Factors Associated With Tobacco Smoking Among Medical Students

Project and Seminar Material for Sociology

Factors Associated With Tobacco Smoking Among Medical Students


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the factors associated with tobacco smoking among medical students using in Madonna University, Rivers State as a case study. The study was carried out to determine the prevalence of tobacco smoking among medical students, ascertain factors which influences tobacco smoking culture among medical students, and assess medical students knowledge about the health problems associated with tobacco consumption. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of medical students in Madonna University, Rivers State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 261 respondents and 259 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables and mean scores. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool.The result of the findings reveals that the prevalence of tobacco smoking among medical students is high.The study also revealed that the health problems associated with tobacco consumption among medical student includes; Cough, Asthma, Problem in Gumm, Lung Cancer, Mouth Cancer, and Teeth problem. Therefore, it is recommended that school-based education and intervention programs should focus on the vulnerable person to prevent tobacco use. Policy for the prohibition of smoking in public places, a ban on advertisements related to tobacco products, and smoke-free environments are highly recommended. It is also very necessary to provide knowledge among school students about the hazards of tobacco. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Tobacco use is characterized as utilizing any tobacco item, either smoked or smokeless[1]. Tobacco smoking is named as the burning of the tobacco leaves and breathing in of the smoke. Chewing tobacco, wet snuff, and dry snuff are examples of smokeless tobacco consumed through the mouth or nose without combustion or burning [2]. Tobacco smoking is a preventable health concern that also causes financial problems across the world [3, 4]. Nigerian daily smokers start smoking before the age of 20, where peer influence is one of the major factors to consume tobacco [5, 6]. Because of the powerless authorization of tobacco control measures, the easy accessibility and affordability of these items are the main leading to the rise of the epidemic of tobacco use in the youth [7]. WHO estimated that in 2013, the worldwide prevalence of current tobacco smoking was 21.2%. WHO has estimated that tobacco use (smoking and smokeless) causes six million deaths worldwide each year and predicts to reach 8 million by 2030 [8, 9]. About 1.1 billion individuals smoke worldwide, 80% of whom lived in low and middle-income countries [10, 11]. In India, the overall prevalence of tobacco consumption was 48.9% [12]. There is a connection between smoking and many diseases such as coronary artery disease, lung cancer, bladder cancer, pulmonary emphysema, peripheral vascular disease, and neonatal mortality [13]. Furthermore, the U.S Surgeon General report proposes that smoking influences the menstrual function of women by increasing the danger of dysmenorrhea, amenorrhea, and irregular menstruation. The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009 (also known as the Tobacco Control Act) approved the FDA to manage the manufacture, distribution, and marketing of tobacco products [14].

In Nigeria, behavior, attitude, and imitation from parents and peers are the most influencing factors for tobacco consumption [1]. Peer influence is one of the major factors where youths are more likely to smoke if they have friends who smoke [5]. Both smoking and smokeless tobacco are quite high among youth in tertiary institution. For instance, tobacco use is prevalent among male students from Bangladesh (9.1%), Bhutan (28.6%), India (16.8%), Maldives (8.5%), Nepal (13.0%), Pakistan (12.4%), Sri Lanka (12.4%) etc[25]. Geographical variation comprises various parts of the country.

Although multiple studies have been conducted in Nigeria regarding tobacco smoking, relatively few researches have highlighted the medical students’ smoking behavioral patterns. There was an inconsistency regarding the prevalence of tobacco smoking among medical students. Medical students have high levels of stress than other undergraduate students, and stress is a significant reason young people take up smoking [16]. Some other studies found that tobacco smoking prevalence was less among medical than nonmedical students [17].


1.2 Statement of the Study

Tobacco smoking among the youth is also of public health concern because of the immediate and long-term impact associated with tobacco use such as asthma, chronic cough, chronic obstructive airways disease, cancers and cardiovascular diseases (American Cancer Society, 2005). Tobacco use among youths has also been traced to other risky health-related behaviours, mental health problems, suicide, motor vehicle accidents, violent crime and even dental problems (US Department of Health and Human Services, 2004).

