do, getting back what they have done, and then assimilating it, so that the teacher can decide what would be best to do next.
But almost all teachers do these things, so is there more to it? To answer this question, one has to step away from teaching and think about learning. According to Abrahamson (1998), over the last twenty years, the field of cognitive science has taught a lot about how people learn. A central principle that has been generally accepted is that everything students‟ learn, is “constructed” by the students. That is, any outside agent is essentially powerless to have direct effect on what students learn. If the brain does not do it itself – that is, take in information, look for connection, interpret and make sense of it, – no outside force will have any effect. This does not mean that the effort has to be expressly voluntary and conscious on the learner‟s part. Our brains take in information and operate continuously on many kinds of levels, only some of which are consciously directed. But, conscious or not, the important thing to understand is that it is our brains that are doing the learning, and that this process is only indirectly related to the teacher and the teaching. For example, even the most lucid and brilliant exposition of a subject by a teacher in a lecture, may result in limited learning if the students‟ brain do not do the necessary work to process it. There are several possible causes why students‟ learning may fall short of expectations in such a situation. They may;
- Not understand a crucial concept pathway into the lecture and so what follows is unintelligible.
- Be missing prior information or not have a good understanding of what went before so the conceptual structures on which the lecture is based are absent.
- Lack the interest, motivation or desire to expend the mental effort to follow the presentation, understand the argument, make sense of the positions, and validate the inferences. (Abrahamson, 1998).
However, whatever the cause, without interacting with the student (in the simplest case by asking questions), a teacher has no way to know if his/her effort to explain the topic were successful. According to Abrahamson (1998), there are three distinct reasons for interactive teaching. It is an attempt to see what actually exists in the brains of the students. This is the “summative” aspect. It is the easiest aspect to understand. The second reason is “formative” where the teacher aims through the assigned task to direct students‟ mental processing along an appropriate path in “concept space”. The intent is that, as students think through the issues necessary in traversing the path, the resulting mental construction that is developed in the students‟ head will possess those properties that the teacher is trying to teach. The third may be termed “motivational”. Learning is hard work, and an injection of motivation at the right moment can make all the difference. One motivating factor provided by the interactive teacher is the requirement of a response to a live classroom task. This serves to jolt the student into action, to get his brain off the couch, so to speak. Additional more subtle and pleasant events follow immediately capitalizing on the momentum created by this initial burst. One of these is a result of our human social tendencies. When teachers ask students to work together in small groups to solve a problem, a discussion ensues that not only serves in itself to build more robust knowledge structures, but also to motivate. The anticipation of immediate feedback in the form of reaction from their peers, or from the teacher is a very strong motivator. If it is not embarrassing or threatening, students want to know desperately whether their understanding is progressing or just drifting aimlessly in concept space. Knowing that they are not allowed to drift too far off track provides tremendous energy to continue.
According to Ojo (1997), the interactive teaching technique is an integration of teaching technique that demand high student participation at all levels of learning process. The teacher guides and the students perform different learning tasks in groups based on the three levels of interaction patterns in the classroom i.e. students-teacher interaction, student-students interaction or students-community resources interaction.
The interactive teaching techniques and strategies derive their conceptual framework principles from the works of Lewis, (1935) in Ojo (1997). According to Lewis movement towards accomplishment of desired goals is a result of tension within an individual. Deutch as cited in Kadiri (2004) asserted that the interrelationship of the different individuals could be resolved into three goals structures viz: cooperation or interaction or collaboration, individualistic and competitive goals structures. Thus Deutch was the first to give a clear picture or conceptual framework of the interaction pattern in the classroom.
In Nigeria, Okebukola, (1991) has given prominence to this classroom goal structure in the sense that these goals structures were shown to influence students‟ performance in science. In social studies, Okam (1998), Joof (1985); Dubey and Barth (1980) as cited in kadiri(2004) and ASESP (1994) have also asserted the benefits likely from the utilization of the interactive teaching techniques and strategies.
By using interactive teaching, it is easy to see how much the students know. It also allows the teacher to understand how the students‟ individual thought processes are working with the information they are learning. This allows for more useful planning for future lessons on similar topics. The students gain by learning facts within a bigger picture, which makes it easier to remember. Interactive learning is motivating, due to the use of peer groups and positive interaction between the students and teachers. Some situations lend themselves better to interactive teaching than others. For example an English class provides ample situations for discussion about literature among small groups.
