The Impact Of The Introduction Of The Computer On The Secretarial Profession

Project and Seminar Material for Secretarial Administration

The Impact Of The Introduction Of The Computer On The Secretarial Profession


Abstract


The secretary plays a very important role in the running of an organization. No matter how skillful and competent secretaries are the effectiveness of their functions largely depend on the availability of office technology. The study was carried out to examine the impact of the introduction of the computer in the secretarial profession in some selected organizations. It was specifically to find out the availability of modern office technology/equipment, the secretary’s knowledge and the usage of the technological equipment and its contributions to productivity and the secretary’s performance. Simple random technique was used to draw a sample of 60 respondents for the study. Questionnaires and interview were used for collecting data.

The questionnaire was made up of open-ended and closed ended questions. For the close ended, the researcher used category and rating questions using the Likert-style rating scale. The researcher used Statistical Package for Social Sciences (version 21) to analyze the empirical data. A narrative approach and frequency tables and percentages were used to arrange and present the data.

The study revealed that organizations had modern equipment which aided the performance of the secretary’s tasks; the secretary’s operational knowledge enhances the usage of the modern equipment which goes to improve their productivity and performance. It was recommended that for organizations to survive and to increase productivity, they should provide their secretaries with adequate modern technology/equipment and training in order to enhance their skills and competencies and fit them into the current trend of technological advancement.


Table Of Contents


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Approval page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract.
  • Table of content

Chapter One

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of problem
  • 1.3 Purpose of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Significance of the study
  • 1.6 Delimitation of the study
  • 1.7 Definition of terms

Chapter Two

Overview Of The Study

  • 2.1 Definition Of Computer
  • 2.2 The Job Of Secretary
  • 2.3 The Typical Nigerian Office Secretary
  • 2.4 Highlights Of Secretarial Problems

Chapter Three

Uses Of Computer In Secretarial Study

  • 3.1 The Impact Of Computer Literacy Among Secretaries
  • 3.2 Strategies For Extending Computer Literacy To Secretaries

Chapter Four

Recommendation And Conclusion

  • 4.1 Recommendations
  • 4.2 Conclusion
  • Reference

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background Of The Study

Today, the business world is undergoing far-reaching technological revolution due to the advancement in science. For all types of organizations to succeed in today’s rapidly changing environment, they need to be able to be process data and information effectively.

In conducting them day to day operations organization use information for functions such as planning, controlling, directing, organizing and diction making. Information therefore is unique actionably a critical resources in the operations of all organization the business men, secretaries, students and in fact everybody, would now readily see the indelible impact of modern technology on people lives.

In an organization, information moves from person, forms are completed, filed and received and individuals communicate variety of both simple and complex concepts. At the turn of the century most written information were complied by hand in pen and ink copies were made by hand and communicated was by letter, telegraph or in person. Today most of the tedious functions related to information handling and processing are done through the computer.
For the secretaries, not only have their equipment changed, but also their administrative processes office routine management systems are similarly evolving into new forms. Computers have replaced manual typewriters and electric typewriter while for machines replaced telex machines.

There are also different type of advanced communication gadget such as cellular phones, pager etc. With this radical change, the secretaries are expected to change and be able to keep up with all these professional changes around them. In accordance with the law of motion CHANGE is a constant phenomena. If we look at the beginning of man to the present day, we would see that there had been tremendous change. If there had not occurred, man would have remained primitive hill today. Change is a challenge and if we abide by change, it brings out the best in us thereby leading to erroneous progress.

The first office automatic machine were introduced 1930 and used paper rolls later paper tape as a form of memory. BY the 1960s the international business machine (IBM) had introduced the selective go If ball typewriter which allows the typist to change the print element, the go If – ball to provide a different type font (character design and sign) another break through was the introduction of IBM’s magnetic tape selective typewriter.

This was followed by the introduction of a visual display unit (VDU) this allows the typist to see what I happening to the text as if being tyed amended and stored, but before it I being committed to paper or printed out. In fact, electronic systems are now possible that they can sense absorbs store, categorize ponder, very high quantity. Yet with greater accuracy, speed and reliability. Coventry, (1981) indicated that Recent development of the micro processor, founded on the silicon chips has potentials likely to have a vast social repercussion through out financial industry, for a simple chip take over a high proportion of today’s office job P.21. When we refer to computer system, we refer to information and communication system which are necessary for the functioning of the office. We assume that data processing and word-processing play a large role and also that human system under lie these technical systems. In an ideal situation therefore, the technology and the people function together harmoniously.

It is important to recognize that development and implementation of the computer is moving through several overlapping phases, each affecting differently.

In general, a distinction can be made between two classes of office workers. The first are the information worker they are those who are involved in the routine entry, recording, storage and transmission of information, those who fall under this group of worker include – Typist, secretaries, clerks and data entry personal.

The second group are the knowledge works-this group aconite of those worker who create, interpret, analyze and utilize this information these knowledge worker can be divided into two (2) groups professional/technical employees and managers.

The main impact of the computer is simply to facilitate office operation as they are now being carried out. For example the word professor replace the secretary’s type writers, the mini-computer replaces the clerk’s filing cabinets etc. More recently professionals and secretaries have begun using personal computers and sophisticated calculators to speed up their work. The timing of there development has largely been dictated by the emergence of the technology starting with the widespread introduction of word processor’s in the 1970’s, and it in the late 1970s and its legitimating as a business tool in 1981, with the introduction of the IBM P.C.


1.2 Statement Of Problem

Up to the 1990’s the use of the computer in this country was limited to very few multinational companies. The secretary then had to contend with using manual and electric typewriters in performing her word processing function.

