Knowledge And Attitude Of Undergraduate Students Towards Personal Hygiene In Igbinedion University Okada
This study was carried out on the knowledge and attitude of undergraduate students towards personal hygiene in Igbinedion University Okada. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of undergraduate students of Igbinedion University Okada. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 160 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. While the hypothesis were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the level of students knowledge of personal hygiene is high. The study also revealed that the students have positive perception towards personal hygiene. Furthermore, the study revealed that the barriers to the utilization of health education on personal hygiene among students in Igbinedion University Okada includes: family, friends, personal preference, body image/physical condition, socioeconomic status and cultural variations. Therefore, it is recommended that all the facilities needed for personal hygiene by the schools should be provided for them through the help of the government, Non-Government Organizations, Community and Parents and Teachers Associations. This can be achieved through advocacy. And there should be adequate provision and maintenance of sources of water in all the schools with a view to facilitate the practice of personal hygiene among students. To mention but a few.
Table of Content
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
- 1.10 Organisations of the Study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Size Determination
- 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the Study
- 3.9 Reliability of the Study
- 3.10 Ethical Consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Data
- 4.3 Answering Research Questions
- 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background to the Study
Personal hygiene is particularly important among students because they spend most of their time in public places, such as schools, colleges, or universities in proximity with others. The transmission of infections to students may contribute to their absence from school, which in turn may affect their academic productivity in college (White, Kolble, Carlson, Lipson, Dolan & Ali, 2018). Therefore, health knowledge and promotion are essential for students, their families, and communities at large. Indeed, a meta-analysis of the hand hygiene of 30 students showed that improvement in hand washing minimized the occurrence of upper respiratory tract infections by 21% and gastrointestinal illness by 31% (Aiello, Coulborn, Perez & Larson, 2016). Furthermore, Sarkar, (2019) in his study reported the health knowledge of students significantly improved after education.
The World Health Organization (WHO) identifies the transmission of healthcare associated infections by healthcare providers to be a major concern and apprehension for patient safety and care. WHO recommends surveillance and prevention of healthcare associated infections to be a priority in healthcare settings worldwide (Uneke&Ijeoma, 2019; Health care-associated infections Fact Sheet, 2018; WHO, 2018; Allegranzi, 2017), Nurses constitute the largest proportion of the health care workers and they are the “nucleus of the health care system”. They spend more time with patients than any other health care workers, their compliance with hygiene practices guidelines seems to be more vital and imperative in preventing the disease transmission among patients (Sharif, 2016).
Health education on personal hygiene offered to nursing students provides them with the knowledge in health, making them aware of the reduction of risk associated with poor hygiene practices, such as disease transmission. Health education made the nursing students capable to pass personal hygiene information to their families and community. Thus, leads to a better lifestyle, which can potentially increase their social hygiene profile. The development of policies, services, and research on such issues is integral to maintaining and raising the quality of health education.
Good hygienic care as well as practices in terms of personal hygiene i.e. its utilization contributes to a large extent on factors relating to healthful living, prevention of hazards from diseases and transmission of diseases. These health risk factors are directly related to some important daily activities implicated with worthy operational actions and obligatory responsibilities, such as washing hands before meals and after defecation with soap, brushing teeth at least twice a day specially after breakfast and after meals, taking bath with soap regularly, keeping nails short and taking regular exercise (Ali, Rahman, Siddiqui, 2018). Inadequate sanitary conditions and poor hygiene practices play major roles in the increased burden of communicable disease within these developing countries. In Nigeria, infectious diseases constitute one of the major health problems with its prevalence being particularly high among young children and adolescents and the occurrence closely related (Akpata, 2016). Adegbembo and El-Nadeef (2015) reported caries experience as high as 30 and 43% among Nigerians aged 12 and 15 years, respectively. Health education must be provided to increase the level of knowledge. Schools are acknowledged as important places for developing health promotion and influencing health-related behaviours (Haaple&Probart, 2016; Moon, 2019; Sidebottom, 2017), including hygiene-related behaviours.
There are many studies about the knowledge and practices of personal hygiene which were done on different groups (Tan, Cheng, Soon, Ghazali, & Mahyudin, 2017; Miko, Cohen, Conway, Gilman, Seward & Larson 2018; Suchitra & Devi, 2017). There are limited research findings to determine utilization of health education on personal hygiene among nursing students in Nigeria and this study aims to fill of the gap, therefore, this study will investigate the knowledge and perception on personal hygiene among hostel students in the University.
