Sanitation And Hygiene

Project and Seminar Material for Nursing (Science)

Project and Seminar Material for Nursing (Science)


The purpose of the study was to review the relevant literature of sanitation and hygiene regarding women in poor urban centres and explore ways on empowering women on sanitation and hygiene. The aim of the study was to describe the typical concerns for women regarding sanitation and hygiene in Kibera as well as providing women with practical suggestions to improve Hygiene and Sanitation in slums.

The data collection method involved reviewing relevant literature which consisted research materials from poor urban centres and developing countries. In addition, United Nations publications and educational books for research were referred to.

The findings suggest that there are seven sanitation and hygiene concerns that women experience: Toileting, water, poverty, problems caused by poor sanitation, communicable diseases, insecurity and gender inequality. Nurses need to promote hygiene and sanitation practices by advocating, educating, campaigning and participating in designing community projects that affect sanitation and hygiene. Furthermore, nurses need to work within communities, churches, and schools.

As a conclusion, the findings of this study give idea on designing a poster for the community health care nurses who are working with women living in under privileged environments.

Chapter One


1.1 Background of the Study

The paper intends to find significant conclusions and make recommendations based on scientific information and ethically accepted data. The paper focuses on women, hygiene and sanitation in Kibera slums which is one of the largest slums in Africa with a population of almost 2 million people; and where 10-25% of the population are infected with HIV/AIDS. (UNDP, 2005). Kibera is not the only slum dealing with sanitation and hygiene problems, many developing cities are also facing the challenge. Widespread of sanitation and hygiene problems are a result of poor political leadership, mismanagement of resources and poverty. Many first world or underdeveloped countries face the same challenges, although with good political leadership it is possible to overcome the problems. Poor political leadership and corruption has led to poverty, widespread diseases and war. African leaders should be encouraged to meet the needs of citizens instead of being self -centred about wealth and power. By doing this, the poor population will be able to access basic needs such as food, education, water, shelter and medical care with less difficulties.According to the Ministries of Health and Water, in 1983 national sanitation reached 49% of the population. Research carried out by the United Nations Children’s Education fund (UNICEF) estimated that sanitation in Kenya covered 45%and 46% in 1996. Dickens in 1883 quoted that Charity begins at home. This means good hygiene and sanitation must start at the grass roots level.

Thus, the study focuses on women because woman’s health is reflecting on the well-being of the family. It is important for nurse’ to bear in mind women’s concerns in poor urban areas in order to be able to implement effective care given to women when they visit hospitals.The purpose of this study is to review relevant literature on sanitation and hygiene of women in poor urban centres and to describe how nurses can help women by giving them suggestions on how to improve sanitation and hygiene. Finally, we will design a poster for community health care nurses working with women living in under privileged environments.

Health Care And Concerns In Kibera Slums
Description and Statistics

Kibera lies at an altitude of 1,670 meters above sea level, latitude 36 degrees, 50 degrees east and longitude 1 degree, 17 degrees south about 140 km south of equator. The emergence of Kibera as an informal settlement is connected with the phenomenal growth of the city of Nairobi. Kibera slums, the largest informal settlement in Africa, is situated 5 kilometres south of Nairobi City centre which is the capital city of Kenya. It houses more than a quarter of Nairobi’s population. The name `Kibera´ originated from a Nubian word which means `forest. ´ (Karanja et al., 2002).Kibera is divided into nine official villages, with each village having its own elder. They are Kianda, Soweto, Kisumu Ndogo, Lindi, Lainisaba, Silanga, Makini and Mashimoni. There are no residences greater or bigger than a single storey. The average home is nine square meters which has five inhabitants per dwelling. Urban services such as water and sanitation are scarce. There is one pit latrine for every fifty to five hundred people hence leading to `flying toilets. ´ Kenya has a great water shortage resident rely on piped water, boreholes and the polluted Nairobi river. Drinking water is pumped through plastic pipes alongside sewage trenches. (Karanja et al., 2002)

Health Care delivery systems

The Ministry of Health (MOH) in Kenya is responsible for providing health care to the Kibera population. Kenyatta National Hospital, the biggest referral hospital in East and Central Africa, is close to the Kibera slums. Other health care facilities in the slum include: health clinics, dispensaries, maternity homes, nursing homes, medical centres, laboratories and radiological services, dental clinics which are owned by non-governmental organisations and private individuals. Attempts have been made to improve the healthcare system in Kibera by the Kenyan government, non-governmental institutions and the private sector. Health care facilities are licensed by the Ministry of Health if they meet the requirements of the National Hospital Insurance Fund (NHIF). However, most of the private facilities operate illegally, thus leading to malpractice and poor quality of health.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Access to basic services like water supply and sanitation is a moral and ethical imperative rooted in the cultural and religious tradition of societies around the world. The United Nations had affirmed the right to water in 2002, recognizing that the right to water is indispensable for leading a life in human dignity and a prerequisite for the realization of other human rights. It states that the human right to water entitles everyone to sufficient, safe, acceptable, physically accessible and affordable water for personal and domestic use. The statement echoes the importance of adequate water supply and sanitation for the health, economic, social development and for an ecological balance of the world. Availability of wholesome drinking water for domestic consumption and fulfilment of industrial purposes enhances maintenance and promotion of personal and community health. However, potable water can only be conveyed to the people through adequate safe water supply facilities such as boreholes with hand pumps, public standpipes and hand dug wells. Inadequacy and non-utilization of water supply facilities can hinder access to wholesome drinking water, which eventually may lead to consumption of contaminated water with attendant consequences.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this study is to determine the effect of compensation management on employee performance. Specific objectives include;

