Effect Of Fungal Infestation On Bakery Product (Bread)

Project and Seminar Material for Public Health

Effect Of Fungal Infestation On Bakery Product (Bread)


This project work which is all about the fungal infestation of bakery product BREAD, explain the kind or type of fungal organisms that are responsible for the spoilage on contamination of bread. The infestation of fungal organism on bread depends on the kind and number of the agent present and upon the environment about them. this statement makes it clear that micro organism infest foods having suitable environment condition for their microbial activity.

This project work is centered on knowing the fungal micro-organisms that infests bread which emails the isolation and identification of the fungal organisms, the source of contamination a known standardized system called hazard analysis critical control point which ensures hygienically produced breads.

The material and method email the collection of bread samples from five different shops AT Artisan market, Enugu, the method used is the isolation technoloque and the identification of filamention fungi and yeast by wet mount and fluorescence microscopy. The result obtained were gotten by counting the colonies grown on the culture medium (Nutrient agar) and the mean of duplicate was then calculated, some fungal micro organisms seen viewed under the microscope are as follows;

  1. Mucon SpP
  2. Aspergillus flarus
  3. Aspergillus fumigatus
  4. Penicillium Spp
  5. Rhizopus Spp

Table Of Contents

Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page i
  • Certification page ii
  • Dedication iii
  • Acknowledgement iv
  • Abstract v
  • Table of content

Chapter One:


  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of problem
  • 1.3 Aims and objectives of the study
  • 1.4 Hypothesis
  • 1.5 Significance of study
  • 1.6 Scope and Limitation of the study

Chapter Two:

Literature Review

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Formulation and bread making
  • 2.3 Flour
  • 2.4 Economical importance of bakery products
  • 2.5 Microbial spoilage of bakery products
  • 2.5.1 Bacterial spoilage
  • 2.5.2 Yeast spoilage
  • 2.5.3 Mold spoilage
  • 2.6 Physical factors influence the microbial growth activity
  • 2.6.1 Effect of temperature, pH and water
  • 2.6.2 Effect of salt tolerance
  • 2.7 Control of microbial growth in bakery products
  • 2.7.1 Reformulation to reduce product aw
  • 2.7.2 Freezing
  • 2.7.3 Preservatives
  • 2.8 Effect of chemical preservatives
  • 2.8.1 Sorbic acid and sorbates
  • 2.8.2 Propionic acids and its salts
  • 2.9 Effect of biopreservatives

Chapter Three:

Material And Methods

  • 3.1 Sample Collection and Processing
  • 3.2 Fungal isolation
  • 3.3 Characterization and Identification of the Isolates
  • 3.4 Determination of the Moisture Content of the Bread Samples
  • 3.5 Determination of the pH of the Bread Samples
  • 3.6 Data Analysis

Chapter Four:

Results And Discussion

  • 4.1 Results
  • 4.2 Discussion

Chapter Five:

Conclusion And Recommendation

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendations
  • References

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background Information

Food can be contaminated with spoilage on pathogenic organisms ( micro). Infestation of these fungal organisms spoil the product so that it is not fit to eat; it also changes the taste so that the product is not desirable. The concept of food infestation of fungal organisms is based on the consipteration for fiutres of consumption. Infestation is defined as the over presence alone has led to its growth and microbial activity. Pathogenic organisms however can cause food poisoning. Food poisoning can arise through infatuation of food by organisms (micro) which secrete toxins which B their consumed. The cost of fungal infested bread resulting to spoilage is also great with loss of money due to wastage of the raw materials. Also considering the usefulness of this product in the community with the management of money being spent it has also helped in the sense that since it is regarded as a fast food it is being bought and consumed directly without further preparations done.

Effect of contaminated bread in the society can lead to an epidemic of gastrointestinal disorder where by that particular environment that consumed the contaminate bread become affected there by developing stomach upset. As a result of this a lot of consideration should be given to breads that are sent into the community to be sold and this is done by the standardized system called HACCP ie hazards Analysis critical control point. This method is now generally considered as a choice for ensuring safety of foods (jay 1996 de Boer and Beumer 1999) hazzard analysis critical control point involves identifying places in the production process where hazzard could occur. i.e. the CCp (critical control point” and putting monitoring procedures in place to prevent these hazards occurring even with this system in place samples still need to be tested for the presence of micro organism.

Detection of most of the micro organisms requires growth of the organism on selective media which can take a number of days from isolation to identification. These method are sensitive and gives qualitative information on the number and nature of the micro organism. Present in a food sample. However, conventional methods require several day to produce result because they rely on the ability of micro organisms to multiply to visible colonies (De Boser and Beumer 1999). Presentation of bread commonly involves the use of propionates and sorbates and sometime henzoates. Preservatives are added to retain on to increase the shelf life by preventing the micro-organism responsible for the contamination of that food.

There alter natives to preservatives have been bought also. The chief types of microbial spoilage of bread as a result of fungal infestation will also studied which is moldiness. Rapines is also another type of bread spoilage but unfortunately it wont be studies due to the fact that it is caused by bacterial organism which unfortunately is not a fugal organisms and as a result is not in the scope of study for this research work. Also a spoilage not so common called CHALKY BREAD caused by a yeast like Fungi, will be diseased.

1.2 Aims And Objectives Of The Study

This project is based on the isolation and identification of the fungi organism responsible for the spoilage of bread. To examine the species of fungi that infest bread at room temperature.

1.3 Hypothesis

  • H0– filamentous fungi and yeast has no effect on bread .
  • H1 – filamentous fungi and yeast are responsible for spoilage of bread when infested.

1.4 Statement Of Problem

Problems encountered by the society as a result of the consumption of contaminated bread infested with fungal organism art circulation in the market places are related health wise, in the case that when contaminated. Breads are eaten; it leads to caster or intestinal disorder by some fungal organism which is an a result of deposited toxins. This can lead to an epidemic, when a batch of count ammoniated breading in circulation.

1.5 Significance Of Study

The justification of this research study is to ensure that a well prepared baked bread devoid of fungal growth is being circulated on sold. It is also carried out on the basic of selling well baked breads uncontaminated so as to avoid any don’t of food poisoning associated with the ingestion of bread.

1.6 Limitation Of The Study

This project work is limited to the isolation and identification of fungal organism present filamentous fungi and yeast. This is also limited restricted on the examination of the end product which is the baked bread and not its raw material which is the flour, practical works is carried out on the pathogenically of species identified as this could be another area of study for interested microbiologists.

Chapter Five

Conclusion And Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

Bread is prone to filamentous fungal spoilage. The knowledge of the filamentous fungal spoilage of bread will educate the consumers on the public health implications of the growth of the organisms and their toxins in bread and proffer the possible solutions to such spoilage. Spoilage of bread by filamentous fungi is a costly problem for bakeries and the use of safe food grade chemical preservatives and maintenance of aseptic conditions in baking and post-baking processes are therefore means of minimizing bread spoilage.

The present review concludes the predominant efficacy of preservatives in bakery foods. Mold spoilage is still a major problem limiting the shelf life of many high and intemediate moisture bakery products. Losses due to mold spoilage have been resulting in lost revenue to the baking industries.

5.2 Recommendations

Methods to control mold growth and to extend the shelf life of bakery products is of great economic importance to the baking industry where an increased demand in global consumption exists. Therefore, the study recommended that measures as good hygiene in the bakeries and if necessary complementary post packaging heat treatments or modified atmosphere packaging is the best alternatives. Adequate hygiene must be maintained during the baking, handling, storage and marketing of the product to minimize the entry and proliferation of the these organisms. The incorporation of food grade chemical preservatives is also recommended.

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