Knowledge And Factors Associated With Hypertension Prevalence Among Young Adult Attending Selected Hospital In Oyo
This study was carried out to examine the knowledge and factors associated with hypertension prevalence among young adult attending selected hospital in Oyo State. The study was carried out to assess the prevalence of hypertension among young adult attending selected hospital in Oyo, assess the level of awareness of risk factors for hypertension among young adult attending selected hospital in Oyo, and ascertain the level of knowledge of the preventive and control measures of hypertension among adult attending selected hospital in Oyo. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of young adult attending selected hospital in Oyo State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 261 respondents and 259 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables and mean scores. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the prevalence of hypertension among young adult attending selected hospital in Oyo is high. The study also revealed that the level of awareness of risk factors for hypertension among young adult attending selected hospital in Oyo includes: Stress, Regular Consumption of Alcohol, Regular Smoking, overweight (obesity), Hereditary, Lack of Exercise, inadequate intake of vegetable and fruits. Therefore, it is recommended that interactive health seminars should be encouraged and organized at least once every session with focus on risk factors, causes and preventive measures of both hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases. To mention but a few.
Table of Content
- Title Page
- Table of Content
- List of Tables
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
- 1.10 Organisations of the Study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Size Determination
- 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the Study
- 3.9 Reliability of the Study
- 3.10 Ethical Consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Data
- 4.3 Answering Research Questions
- 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background of the Study
High blood pressure otherwise called hypertension is a major threat to public health. The disease has been identified as a major cause of morbidity and mortality globally. It is as a result of this global burden, that the world’s premier blood pressure society known as the International Society of Hypertension (ISH) was established in 1966 to encourage and promote the advancement of scientific research and its application to the prevention and management of heart diseases, stroke, hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases (CVD) around the world (www.ish.org ; 2013).
According to the Report of WHO (2002), hypertension is the most prevalent CVD affecting at least 600million people worldwide. The report refers to hypertension as an important contributor to cardiovascular diseases, which according to Mathers, et al (2000), were responsible for the deaths of 17million people each year, or approximately one – third of the global deaths annually. This rose to about 17.5million deaths in 2009 (WHO, 2009). It is projected to account for about 23.3 million deaths annually by the year 2030 (WHO, 2013).
A review of the global burden of hypertension by the International Society of Hypertension (ISH) indicated that approximately 54% of stroke, 47% of ischemic heart disease(IHD), 75% of hypertensive disease and 25% of other Cardiovascular Diseases (CVDs) are attributed to hypertension, equating approximately 7.6 million deaths attributable to high blood pressure (Lawes et al, 2008).
In Africa however, the World Health Report (2001), stated that Non – Communicable Diseases (NCD) especially hypertension, accounted for 22% of the registered deaths in the year 2000, killing even more than malaria (WHO, 2002). It has been projected that up to three quarters of the world’s hypertensive population will be in economically developing countries by the year 2025 (Kearney et al, 2005). According to the final report of a national survey (1997), the national Experts Committee on Non-communicable Diseases (NCDs) ranks hypertension first among the NCDs in Nigeria. However, as Ekwunife and Aguwa (2011) pointed out, the disease is yet to be considered a problem in the country.
More importantly, it is essential to note that from hypertension from time immemorial has been no respecter of age. To this, the World Health Organization (1985) asserted that although there were several epidemiological reports on the prevalence of hypertension in adults, a dearth of information continued to exist in adolescent hypertension in many parts of the world. Several studies have observed and documented the distribution of cardiovascular risk factors in childhood and adolescent population in many countries (Berenson et al, 1980 and Harris 1987 and Webber et al, 1993).
After decades of the existence of the disease, as well as the existence of international and national societies of hypertension, the depth of knowledge youths have of hypertension and its risk factors which could make them prone to it, as well as its preventive and control measures are the concern of this research.
1.2 Statement of the Study
It has been observed in recent times by medical experts that young adults especially the black skinned, now suffer and die from high blood pressure. According to Savoca et al (2009), in the year 2000, African Americans aged 25-29 died from the disease at almost three times the rate among whites, while hospitalized hypertensive patients among African Americans consisting of ages of 18- 44, were six times greater than hospitalizations among the whites. In Sub-Saharan Africa according to Mayosi et al, (2009), high blood pressure is also the predominant driver of Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD) especially among black Africans.