In the interactive setting, the goals of the individual in a group are also closely linked. They work together as a team and reach decision by consensus and compromise. The achievement of an individual in a group is linked with the achievement of others in a group. In these teachings and strategies the following level of interaction will be used and these are: Student- Teacher Interaction, Student-Student Interaction, Small group Interaction and Entire group Interaction. Therefore, the crucial question is: How can the organizations of an English language classroom in these fashion influence the performance of students in junior secondary schools in Kaduna state?
The interactive teaching techniques have the value of blending strategies that can trigger interest, improve performance and desire for continued learning as opined by Okam (1998) and Ojo (1997). However, these are all opinions and are subject to experimentation and confirmation particularly in English language.
According to Spencer (1971), of all the heritage left behind by the British at the end of the colonial administration, English language is probably the most important legacy. This, he pointed out, is now the language of government, business and commerce, education, the mass media, literature and internal, as well as external communication. With particular reference to the role of English language in the field of education, he states that: “The entrenchment of English perhaps is the most noticeable in the field of Education. English is introduced as a subject in the first year of primary school; and from the third year of primary school up to and including the university level, it is a medium of instruction. This in effect means that the Nigerian child‟s access to the cultural and scientific knowledge of the world is largest through English”. (Spencer, 1971)
However, in spite of this emphasis, English language is still in a state of quandary in our institutions of learning. This is evidenced by the number of failure that has been recorded at various levels of education, particularly at the post-primary level. Part of the comments of the Chief Examiner‟s report for ordinary level English Language (May/June, 2007) says:
…contrary to expectation, the performance of the candidates was awfully poor. Some of the candidates scored zero in the paper, having failed to write an answer that could earn a single mark in any section of the paper. It appears that a good number of schools registered illiterates and unqualified candidates for this test.
Grieve (1968) cited in Williams (1994) notes that universities are dissatisfied with the low standard of many entrants who have scored reasonable marks in the examination but are handicapped in their university studies because of their inability to read with understanding or write clearly. Adekunle (1969) says that the secondary level of education has for some time been receiving much attention in West Africa because it is the immediate reservoir of potential middle and high level manpower. But it is at this level that a lot of wastage in manpower potential occurs because of so many factors one of the most important being the language problem. Admission to this level of education and successful completion of the courses depend very much on the students‟ proficiency in English Language, the medium of instruction.
Many people attribute the problem of English learning and teaching on the Nigerian cultural influences. As an exogenous language used in a cultural context different from its home base, the use of English as a medium of education poses problems. It is seen to cause misunderstanding of concepts and ideas due to differences in cultural world views. To this group, cultural influence on English impoverishes the language.
Williams (1994), states that English Language teaching in Nigeria has developed within the framework of theory and practice which have been applied in countries where English is taught as a second language. In any sociolinguistic context, the teacher of English needs to be acquainted with the historical and theoretical bases of language teaching.
“(we should) regard all the proven techniques associated with all methods as part of a vast store of methodological resources upon which we can draw in accordance with our special purposes at a given time”. (Prator 1976 in Williams 1994).
At the same time, we cannot afford to ignore those factors within the Nigerian context which necessarily influence the teaching of English as a second language. The trained teacher not only understands and can implement the method as shown in the textbook, he is likely to be selective in the use of textbooks and methods of teaching, choosing only those materials which are based on sound linguistic and pedagogical principles.
Today, English as a second language (ESL) according to Olaofe (2013) has been witnessing unprecedented changes in curriculum, teaching methodology and application of learning theories. This is coupled with rapid increase in school enrolments across educational level in the midst of limited teaching learning resources. All these challenges have created a huge demand on teachers of English that are expected to teach learners of varied cultural, socio-economic, and psychological backgrounds in adverse learning situations.
Williams (1994) says, the methods used should be in keeping with objectives for English Language teaching in Nigeria. These objectives are determined by the role and function of the language in and outside the classroom. An oft-quoted memorandum from Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria states that the English Language student in Nigeria should be proficient in all four language skills: ability to speak fluent and acceptable English, ability to understand simple conversational English spoken at normal speed, ability to read and comprehend contemporary written English of a level appropriate to the candidate‟s age and required level of attainment and ability to write clear, acceptable English on such topics as are prescribed. Pg. 17.