1.2 Statement of Problem
The increased burden of communicable diseases and its transmission due to poor personal hygiene practices and inadequate sanitary conditions remains a concern on the public health agenda in developing countries. Invalids are particularly vulnerable to the transmission of communicable disease due to neglect of basic personal hygiene, due lack of knowledge and practice by health professional and this is an area that’s should be emphasized to nursing students via health education. Poor knowledge, practice of and attitudes to personal hygiene such as hand washing play major roles in the high incidence of communicable diseases and therefore has negative consequences. There is a direct correlation between the lack of personal hygiene and illness, the latter of which proper hand washing has been shown to reduce the risk of disease transmission. Lack of hand hygiene is linked with outbreaks of viral gastroenteritis, upper respiratory tract infections, and Group B streptococcal colonization. In the majority of developing countries, roughly 80% of diseases are associated with poor domestic and personal hygiene (Ali 2018).
Several studies have shown that poor personal hygiene contribute to cross transmission of microorganisms, gum infections, increased rate of infectious illnesses, incidence of food borne outbreaks and reproductive tract infections (UnekIjeoma2019). These have been attributed to inadequate knowledge of personal hygiene and its practices. Personal hygiene deficiency diseases have been found to continue to be a serious public health problem in developing countries like Nigeria and people often at risk to transmission are invalids in hospitals.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The purpose of the study is to assess knowledge and perception on personal hygiene among hostel students in the University.
Specifically, the objectives of the study are as follows:
- To determine the level of knowledge of personal hygiene among students in Igbinedion University Okada.
- To determine the perception of students towards personal hygiene.
- To identify the barriers to the utilization of health education on personal hygiene among l students Inigbinedion University Okada.
1.4 Research Questions
The following questions were formulated to guide the study based on the research objectives;
- What is the level of knowledge of personal hygiene among students inIgbinedion University Okada?
- What is the perception of students towards personal hygiene?
- What are the barriers to the utilization of health education on personal hygiene among students in Igbinedion University Okada?
- H0: Students do not have adequate knowledge of personal hygiene
- Ha: Students not have adequate knowledge of personal hygiene
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study is important to explore the level of utilization health education on personal hygiene among students in the University. The findings of this study will facilitate sound knowledge, appropriate attitude and right practice toward personal hygiene and promote adequate educational and literacy programmes to achieve healthy outcome among the students. Also, the result of the study will also create the awareness among the University authority and the educators to take the appropriate intervention and solution to address low levels of utilization of health education in order to improve outcome on students’ personal hygiene practices. In addition, the findings from this study can also provide basic and useful information for policy formulation and strategic interventions on personal hygiene among university students. Lastly, the findings of this study will contribute to existing body of knowledge on needle stick injuries in the healthcare sector as well as provide empirical literature for future studies in related areas.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This study focuses to determine the level of knowledge of personal hygiene among students in Igbinedion University okada, to determine the perception of towards personal hygiene in among students inIgbinedion University Okada, and identify the barriers to the utilization of health education on personal hygiene among students inIgbinedion University Okada.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.
Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.
1.9 Definition of Terms
Refers to practices associated with ensuring good health and cleanliness.
This is the action, habit or practice of keeping oneself clean, especially as a means of maintaining good health. The practice of personal hygiene can also protect the health of others.
1.10 Organization of Study
The study comprises of 5 chapters. In chapter one, the concepts are introduced and the problem of the study is established with the research objectives and questions. Chapter two presents the literature review while chapter three presents the research methodology. The fourth chapter presents the results and discussion, and the last chapter presents the conclusion and recommendation.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:
This chapter summarizes the findings of the knowledge and attitude of undergraduate students towards personal hygiene in Igbinedion University Okada as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.
5.2 Summary of the Study
In this study, our focus was to examine the knowledge and attitude of undergraduate students towards personal hygiene in Igbinedion University Okada. The study specifically was aimed at determining the level of students knowledge of personal hygiene, assess the perception of students towards personal hygiene, and identify the barriers to the utilization of health education on personal hygiene among students in Igbinedion University Okada.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents are undergraduate students of Igbinedion University Okada.
Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion
- The level of students knowledge of personal hygiene is high.
- The students have positive perception towards personal hygiene.
- The barriers to the utilization of health education on personal hygiene among students in Igbinedion University Okada includes: family, friends, personal preference, body image/physical condition, socioeconomic status and cultural variations.
With respect to the findings and the aim of this study, the researchers therefore recommend that;
- Training should be organized for students in the schools on how to take care of their teeth, hair, feet, nose, eyes and hands.
- There should be gender equity in the distribution of personal hygiene materials and sanitation facilities within schools.
- All the facilities needed for personal hygiene by the schools should be provided for them through the help of the government, Non-Government Organizations, Community and Parents and Teachers Associations. This can be achieved through advocacy.
- Interschool and intra-school competitions relating to personal hygiene should be institutionalized in the schools as a strategy for promoting personal hygiene among them.
- 5. There should be adequate provision and maintenance of sources of water in all the schools with a view to facilitate the practice of personal hygiene among students.
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