In Nigeria, Adebayo (2013) confirmed that very often, children and young adults in their 20s and 30s are being diagnosed with the disease. In relation to this, he noted that hypertension in youth is increasing abnormally. This he said could be hereditary and has been linked to an increased intake of salt, fatty foods, obesity, lack of exercises, inadequate intake of vegetable and fruits, smoking, uncontrolled consumption of alcohol and low level of awareness of the disease. Ogunbo (2013), stated that one in every four adults in Nigeria has hypertension and that more young persons are presently dying of the complications of the disease. He thereby stressed that there is need for aggressive enlightenment on early detection of the disease. Ajayi (2013) also maintains that the reason why more young adults in Nigeria are dying of the disease is ignorance, wrong socio-cultural beliefs and poor health seeking behaviour.
Results of a study carried out by Berenson et al (1984) showed that high blood pressure in childhood indicated the early stages of hypertension which therefore was a risk for young adult and adult cardiovascular disease.
In Nigeria, Musa and Lawal (2000), Balogun et al (1990) and Eferakaye et al (1982) have also carried out studies on the levels of blood pressure in adolescent children, all of which confirmed its existence. Mijinyawa et al (2008) further maintains that hypertension is known to track fromyouth to adulthood, which makes it a useful predictor of essential hypertension adulthood. In the study carried out on the prevalence of hypertension and associated cardiovascular risk factors among secondary school teenagers in Kano, between ages 13 and 19 years, seventy students had systolic blood pressure 140mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure 90mmHg indicating high prevalence. The result further revealed that the prevalence rate of hypertension among the younger participants rose from 4.3% to 11.8% among the oldest students. Out of the 70 participants, a majority (88,5%) had grade 1 hypertension, 10.0% had grade 2 hypertension and 1.5% had grade 3 hypertension (Mijinyawa et al, 2008). The autopsy of the tragic incident of the sudden death of a famous Nigerian football player, Samuel Okwaraji, which occurred ten minutes from the end of a world cup qualifier against Angola in Lagos in 1989, revealed that the 25-year old died of an enlarged heart and high blood pressure (Ojo, 2002).
This incident proves that hypertension is indeed a “silent killer” and it has not been a disease affecting only the old as perceived by many. However, due to the fact that there are no clear-cut symptoms for high blood pressure, millions of people are said to be living with it ignorantly. This is thus often referred to as “the silent killer” in various publications and among health workers. In this light, some heart organizations, such as the Nigerian Hypertension Society among others, with support from state governments like Abia State have been said to make efforts in organizing awareness campaigns to keep the public abreast with the preventive and control measures of the disease. Notwithstanding, ignorance still remains one of the major reasons for the increasing prevalence of the disease not only among the aged, but also among the youth who are the strength and future of any nation. A cross-sectional study of undergraduate students of the University of Ibadan, conducted by Ameen and Fawole (2007), revealed that the prevalence of risk factors for CardiovascularDiseases (CVDs) such as hypertension was high. This was drawn from students’ consumption of baked snacks, cigarettes, alcohol and less physical exercises. These risk factors are observable in reasonable number of youths in Bayelsa as they feed on snacks and soft drinks, others (predominantly males) smoking cigarettes mostly at the social centre and sculpture garden and taking alcohol in specific locations (1759, Exodus and Mami market Bassawa Barracks). Overweight and stress are also observable risk factors.
However, the crux of the matter is whether students are ‘aware’ of these risk factors. Also, it is important to note that a major risk factor, though not mentioned in the list of risk factors for hypertension by scholars is the ‘lack of awareness’. It can be said to be the most dangerous risk factor and the fastest means of encountering death in any disease, for ignorance in itself is a disease.
Shaikh et al (2011), having carried out a study on ‘knowledge regarding risk factors of hypertension among first year students of a medical university, discovered that knowledge of the predisposing risk factors is vital in the modification of lifestyle behaviors conducive to optimal cardiovascular health. Also, measuring and appropriately disseminating knowledge of controllable risk factors at an early age is an essential preventive educational approach. So far, risk factors of hypertension are not well studied in young adults and public awareness of hypertension in countries undergoing epidemiological transition is dismal. There is a paucity of data on the knowledge of hypertension and its risk factors among teenagers and young adults as most studies describe knowledge of hypertension and its risk factors in older adults and the elderly, the young are considered to be at a lower risk developing the disease.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The general aim of this study is to assess the knowledge and factors associated with hypertension prevalence among young adult attending selected hospital in Oyo. To achieve this, the study will specifically:
- Assess the prevalence of hypertension among young adult attending selected hospital in Oyo.