Furthermore storage and retrieval of information was by use of files, filing cabinets, index cards etc. Accessing of other information had to be through telephone directories and other relevant specialized text meant for such purpose.

Many of the secretaries of the 80’s are still in employment. With the advent and widespread use of the computer are then wonders how these secretaries are adjusting to be new devices now prevalent in modern offices are they finding it easy or difficult? Is the profession generally under threat by the introduction of the computer and the Internet? What can be done to keep the secretary still relevant in to day’s modern business setting? These and many more are what this research aims to find solutions for.


1.3 Purpose Of The Study

The purpose of this study is to thoroughly investigate on the impact of the introduction of the computer on the secretaries.

  1. How secretaries react or the attitude of secretaries towards the introduction of computers.
  2. To ascertain whether the introduction of computer has in any way improve the secretary’s work.
  3. To ascertain whether the introduction of computer has made it easy or difficult to adjust (especially the secretaries of the bank under investigation).
  4. To determine the problems encountered by secretaries in trying to adapt to changes in the nature of their work.
  5. To find out whether or not secretaries are involved in the planning and introduction of computers.

1.4 Research Questions

The research provided answers to the following research questions;

  1. How do secretaries react to the introduction of computer
  2. What problems are encountered by secretaries in trying to adapt to changes in the nature of their work.
  3. Are there orientation programmes in facilitating the adaptation to new changes of work
  4. Are secretaries involved in the planning and introduction of computers.

1.5 Significance Of The Study

The investigation of the impact of the introduction of the computer on secretaries in some selected banks in Enugu Metropolis. Would give some insight in the performance of secretaries on the advert of computers.

Many of the major problems that organizations have faced in the past have been that they are in awe of technology, they failed to recognize the need to use technology as a competitive weapon against their rivals, they expected technology to be difficult to use and also the unwillingness to address the compelling human issues which has been the major cause of low productivity. This study will help secretaries to full understand how their career will change as a result of the introduction of computers in their offices.

From this study, banks will now recognize the need to use technology as a competitive weapon. Winning a competitive edge has become of fundamental importance within national and international Banking, institutions. The prime emphasis of activity now rests on providing an ever improving levels of services to existing clients and customers and winning new business through the sheer quality of service provided and the ingenuity of marketing activity. Ultimately, it is only through establishing a competitive advantage over rival institutions that an institution can hope to maximize profitability.

In Banking sector where establishing a competitive advantage has become so important, it is necessary for them to pay particular attention to the role which technology plays in offering them an opportunity to gain this advantage. The main function of technological deployment is to assist an institution to gain a competitive advantage.
Finally, this research work will be of significance to the society at large because if the computer is well utilized, productivity (efficiency and effectiveness) would be enhanced, there by leading to a higher standard of ling for the society.


1.6 Delimitation Of The Study

The study of the impact of computer on the secretarial profession, will be carried out in some selected Banks I.e. first Banks on Nigeria, Union Bank of Nigeria plc, and Abakpa Nike Community Bank limited in Enugu metropolis and does not pretent to give an overview of what applies in other Banks.


1.7 Definition Of Terms

Bank:

This means any private or pubic organization which derives the greater part of its revenue from handling, managing, or investing money either on its own behalf or on behalf of its customers.

Computer:

A computer is a device capable of accepting information, applying prescribed processes to the information and supplying the result of these processes.

Secretary:

An executive assistance who processes a mastery of office work and skills and demonstrates the ability to assume responsibility without direct supervision, who exercise initiative and judgments and who make decision within the scope of assigned authority. Also a person who deals with correspondence or arranges venues, date and time for meetings.

Sophisticated:

Having or showing a lot of experience of the would and social situations.

Effective:

Having the desired effect producing the intended result.

Efficiency:

Able to work well and without wasting time or resources, competent. The ability to produce the required result without wasting time or resources.

Equipment:

The things needed for a particular purpose.

Productivity:

Efficiency, especially in industry, measured by comparing the amount produced with the time taken or the resources used to produce it.


Chapter Four


Recommendation And Conclusion

4.1 Recommendations

Based on the results and findings of the study, the following recommendations are therefore made,

  1. Private business organizations should procure as many modern office Computer as are available in the market to enable secretaries increase their productivity.
  2. Secretaries without new skills in the use of modern office Computer should be retrained to fit into the trend of current advancement.
  3. Secretaries should be given the opportunity and chance to perform/carry out other administrative functions.
  4. Business Education Departments in Nigerian universities should create more credit hours to organize seminars and workshops in information processing and management, using modern office technology and information systems, for secretarial instead of sending their students on attachment for SIWES. Competent resource persons in the area of information technologies should be invited to thoroughly expose the students to the practical applications of modern office technologies.

This will surely provide the university secretarial graduates with the knowledge, skills and competence in modern office technology and information systems to effectively meet the 21st century challenges of ultra modern office and teaching.


4.2 Conclusion

Based on the findings of this study, the following conclusions are drawn:-

– Computer application packages like Microsoft word, Microsoft excel, Power point, Corel draw, spreadsheet, master graphics and the Internet are relevant to secretarial education programme in Nigerian universities.

– There was significant difference between the exposure of secretarial students to computer application packages and the expected exposure of secretarial in Nigerian universities. This implies that secretarial students in Nigerian universities are not adequately exposed to the practical application of computer application packages such as Microsoft word, Microsoft excel, Power point, Corel draw, spreadsheet, master graphics and the Internet.

The consequence of this is that the university secretarial graduates may lose their relevance and employment opportunities in office occupation to computer operators who are versatile and knowledgeable in computer application packages and other related modern office equipment. They may also not be able to impart computer knowledge, skills and competence to learners in the area of teaching.


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