Sanitation Practices And Implication On Students Health (Case Study Of Enugu State College Of Education (Technical) Enugu)

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Sanitation Practices And Implication On Students Health (Case Study Of Enugu State College Of Education (Technical) Enugu)


Abstract


Sanitation practice implication on students health in Enugu State College of Education (Technical) has been the desire of every right thinking for good health of both the students and lecturers in the above school. The purposes of this study is to investigate the causes of poor sanitation practices on students health in ESCET, the dangers and the strategies which could be employ to curb poor sanitation in ESCET. One hundred questionnaire were administered to the respondents, which was correctly answered by the respondents without mistakes five research question, each focusing on the formulated.

A descriptive statistic using mean was adopted fro data analysis. Finding from their study showed that, regular clean up exercise, formulating the environment, illiteracy constitutes the problems of poor sanitation practices. The study was concluded with the recommendation which includes that the school management should employ labourers, make provision for facilities, formulate the environment. The researchers believed that if all these are put in place, it will enhance sanitation practices in the school, thereby improving students health.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background Of The Study:

World Health Organization defined sanitation as the means of collecting and disposing excreta and community liquids, waste in a hygienic way. So as not to endanger the health and welfare and also for the social and environmental effects, it may have on people; people have been suffering from one disease to another without knowing the problems of their illness, the situation and due to distress or dirty environment. Cleanliness is next to Godliness.

Similarly, Iheke (2010) sees sanitation as the process of keeping places clean and hygienic especially by providing a sewage system and a clean water supply. Sanitation refers to all conditions that affects the health of people in a geographical area. Billions of people still live without access to sanitation facilities and are unable to practice such basic hygienic as washing their hands with soap and water.

Disease related to poor sanitation and water availability cause many people to die of sickness like cholera, diarrhea, malaria, typhoid, which damages the body tissues. Children are most vulnerable to health hazards and consequently are affected the most. In 1998, 2.2 million people died because of poor sanitation, which the vast majority were children.

In 1950 the world health organizations expert committee on environmental sanitation defines environmental sanitation as the control of community, water supplies, excreta and waste water disposal, refuse disposal, vector of diseases, housing conditions, food supplies and handling conditions, food supplies and atmospheric conditions and the safety of the working environment. Environmental problems have grown in complexity especially with the advert of radiation and chemical hazards. Meanwhile the world needs for the basic sanitation services (like drinking water supply, excreta and waste water disposal), have greatly increased as a result of rapid population growth and highly expectations.

There has been considerable awareness of water supply in institution, but the problems of excreta and waste disposal have receive less attention. In Enugu State College of Education (Technical), every where is littered with pure water polythene, pieces of papers and so on, without proper disposal. In order to focus attention of these problems. Sanitation exercise should be done daily to keep the environment clean by employing labourers that will help keep the school clean. Environments should be formulated in order to kill dangerous animals like snake, scorpion etc.

In school hostels, there are problems of over-crowding and these affects the health of the students in the hostel. More than 200 students share four (4) toilets. Mostly girls in hostel have inadequate sanitation facilities. With this premise, the researchers seek to find out the implication of sanitation practices on students health in Enugu State College of Education (Technical). Inadequate sanitation and water in school jeopardize not only the students health but also their attendance. Girls in particular area likely to be kept out of school, if there is no sanitation.

Seminars should be organized in institutions to help educate students more, especially girls in the hostel on menstrual hygiene, sanitation hygienic practices, cleanliness in the surroundings. To make everywhere conducive for teaching and learning, lack of skills and this have hindered the educational prospects of girls residing in the hostel. Flies petch on dirts, toilet etc and later petch on uncovered foods and all this are dangerous to human health.


1.2 Statements Of Problem:

Control of pests, waste disposal had become a problem in our environment because of poor sanitation practices. Diseases related to poor sanitation and water availability causes many people to die of sickness like cholera, diarrhea, malaria, typhoid which damages the body tissues.

However, it is not clear on the extent in which school management and student union government (SUG) have contributed in curbing poor sanitation practices. The problem of this study is to find out the strategies which could be employ to provide facilities to students to reduce dirtiness.


1.3 Purpose Of The Study:

The purpose of this study is to find out the implication of sanitation practices on students health in Enugu State college of Education (technical). Specifically this study was to:

  1. Identify the causes of poor sanitation practices on student’s health in Enugu State College of Education (Technical)
  2. Determine the extent in which the school management have contributed in providing facilities that will enhance sanitation practices in Enugu State College of Education (Technical) Enugu.
  3. Find out the strategies that could be employed to curb dirtiness in Enugu State College of Education (Technical).

1.4 Significance Of The Study:

The findings of this study will enable the students in Enugu State College of Education, to better understand and cultivate a clean environment because cleanliness is next to Godliness. The finding will help the following people:

The students to know the needs of hygiene or health practices, because cleanliness in next to Godliness and also enable to have a sound health, if sanitation is practiced by the students, sickness and diseases will be reduced.

To the school management; The findings will help the school management to provide adequate facilities that will enable the labourers to keep the environment clean and tidy, also provide fund for buying disinfectant and Antiseptic, and also paying the labourers.

Government; The findings will help the government, to formulate a policies that will enable their follow students keep the environment clean and regulations on the school. Also they serve as a mediator between the management and the students.