This study therefore is an attempt to determine pedagogical strategies which are capable of reversing the general decline in teaching and learning the English Language. It is the poor performance amongst students that has motivated this investigation in the subject area. Specifically, this study investigated the effect of Communicative Teaching Method, specifically Interactive Teaching Techniques on the growth of higher cognitive attainments of English of Junior Secondary Schools in Kaduna State.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Several international conferences e.g. International English language teacher educator conference by the British council have been held within the past thirty years on English Language teaching. Various commissions‟ e.g. International conference on English language teaching (ICELT) of inquiry have investigated this problem at national levels; there was an investigation into English Language teaching in Nigeria in 1966 says Adekunle (1969).
Language Teachers from English – speaking countries have been brought as technical aid personnel to teach English in West African secondary schools or to take part in short in- service vacation courses for teachers. Workshops are organized regularly by Agencies like the National Teachers Institute (NTI) and also the Millennium Development Goals to produce better teachers of English. The West African Examination Council (WAEC) is continually experimenting with new syllabuses and methods of examining English. But it appears something important still has to be done. English Language students in junior secondary schools find it difficult to perform tasks that require high cognitive thinking. Specifically, they find it difficult to perform well in tasks that require them to apply, analyze, synthesize and evaluate within the context of Blooms (1956) taxonomy of educational objectives. This learning difficulty was also evident in problem solving skills as demonstrated by their consistent poor performance in English Language tests.
Therefore, the focus of this study is to determine the effects of interactive teaching techniques on the performance of students in English Language in Junior Secondary School students. Secondly to determine the effects of these techniques on gender, school type and school location.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The following are objectives of the study to:
- Determine the effects of interactive teaching techniques on students‟ performance in English Language in Junior Secondary Schools.
- Determine the effects of interactive teaching techniques on the performance of male/female students taught using interactive teaching techniques in English Language in Junior Secondary School.
- Determine the effects of school type on the performance of students taught using interactive teaching technique in English Language in Junior Secondary Schools.
- Determine the effects of school location on the performance of students taught using interactive teaching technique in English Language in Junior Secondary Schools.
1.4 Research Questions
The study has the following research questions:
- What is the impact of interactive teaching techniques on student’s performance in English Language in Junior Secondary Schools?
- What is the impact of interactive teaching techniques on the performance of male and female students in English Language of Junior Secondary Schools?
- What is the impact of school type on the performance of students taught using interactive teaching techniques in English Language in Junior Secondary Schools?
- What is the impact of school location on the performance of students taught English Language using interactive teaching techniques in Junior Secondary Schools?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following Null hypotheses were postulated for this study:
- Hο1: There is no significant difference in the performance of students in English Language when taught using interactive teaching techniques in Junior Secondary Schools of Kaduna State.
- Hο2: There is no significant difference between the performance of female and male students of English Language when exposed to interactive teaching techniques.
- Hο3: There is no significant difference in the performance of students of Boarding and Day schools of Junior Secondary Schools when they are exposed to interactive teaching techniques.
- Ho4: There is no significant difference in the performance of students in urban and rural areas taught English Language using interactive teaching techniques in Junior Secondary Schools of Kaduna State.
1.6 Significance of the Study
On the whole, this study could contribute ideas for improving the teaching of English Language in schools. Specifically, the following could benefit from the findings of this study:
English Language teachers could find and utilize the interactive teaching techniques and strategies so as to enhance the teaching and learning of English Language.
Colleges and universities preparing teachers can benefit from the findings of this study. These institutions can become aware of factors that inhibit learning of English Language, and put structures in place to encourage teachers in training to teaching using these techniques.
Bodies such as the English Language Teachers Association (ELTA), States Educational Resource Centers (SERC), Nigeria Educational and Research Development Council(NERDC) can benefit by considering the findings of this study in developing instructional methods and therefore become aware of the variables to manipulate in order to enhance teaching and learning.
The study will be of great significance to English Language curriculum planners, so that they will plan the curriculum bearing these interactive techniques in mind, so that the curriculum will be more of activity based. Also, curriculum experts, scholars and researchers, so that further research can be carried out on these techniques and how they can be used to enhance students performance in classroom. Teachers will benefit because they will become aware of these techniques and use them in the classroom for better students performances. Teaching English as second language teachers will also benefit from this study.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This research is delimited to the impact of communicative teaching method on the performance of students in English Language in Junior Secondary Schools in Kaduna State. Specifically, students of JSS II in Government Girls Secondary School, Doka, Government Secondary School, Kakuri, GDSS Kujama and GTC Kajuru were used for the study. They will be taught using lesson plans that are student centered which will encourage a lot of interaction and communication between them in the class. The study is going to last for Eleven weeks of instruction.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. The significant constraint was the scanty literature on the subject owing that it is a new discourse thus the researcher incurred more financial expenses and much time was required in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. Additionally, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. Despite the constraint encountered during the research, all factors were downplayed in other to give the best and make the research successful.
