The Relationship Between Unemployment And Rape In Nigeria

Project and Seminar Material for Criminology And Security Studies

The Relationship Between Unemployment And Rape In Nigeria


Abstract


This study was carried out on the relationship between unemployment and rape in Nigeria. To achieve this 3 research questions were formulated. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of selected residents of the Uyo Capital City. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 267 residents while 260 were returned and validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using standard deviation. The result of the findings reveals that the implications of the increased unemployment rate in Nigeria are; increase in the rate of violent crimes, decline in the GDP, rise in poverty and high mortality rate. In regard to the findings, the study recommends that government should urgently remove embargo on employment. In a country that is producing about 500,000 graduates yearly, it is pertinent for government to make concrete effort to make job available through industrialization, youth empowerment and self-employed acquisition skills. Existing empowerment programmes should be monitored to ensure proper implementation.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Every society across the globe has its peculiar problems and challenges. Nigeria is not an exception. As a developing country, she faces her own share of social, political, economic and cultural problems which has in no small measure affected the well-being of the populace. Such problems bedeviling the country include youth‟s unemployment and the rising wave of crime, which have serious implications for national development.

The population of youth in Nigeria is about 46.4 million especially between the age group of 15- 39 years (National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) Abuja. 2017). As the overall population of the youth is growing, government should provide jobs and other incentives to teeming unemployed graduates and youths. Unfortunately, unemployment situation in Nigeria, especially the youth has been on the increase since mid 1980s when the economy started witnessing a down-turn. Although, unemployment is a global phenomenon but the rate varies across different countries depending on the size and capacity of the economy to provide jobs for its citizens.

Unemployment rate in Nigeria has continued to be on the increase despite the abundant human and natural resources available in the country. Chronic youth‟s unemployment is evident in Nigeria. Every year, thousands of graduates are produced but there are no jobs for majority of them. Nigerian streets are littered with youth hawkers who ordinarily would have found gainful employment in some enterprise (Okafor, 2011). The large number of youths who are unemployed is capable of undermining democratic practice as they constitute a serious threat if engaged by the political class for clandestine and criminal activities (Okafor, 2011).

According to the National Bureau of Statistics (2009), the national unemployment rates for Nigeria between 2000 and 2011 showed that the number of unemployed persons constituted 31.1% in 2000 and reduced to 11- 9% in 2005. Again, it rose to 23.9% in 2011 and 29.5% in 2012. It has been projected by NBS that unemployment rate will rise above 35% in 2013 and 2014 respectively. The same statistics showed that on the average, youth unemployment rate in Nigeria was 46.5% in 2012 (BLG, 2012).The high rate of violent crime in Nigeria today has been blamed in many quarters on unemployment, especially of the youth. Research findings suggest also that the unemployed youth are disproportionally more likely to be perpetrators as well as victims of crime and violence (Okafor, 2011). The growing gap between the rich and the poor affects the society through increased violence such as rape.

The heightened rate of crime in Nigeria in recent times is worrisome and disturbing. This is evident in daily news report of various crime such as robbery, pilfering, burglary, car theft, rape, kidnapping, internet scam and other social media crimes. South Western Nigeria, in the yesteryear, was known for peaceful and tranquil atmosphere with adequate protection of lives and properties but in recent times, the spate of insecurity has taken another dimension. For instance, Aramoko-Erio-Efon, Akure-Ikere and Ado-Ijan routes have become endangered routes for travelers as many have fallen victims of kidnap or robbery along these routes . Also, a Professor of a private university was kidnapped in Ondo State and his dead body was later found (Oladele, Akeke Oladunjoye 2011). Unfortunately, youths who are more than half of Nigeria’s population as at 2016 census (Mbachu & Alake, 2016) and the energetic class, who should diversify their strengths to the development of the country are often found culpable in the challenge of crimes confronting the country.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The high unemployment rate among youths in Nigeria has been attributed to many factors including rapid rural unban migration, rapid population growth, inappropriate school curricula, corruption, decline of the manufacturing sector, perception of policy makers and the youths themselves on employment and poor governance (Adebayo, 2013; Ekeji, 2019). There is a consensus among scholars that joblessness is connected to criminality such as rape. Ehrlich cited in Jelilov and Ndanitsa (2015) noted that joblessness is connected with offence because the time spent for genuine work decreases the chance of illegal work. Decrease in unemployment, according to Fadaei-Tehrani and Green in Jelilov & Ndanitsa (2015) leads to decrease in crime and vice versa. UN-Habitat discovered that socio-economic inequality and lack of opportunities for social advancement and employment are some of the root causes of crime and violence (Ajaegbu, 2012). On the other hand, most of the crimes such as robbery, kidnapping, thuggery and others are characterised with violence and endanger the security of the victims and the society. The study, therefore, seeks to find the relationship between unemployment and rape in Nigeria.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this study is to examine the relationship between unemployment and rape in Nigeria.