Available data on tobacco smoking among adolescence in Nigeria shows a mean lifetime smoking prevalence of 26.4% reported among secondary school students with values ranging from 7.2% to 42.9% (Osibogun et al., 2009). Other studies have shown smoking prevalence to be between 3.4% to 17.1% in secondary schools in Nigeria (Yisa, Lawoyin, Fatiregun, & Emelumadu, 2009; Omokhodion & Faseru, 2007) and main factors influencing smoking habits of adolescent in Nigeria as peer influence, parental influence, advertisement and low level of education (Odeyemi, Osibogun, Akinsete, & Sadiq, 2009; Osungbade & Oshiname, 2008).

In the past ignorance of the risk factors associated with tobacco use has been reported (Peltzer & Phaswana, 1999). A study conducted among Malaysian university students shows that the mean of total knowledge score towards harmful effects of smoking among university students were lower among smokers compared to non smokers (Redhwan Ahmed Al-Naggar et al., 2011). Similarly, a study on Smoking Initiation and Susceptibility to Future Smoking among School-Going Adolescents in Lagos State, Nigeria reported that Students who had initiated smoking had significantly lower tobacco related health risk knowledge scores than their counterpart who had not initiated smoking (Odukoya et al., 2013). This shows that tobacco smokers, especially students might be unaware of the dangers posed by tobacco smoking to their health.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The general aim of this study is to assess the factors associated with tobacco smoking among medical students. To achieve this, the study will specifically:

  1. Determine the prevalence of tobacco smoking among medical students.
  2. Ascertain factors which influences tobacco smoking culture among medical students.
  3. Assess medical students knowledge about the health problems associated with tobacco consumption.

1.4 Research Question

The study will be guided by the following questions:

  1. What is the prevalence of tobacco smoking among medical students?
  2. What are the factors which influences tobacco smoking culture among medical students?
  3. What are the health problems associated with tobacco consumption among medical student?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: There are no significant factors which influences the smoking of tobacco among medical students.
  • Ha: There are significant factors which influences the smoking of tobacco among medical students.

1.6 Significance of the study

According to the Centre for Disease Control (2012), the vast majority of smokers began using tobacco products well before the age of 18 years. This is a major public health concern particularly among university students because of the immediate and long term health consequence associated with tobacco use. Furthermore, with the mean lifetime smoking prevalence of 26.4% (Osibogun et al., 2009), reported among students, it is therefore of importance to explore the characteristics, pattern and factors associated with tobacco smoking and its perceived effects among undergraduate students. In addition, findings generated from the study will guide in spawning evidence based intervention towards curbing tobacco smoking among university students in Nigeria.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The study generally focuses on factors associated with tobacco smoking among medical students.The study will be delimited to medical students in Madonna University, Rivers State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Tobacco

A substance smoked in cigarettes, pipes, etc. that is prepared from the dried leaves of a particular plant.

Smoking

The action or habit of inhaling and exhaling the smoke of tobacco by sucking on the end of a lit cigarette, cigar, pipe, etc.


1.10 Organization of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the factors associated with tobacco smoking among medical students using in Madonna University, Rivers State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the factors associated with tobacco smoking among medical students using in Madonna University, Rivers State as a case study. The study is was specifically carried out to determine the prevalence of tobacco smoking among medical students, ascertain factors which influences tobacco smoking culture among medical students, and assess medical students knowledge about the health problems associated with tobacco consumption.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 259 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were medical students in Madonna University, Rivers State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. The prevalence of tobacco smoking among medical students is high.
  2. The factors which influences tobacco smoking culture among medical students includes: Peer-Pressure, Family-members, Experimentation, Advertisements, and Stress.
  3. The health problems associated with tobacco consumption among medical student includes; Cough, Asthma, Problem in Gumm, Lung Cancer, Mouth Cancer, and Teeth problem.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. School-based education and intervention programs should focus on the vulnerable person to prevent tobacco use. Policy for the prohibition of smoking in public places, a ban on advertisements related to tobacco products, and smoke-free environments are highly recommended. It is also very necessary to provide knowledge among school students about the hazards of tobacco.
  2. Preventive programmes involving stakeholders must be instituted in order to reduce the number of student smokers and realize the vision of better health for Nigerian youths who are leaders of tomorrow.
  3. Parents should make it as a matter of priority to explore the family background, private activities and friendship selection of their children. This will help to guide their children on the right friends to make as well as detect risky behaviour.

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