Investigation Of The Psychological Effect Of Rape On Adolescent

Project and Seminar Material for Psychology

Investigation Of The Psychological Effect Of Rape On Adolescent


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the psychological effect of rape on adolescents using Calabar Local Government of Cross River State as a case study. The study was specifically set to ascertain the prevalence of rape of adolescents in Calabar Local Government of Cross River State, identify the causes of rape of adolescents in Calabar Local Government of Cross River State, and find out the psychological effect of rape on adolescents in Calabar Local Government of Cross River State. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of adolescents resident in Calabar Local Government of Cross River State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 229 respondents and 210 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables and mean scores. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the prevalence of rape of adolescents in Calabar Local Government of Cross River State is high. Furthermore the result of the findings reveals that thhe psychological effect of rape on adolescents in Calabar Local Government of Cross River State includes: anguish, anxiety, fear, emotional trauma, depression, and stigmatization. Therefore, it is recommended that for the fight against rape to be won, every perpetrator of rape should be exposed and made to take full responsibility for his or her actions. Under no circumstance should such a one be shielded or protected by parents, teachers, religious institutions, non-governmental organizations, governments or the media. All Nigerians must rise up in condemnation of this social epidemic. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Rape, unlawful sexual activity, most often involving sexual intercourse, against the will of the victim through force or the threat of force or with an individual who is incapable of giving legal consent because of minor status, mental illness, mental deficiency, intoxication, unconsciousness, or deception. In many jurisdictions, the crime of rape has been subsumed under that of sexual assault. Rape was long considered to be caused by unbridled sexual desire, but it is now understood as a pathological assertion of power over a victim. Rape is often explained or excused as a manifestation of racial, ethnic, and class hatred or as stemming from a patriarchal system in which women are viewed as the property of men. Whatever its origins, rape is a serious crime and is treated as a felony in most countries with common-law systems. In many rape trials, the guilt or innocence of the accused hinges on whether or not the victim consented to sexual intercourse. The determination of consent often can lead to distressing cross-examinations of rape victims in court. As a result, many rape victims choose not to report the crime to police or refuse to press charges against their assailants. For example, according to the Bureau of Justice Statistics, an office within the U.S. Department of Justice, fewer than one-quarter of rapes or sexual assaults in the country were reported to police in 2016. Even when brought to trial, those charged with rape have a higher-than-average rate of acquittal, mainly because it is difficult to prove a crime for which there are usually no third-party witnesses and because the testimony of women often may be given less credence than that of men. Rape is thus both underreported and underprosecuted. To protect women from humiliating cross-examination, many jurisdictions have adopted rape shield laws, which limit the ability of the defendant’s counsel to introduce the accuser’s sexual history as evidence. The consequences of rape to the woman or man can be classified either as physically, mentally or emotionally traumatic. Among the physical effects include unwanted pregnancies, diseases or health problems, and certain disruptions on the woman’s natural bodily functions. On the other hand, psychological effects range from self-PITY to the more striking suicidal tendencies.

  • Unwanted pregnancy. Of course, the most immediate physical effect of rape is the risk for the victim of getting pregnant. Dependent on the age of the victim, she may conceive a child even if she is just reached puberty. In most instances, rape victims who do become pregnant opt to abort the child that is considered the result of the crime committed against them. In some cases the situation is further complicated due to abortions not being a legal option for the victim.
  • Exposure or transmission of certain diseases. Without their knowledge, the rape victims are also at risk of acquiring sexually transmitted diseases such as HIV/AIDS that could affect their health in the short and long term even leading to death.
    Damage or disruption of body organs or functions. Since rape is a form of forced intercourse, the victim’s body usually suffers physical injury particularly to the vagina, uterus, and other parts of the reproductive system. The risks are greater if the rape victim is a child or a very young teen. In addition the rape victims are often beaten up and tortured during and after the rape, which might even lead to losing their life in some cases.
  • Trauma and paranoia. The foremost psychological effect of rape will be emotional trauma and paranoia. At times, the victim will exhibit symptoms of mental and emotional trauma through solitude and exclusion. They also develop fear in mingling and socializing with strangers and other people especially men. These effects can last for the duration of the victim’s lifetime.
  • Self-pity or self-blame. Apart from making her aloof and isolated, rape can also lead the victim to pity or blame herself for the crime. This effect is partly caused by the social stigma or shame that societies or communities wrongly attribute to the victim. She is often deprived of the care she should receive from families and society at large, who in turn can accuse her of callous and provoking behavior. This worsens her mental state and she is left emotionally devastated.
  • Suicidal tendencies. The most striking effect that rape can produce in a victim is the thoughts or tendencies of committing suicide. Because of trauma, self-pity, and seclusion, rape victims often feel that there is no longer hope and they could no longer recover and that they are not worthy of living.