Specifically, other objectives of the study are;

  1. Examine the implications of the increased unemployment rate in Nigeria.
  2. Examine the factors that leads to the high rate of unemployment in Nigeria.
  3. Examine the relationship between unemployment and rape in Nigeria

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions will be answered in this study

  1. What are the implications of the increased unemployment rate in Nigeria?
  2. What are the factors that leads to the high rate of unemployment in Nigeria?
  3. Is there any relationship between unemployment and rape in Nigeria?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The following hypotheses will be tested for its validity in this study:

  • Ho1: there is no relationship between unemployment and rape in Nigeria
  • Ha1: there is a relationship between unemployment and rape in Nigeria

1.6 Significance of the Study

The significance of this study can not be overemphasized as the study exposes the relationship between unemployment and rape in Nigeria, the implications of the increased unemployment rate in Nigeria, factors that leads to the high rate of unemployment in Nigeria and the relationship between unemployment and rape in Nigeria. Hence, the findings will undoubtedly apprise the federal, state and local authorities of the need to ensure adequate establishment of avenues to decrease the rate of unemployment. And the consequences that may likely arise if neglected.

In view of this, it is expected that one of the most paramount resultant effects of this study is that it will encourage the government to work out policies that will effectively curb the alarming rise in the rate of unemployment.

Lastly, this study will also contribute to the body of existing literature on the topic under study, thereby serving as a source of information for students and researchers who may be carrying out further studies on related topics.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study will be focused on the relationship between unemployment and rape in Nigeria. Specifically, this study will be focused on examining the implications of the increased unemployment rate in Nigeria, examining the factors that leads to the high rate of unemployment in Nigeria and determining the relationship between unemployment and rape in Nigeria.

Residents of Uyo City, Akwa Ibom State shall serve as enrolled participants for the survey in this study.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents.

In addition, there was the element of researcher bias. Here, the researcher possessed some biases that may have been reflected in the way the data was collected, the type of people interviewed or sampled, and how the data gathered was interpreted thereafter. The potential for all this to influence the findings and conclusions could not be downplayed.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Relationship:

The way in which two or more people or things are connected, or the state of being connected.

Unemployment:

This is a term referring to individuals who are employable and actively seeking a job but are unable to find a job.

Rape:

Unlawful sexual activity, most often involving sexual intercourse, against the will of the victim through force or the threat of force or with an individual who is incapable of giving legal consent because of minor status, mental illness, mental deficiency, intoxication, unconsciousness, or deception.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings into the relationship between unemployment and rape in Nigeria. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the relationship between unemployment and rape in Nigeria. The study specifically was aimed at examining the implications of the increased unemployment rate in Nigeria, examining the factors that leads to the high rate of unemployment in Nigeria and, investigate the relationship between unemployment and rape in Nigeria.The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 260 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents are residents of Uyo Capital City residents.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. The implications of the increased unemployment rate in Nigeria are:
    1. Increase in the rate of violent crimes,
    2. Decline in the GDP
    3. Rise in poverty and
    4. High mortality rate
  2. The factors that leads to the high rate of unemployment in Nigeria are:
    1. Lack of requisite education,
    2. Non-availability of employment opportunity,
    3. Preference for white collar job and
    4. Placement of embargo on government employment
  3. There is a relationship between unemployment and rape in Nigeria

5.4 Recommendations

In regard to the findings of the study, the researcher recommends that;

  1. Government should urgently remove embargo on employment. In a country that is producing about 500,000 graduates yearly, it is pertinent for government to make concrete effort to make job available through industrialization, youth empowerment and self-employed acquisition skills. Existing empowerment programmes should be monitored to ensure proper implementation.
  2. Government at all levels and non-governmental organizations should make fund available to youths who are willing to set up businesses of their own. Some of the looted money recovered should be diverted for this purpose. Government should come up with policies that will reduce the excess money accruing to political office holders to cater for the unemployed in the country. This will benefit the country than to distribute money during election alone and leave the energetic youths to temptations of how to make ends meet.

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