  1. To evaluate the impact of basic sanitation practices.
  2. To determine sewage disposal practices.
  3. To find out solid waste disposal practices.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What are the basic sanitation practices?
  2. What is the sewage disposal practices?
  3. What are solid waste disposal practices?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

Hypothesis I
  • H0: There is no significant impact of basic sanitation practices.
  • Hi: There is a significant impact of basic sanitation practices.
Hypothesis II
  • H0: There is no significant impact of sewage disposal practices.
  • Hi: There is a significant impact of sewage disposal practices.
Hypothesis III
  • H0: There is no significant impact of solid waste disposal practices.
  • Hi: There is a significant impact of solid waste disposal practices.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The findings on solid waste disposal practices will be beneficial to Waste Management Authorities and the rural residents. Waste Management Authorities will collect refuse from households and public containers on a regular basis both in the rural and urban communities, so that the environment will be clean. The rural residents will benefit because, they will desist from open dumping of solid waste so as to avoid the breeding of flies and vermin and resort to appropriate waste disposal method of their choice. Moreover, the findings on sewage disposal practices among rural women will be beneficial to Environmental Health Officers. They will check the sanitary facilities of each household and advice on the improved sanitary facilities in the home that will separate the human contact with excreta. They will also advice the community on the monthly sanitation to keep the environment clean. This will go hand in hand on hygiene promotion covering hygiene behaviour, solid waste manages, sewage disposal, drainage and other sanitary risk in the area. This will also prevent the residents from noxious effects of sanitation related diseases.

1.7 Scope of the Study

This study is on the basic sanitation practices consisted of solid waste disposal and sewage disposal practices in Abuja metropolis.

1.8 Limitations of the study

The demanding schedule of respondents made it very difficult getting the respondents to participate in the survey. As a result, retrieving copies of questionnaires in timely fashion was very challenging. Also, the researcher is a student and therefore has limited time as well as resources in covering extensive literature available in conducting this research. Information provided by the researcher may not hold true for all research under this study but is restricted to the selected respondents used as a study in this research especially in the locality where this study is being conducted. Finally, the researcher is restricted only to the evidence provided by the participants in the research and therefore cannot determine the reliability and accuracy of the information provided. Other limitations include;

Financial constraint:

Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint:

The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusion And Recommendations

5.1 Summary Of Findings

The objectives of the study were to;

  1. To evaluate the impact of basic sanitation practices.
  2. To determine sewage disposal practices.
  3. To find out solid waste disposal practices.

Findings from the study revealed that majority of the respondents were of the opinion that there is a significant impact of basic sanitation practices, there is a significant impact of sewage disposal practices and that there is a significant impact of solid waste disposal practices.

5.2 Conclusion

In conclusion therefore, the aim of any sanitation and hygiene is to promote sustainable personal and environmental hygiene in order to protect health. It is therefore imminent to state that an effective sanitation and hygiene relies on an exchange of information between the external facilitators and rural communities in order to identify key water, sanitation and hygiene problems and with a view to finding culturally appropriate solutions where the community members are at the forefront of these activities. Ensuring the optimal use of all water supply and sanitation facilities and practicing safe hygiene will result in the greatest impact on public health.

It is however observed that water is essential commodity for human existence, health and human dignity, but in extreme conditions or situations, where there is short supply of water available to meet basic needs and in these cases supplying a survival level of safe drinking water is of critical importance. In doing these, care and safety should be used, where covered containers should be used to harvest, transport and store safe drinking water. This is because in most cases, the main health problems are caused by poor hygiene due to insufficient water and by the consumption of contaminated water. Once this is done, human health ill be drastically improved and the incidence of WASH related health complications can be completely eradicated or reduced to the barest minimum.

5.3 Recommendations

  1. There should be mass community awareness creation on water, sanitation and hygiene programs in Abuja metropolis.
  2. Communities should form community self-help groups and construct improved pit latrine for defecation using local materials within the rural setting for their waste management  Streams should be fenced round, while during the collection, harvesting, transportation and storage of water, this should be done in covered containers.
  3. Households should be encouraged to provide more drinking cups for their household; so that each member has a drinking cup to him/her self and spare cups should also be made available for visitors. There should a separation of drinking cups from the main one on the water point.
  4. Community members should adopt regular shaving of pubic, armpits and hair to allow free air to touch their sensitive region reducing sweating and odor.
  5. People who are menstruating should use the recommended World Health Organization pad or use old clothing’s as pad during their menstrual period, this should be washed regularly with hot water, ironed and then re-used.
  6. Waste from refuse and other household garbage should be properly disposed away from the compounds and should be burnt where need be.
  7. Plates and other cooking utensils should be properly washed and hung up where animals cannot reach such cooking and eating utensils.
  8. Domestic animals should properly be accommodated and confined to their pen to avoid roaming around freely in the rural settings.
  9. Hand washing at critical periods should be embraced, after defecation, after farm work, when they want to eat and when they touch children’s excreta or menstrual materials.

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