1.2 Statement of Problem

The agency in charge for the violation of human right in Nigeria have been guided by series of laws and policies,so as to get justice for rape victims and also see to their psychological well being. these have caused the researcher to critically investigate the psychological effect of rape on adolescent in Nigeria. And to see how quick justice can be metted out to the victims of rape.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The primary objective of this study is to investigate the psychological effect of rape on adolescents, hence the study seeks to:

  1. Ascertain the prevalence of rape of adolescents in Calabar Local Government of Cross River State.
  2. Identify the causes of rape of adolescents in Calabar Local Government of Cross River State.
  3. Find out the psychological effect of rape on adolescents in Calabar Local Government of Cross River State.

1.4 Research questions

  1. What is the prevalence of rape of adolescents in Calabar Local Government of Cross River State?
  2. What are the causes of rape of adolescents in Calabar Local Government of Cross River State?
  3. What are the psychological effect of rape on adolescents in Calabar Local Government of Cross River State?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: Rape has no psychological effect on adolescent.
  • Ha: Rape has a psychological effect on adolescent.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The study is considered significance for the following reasons.

  1. It will shed more light on the psychological effect of rape on adolescent.
  2. The study will be of help to government agencies, non-governmental organizations , human right violation groups and academia
  3. It will also serve as a guide to future researchers who may want to further elaborate on this similar study.

1.7 Scope of the Study

This study focuses on investigation of the psychological effect of rape on adolescent. and also, the study will further examine how rape has affected adolescent psychologically. The study is delimited to adolescent in Calabar Local Government of Cross River State.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

During the course of this study challenges encountered were that of .

  • Financial constraint, was faced by the research as the researcher could not go to human right violation agency as much as it wanted to, also,in getting relevant materials and in printing and collation of questionnaires.
  • Time factor: time factor pose another constraint since having to shuttle between writing of the research and also engaging in other academic work making it impossible to carry out more research to the full potential of the researcher

1.8 Operational Definition of Terms

Psychology:

This is the scientific study of the human mind and its functions ,especially those affecting behaviour of a person.

Rape:

Rape is a type of sexual assualt usually involving sexual intercourse, against the will of the victim.


1.10 Organization of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, abnd selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the psychological effect of rape on adolescents using Calabar Local Government of Cross River State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the psychological effect of rape on adolescents using Calabar Local Government of Cross River State as a case study. The study was specifically carried out to ascertain the prevalence of rape of adolescents in Calabar Local Government of Cross River State, identify the causes of rape of adolescents in Calabar Local Government of Cross River State, and find out the psychological effect of rape on adolescents in Calabar Local Government of Cross River State.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 210 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are adolescents resident in Calabar Local Government of Cross River State.


5.3 Conclusion

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. The prevalence of rape of adolescents in Calabar Local Government of Cross River State is high.
  2. The causes of rape of adolescents in Calabar Local Government of Cross River State includes: indecent dressing, alcoholism, use of hard drugs, and psychological factors.
  3. The psychological effect of rape on adolescents in Calabar Local Government of Cross River State includes: anguish, anxiety, fear, emotional trauma, depression, and stigmatization.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. For the fight against rape to be won, every perpetrator of rape should be exposed and made to take full responsibility for his or her actions. Under no circumstance should such a one be shielded or protected by parents, teachers, religious institutions, non-governmental organizations, governments or the media. All Nigerians must rise up in condemnation of this social epidemic.
  2. All rape victims should be shown much love and care to reengineer their self-esteem. The legislature, state ministries, women groups and the Federal Government should take up these cases and offer all necessary assistance to the victims.
  3. The international community, including the United Nations and African Union should encourage and support Nigeria in implementing fully all international and regional treaties, declarations, resolutions and recommendations aimed at condemning, prohibiting and preventing all acts of violence against women. All cases of violence must be investigated and the perpetrators brought to justice in accordance with international standards of fair trial and without recourse to death penalty, and reparations provided the victims. They should also support and encourage initiatives by the Nigerian authorities, women’s groups and Human rights organizations in their fight against the rape scourge and other forms of violence against women in Nigeria.

Project Material Download

5,000 5000

The Complete Material Will Be Sent to You in Just 2 Steps

Quick & Simple…


Step One Purchase

Make Payment (Through Transfer) of ₦5,000 to Any of the Account Below

Access Bank PlcAcc No: 0811003731
Samphina Academy
Current Account
Zenith BankAcc No: 1225513212
Samphina Academy
Current Account
PalmPay Main LogoAcc No: 8143831497
Samphina Academy
Digital Account

Or CLICK HERE To Pay With Debit Card


FOR STUDENTS OUTSIDE NIGERIA
CLICK HERE To Purchase Material ($15)
FOR GHANIAN STUDENTS
Make Payment of 120 GHS to 0553978005 | Douglas Cloud Osabutey | MTN MoMo

Step Two Purchase

Send the Following Details on WhatsApp ( 08143831497) After Payment

  1. Payment Details

  2. TOPIC: Investigation Of The Psychological Effect Of Rape On Adolescent

The Complete Material Will Be Sent To You On WhatsApp After Receiving Your Details
T & C Apply


  Contact Our Help Desk


Need a Different Topic? Perform a Quick Search



List of Related Works

Click on Any Topic to Preview the Content

samphina.academy

Samphina Academy

Samphina Academy is an Online Educational Resource Center that is aimed at providing students with quality information and materials to aid them in succeeding in their academic pursuit.