1.5 Research Questions:

In order to find answers to the objective of this study, the researchers formulated the following research questions.

  1. What are the causes of poor sanitation practices on students health in Enugu State college of Education (Technical)?
  2. What are the dangers of poor sanitation practices on students health in Enugu State College of Education (Technical) Enugu.?
  3. What are the strategies that could be employed to improve sanitation in Enugu State college of Education (Technical) Enugu?

1.6 Scope Of The Study

The scope of the study was delimited to determining the implication of sanitation practice in student’s health in schools especially those in hostel in Enugu State College of Education (Technical).

In the cause of the study, the researcher encounters some limitations which limited the scope of the study;
Time constraint: The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

Inadequate Materials:

Scarcity of material is also another hindrance. The researcher finds it difficult to long hands in several required material which could contribute immensely to the success of this research work.

Financial constraint:

Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).


1.7 Definition Of Terms

Sanitation:

Sanitation is defined as the prevention of human contact with feces and the proper treatment and disposal of wastewater. Sanitation also includes promoting hygiene on a personal level through washing hands with soap.

Practice:

The actual application or use of an idea, belief, or method, as opposed to theories relating to it.

Implication:

An implication is something that is suggested, or happens, indirectly. When you left the gate open and the dog escaped, you were guilty by implication.

Undergraduate:

An undergraduate is a college or university student who’s not a graduate student. After high school, you can become an undergraduate.

Hygiene:

Hygiene is a set of practices performed to preserve health. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), “Hygiene refers to conditions and practices that help to maintain health and prevent the spread of diseases.

Health:

Health is the level of functional and metabolic efficiency of a living organism. In humans it is the ability of individuals or communities to adapt and self-manage when facing physical, mental, psychological and social changes with environment.


1.8 Organization Of The Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), statement of problem, objectives of the study, research question, significance or the study, research methodology, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlight the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion and also recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion And Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

It is pertinent to note that this research was aimed at addressing the problems of lack of proper sanitation and it health effect on students, thus the topic “sanitation practices and implication on student’s health”.
In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges associated with sanitation practices and implication on student’s health.


5.2 Summary

The findings of this study revealed that the causes of poor sanitation are inadequate hygiene education, neglect of health facilities, insufficient water supply, inadequate toilet/latrine facilities, lack of dustbins for disposing wastes, throwing rubbish anywhere in the compound, inadequate funds to provide sanitation equipment and poor waste storage methods adopted. The findings are supported by Danida (2007) when he said that schools often suffer from non-existent or insufficient water supply, sanitation and hand washing facilities, dirty and unsafe water supply; toilets or latrines that are not adapted to the needs of students particularly girls; nonexistence of hygiene education, unhealthy and dirty classrooms/school compounds among others. Also, the findings are also supported by Ogawa (2005) when he revealed that lack of sanitation, unsafe disposal or storage of waste in/around houses and streets, and in undesignated containers may provide habitats for vectors of diseases that cause various infectious diseases including typhoid fever and diarrheas.

It also revealed that the effects of poor sanitation on students’ health include students being affected by diarrhea , students being affected by typhoid, students falling sick due to cholera infection, students being sick due to malaria and student mortality in extreme cases. The findings is supported by WHO (2007) when it estimated that 88% of diarrheal disease is caused by unsafe water supply and inadequate sanitation and hygiene.


5.3 Conclusion

Sanitation is necessary in all places which includes schools. School sanitation refers to hygienic practices that occur in schools. However, sanitation in institutions have been observed to be poor. This is due to a number of factors such as inadequate hygiene education, neglect of health facilities, insufficient water supply, inadequate toilet/latrine facilities, lack of dustbins for disposing wastes, throwing rubbish anywhere in the compound, inadequate funds to provide sanitation equipment and poor waste storage methods adopted. Poor sanitation has led to negative effects on students’ health. Poor sanitation leads to students’ ill health which can lead to failure of students in their academic work. Effects of poor sanitation on student health is manifested in students being sick due to diseases like malaria, cholera, diarrhoea, and even death in extreme cases.

Due to these negative effects, school management have devised means of ensuring proper sanitation. These ways include employing cleaners to keep the environment clean and encouraging people to undertake research in environmental sanitation. However, these aren’t enough to ensure proper sanitation Ensuring sanitation in schools involves a lot of ways which should preferably be used together instead of adopting these methods in isolation. The methods include; the need for students to undertake hygiene education, more health workers should be trained to include sanitation practices counselling into their consultations with patients, more toilets should be put in place in strategic locations to complement the existing ones so as to reduce incessant urination and faecal deposit, impromptu inspection around the campus from time to time. Management should source for more funds from local and international levels which would be used for providing sanitation facilities, partnership should be established with private agencies to help convert waste to wealth through waste reduction, reuse and recycling and regular seminars should be organized on the need for sanitation.


5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings, the following recommendations were made;

  1. The school management has to ensure that the various ways of improving sanitation within the institution are used in synergy instead of in isolation due to fact these methods are all important.
  2. The government at all levels should provide the necessary funds needed by the school management to ensure the procurement of various facilities/equipment needed for students to live in a hygienic environment
  3. The school management have to ensure that those in charge of cleaning the school environment are adequately monitored so as to ensure they discharge their duties properly.

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