1.9 Definition of Terms
The change that one thing causes in a second thing
Communication with each other in the classroom
A Particular method of doing an activity usually a method that involves practical skills
A Particular way of doing something
The group that were not taught using interactive teaching techniques
The group that were taught using interactive teaching techniques
1.10 Organization of the Study
The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
This study sought to explore the impact of communicative teaching method on the performance of students in English Language in junior secondary schools. The study also examined the influence of gender, school type and school location on students’ performance in English language. To give a sense of direction to the study, four research questions were asked and four hypotheses were formulated and tested at p < 0.05. The researcher reviewed a lot of related literature. Moreover, the research used quasi-experimental, non-randomized control group design. In carrying out the study, the researcher used all the one hundred and sixty eight thousand, three hundred and twenty nine (168,329) junior secondary class two (JSII) students in secondary schools in Kaduna State as the population for the study. Two hundred and forty (240) students, from four co-exist schools were sampled and used as the sample for the study. The intact classes were assigned by balloting to the groups – experimental and control and were separately taught by their regular English language teachers who were trained for the purpose. All the groups were pre-tested before the experiment; post test was carried out after the experiment using ELPT. The instrument used for data collection was;English Language Performance Test (ELPT). The instrument was developed by the researcher and validated by teachers and the researcher‟s supervisors. The instrument was also pilot tested. Data collected were used to establish the reliability of tests. Internal consistency and reliability estimate of 0.898 was computed for the ELPT using Cronbach Alpha techniques. The data generated from the study were used in computing means and standard deviation; Independent sample t-test was used to test the hypotheses at a significance level of 0.05. The results of the analysis showed that: The use of interactive teaching technique as a teaching method was a significant factor in students‟ performance.
Gender was not a significant factor in the students‟ performance. The female students performed better than their male counterparts using interactive teaching technique. In the light of the discussion of the study findings, it was recommended that both teachers under training and those in the teaching field should be made to understand how to use the interactive teaching technique. It was also suggested that seminars, workshops and conferences should be organized by Ministry of education and professional bodies to acquaint and re-orient teachers with skills of interactive teaching technique. Based on the findings of this study, it was concluded that interactive teaching technique should be employed in teaching as a means of improving students‟ academic performance in English language.
Based on the findings of the study, the following conclusions can be deduced that students taught with interactive teaching technique performed significantly better than students taught with Conventional Method. The trend of higher performance by the experimental group could be as a result of guiding rules in the learning atmosphere provided by the teaching approach, which helped the students to master the grammatical concepts without much difficulty than the control groups. It could also be as result of the elimination of teacher strained relationship or the exciting nature of the approach in using step by step procedure in teaching and learning atmosphere.
The step by step instruction procedure provided by the approach is a unique technique that could have made for better performance by the experimental group than the control groups. The effective use of interactive teaching technique could also be explained based on the presentation of the concepts with concrete teaching aids. The use of instructional aids is considered effective in enhancing performance in teaching. This situation usually enhances learning since students tend to learn more and better when more of the senses are involved.
However, evidence from study revealed that school type has no significant effect on the student‟s performance. And that school location has a significant effect on the performance of students when taught English language with the use of interactive teaching technique.
In the light of the discussion of the findings of the study, it was recommended that;
- Both teachers under training and those in the teaching field should be made to understand how to use the interactive teaching technique.
- The fact that higher mean scores were recorded in students‟ performance through the use of interactive teaching technique, calls for teachers to acquaint themselves with the characteristics of this teaching method with a view to enhancing students performance and outcomes in learning. This could be done through seminars, conferences and workshops to be organized by government and professional bodies.
- Both students attending day and boarding schools should be encouraged to make themselves familiar with the characteristics of this teaching method with a view to further boost their performance.
In order to bridge the performance gap between the students in urban and rural schools, it is recommended that students should be taken on excursion and be allowed to participate actively in the class by interacting with the teacher and their colleagues, work and learn in groups.
5.4 Suggestions for Further Research
Further research could be undertaken in the following areas:
- Assess the influence of interactive teaching technique on students‟ performance in a particular aspect of English language in Senior Secondary Schools.
- Examine the effect of interactive teaching technique on students‟ performance in English language in both public and private schools.
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