- Assess the level of awareness of risk factors for hypertension among young adult attending selected hospital in Oyo.
- Ascertain the level of knowledge of the preventive and control measures of hypertension among adult attending selected hospital in Oyo.
1.4 Research Question
The study will be guided by the following questions:
- What is the prevalence of hypertension among young adult attending selected hospital in Oyo?
- What is the level of awareness of risk factors for hypertension among young adult attending selected hospital in Oyo?
- What is the level of knowledge of the preventive and control measures of hypertension among adult attending selected hospital in Oyo?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
- Ho: The level of awareness of risk factors associated with hypertension among young adult attending selected hospital in Oyo is low.
- Ha: The level of awareness of risk factors associated with hypertension among young adult attending selected hospital in Oyo is high.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study will help identify the social factors responsible for youth proneness to hypertension. Findings such as the level of youth awareness to hypertension, their proneness to it and the preventive and control measures, as well as socio-economic backgrounds of youths who engage most in risk factors for hypertension, will be brought to light and this will aid thegovernment, heart and hypertensive related organizations in strategizing, for better and more effective awareness programs in the future.
Also, this research will provoke the minds of young adults to reflect on their lifestyles that predispose them to hypertension, as well as to seek more knowledge on the disease and adopt precautionary measures to avoid it.
Findings from this study will add to the existing stock of knowledge in the field of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases especially as it relates to youth and their knowledge on the risk factors of the deadly disease. Therefore, it will be of immense help to anyone who intends to carry out a similar research in the future. Finally, the importance of a research of this sort cannot be over emphasized as it affects the youths who are the strength and future of a better and healthier Nigeria.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study generally focuses on the knowledge and factors associated with hypertension prevalence among young adult.The study will be delimited to young adult attending selected hospital in Oyo.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.
1.9 Definition of Terms
Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)
Is defined as illness of the heart and blood vessels, including high blood pressure, heart attack, stroke and heart failure (HPLP, 2004).
Is a condition through which blood is passed through the body’s blood vessels at greater force than normal. It can lead to tiredness, heart attack, stroke and other health problems. It is also called High Blood Pressure(HPLP, 2004).
Something that contributes to illness: a feature of somebody’s habits, genetic makeup, or personal history that increases the possibility of disease or harm to health (Encarta English Dictionary, 2009).
1.10 Organization of the Study
The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:
This chapter summarizes the findings on knowledge and factors associated with hypertension prevalence among young adult attending selected hospital in Oyo State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.
5.2 Summary of the Study
In this study, our focus was to examine the knowledge and factors associated with hypertension prevalence among young adult attending selected hospital in Oyo State. The study is was specifically carried out to assess the prevalence of hypertension among young adult attending selected hospital in Oyo, assess the level of awareness of risk factors for hypertension among young adult attending selected hospital in Oyo, and ascertain the level of knowledge of the preventive and control measures of hypertension among adult attending selected hospital in Oyo.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 259 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were young adult attending selected hospital in Oyo State.
Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;
- The prevalence of hypertension among young adult attending selected hospital in Oyo is high.
- The level of awareness of risk factors for hypertension among young adult attending selected hospital in Oyo includes: Stress, Regular Consumption of Alcohol, Regular Smoking, overweight (obesity), Hereditary, Lack of Exercise, inadequate intake of vegetable and fruits,
- The level of knowledge of the preventive and control measures of hypertension among adult attending selected hospital in Oyo includes: Avoid too muchworrying and getting stressed up, Exercise often, Take less salty foods only, Always eat balanced diet and Avoid alcohol, cigarettes and hard drugs.
Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.
- There is a need to develop more mass media based interventions and more studies to assess the effects of such interventions on participants’ knowledge, attitude and practice of hypertension prevention.
- Interactive health seminars should be encouraged and organized at least once every session with focus on risk factors, causes and preventive measures of both hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases.
- Religious gatherings especially the churches and mosques on campus of which youths constitute the majority of congregation should also inculcate the habit of organizing health seminars as often as possible on several health issues especially risk factors for deadly silent killers like hypertension.
- On the part of the individual (students), conscious evaluation of the types of foods consumed daily should become a habit, so as to create and maintain a healthy dietary habit and weight. Also, sugared drinks and snacks should be consumed at most three (3) times weekly with 2-3days interval. Pick on a game of his/her choice to help exercise for 30minutes at least three (3) times weekly and lastly, imbibe the habit of regular medical check-up at least once in every four (4) months as recommended by a doctor of the University Sick-Bay.
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