The Impact Of Information And Communication Technology On The Secretarial Profession In Selected Government Agencies
The study examined the impact of information and communication technology on the secretarial profession in selected government agencies. Survey research design was adopted in the study in order to assess the opinions of the selected respondents with the use of questionnaire. Three research questions and hypothesis were raised to guide the study. Data obtained were analyzed using simple sample techniques, frequency and percentages while hypotheses were tested using Chi Square. The findings of the study showed that information technology has a positive impact on secretaries’ effectiveness in Government agencies. It was also noted that information technology has a positive impact on secretaries’ productivity in Government agencies.. Finally, it was also noted that the adoption of ICT leads to the retrenchment of secretaries in Government agencies.Based on the finding, the following recommendations were made that government should make adequate provision for ICT and necessary infrastructure should be provided so that the secretaries will be efficient and accurate in the performance of their duty, the secretaries should endeavour to update their knowledge as at when due so as to be well abreast of the modern office equipment, Efforts at training students/ pupils on ICT as a course should be intensified in the school curriculum and proper awareness and enlightment programme should be provided.
Table of Content
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Size Determination
- 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the Study
- 3.9 Reliability of the Study
- 3.10 Ethical Consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Data
- 4.3 Answering Research Questions
- 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background of the Study
Information technology (ICT) is generally regarded as the fourth industrial revolution in the world (Asakpa, 2003). Indeed ICT has become the gateway to the modern information skills and orientation (ISO) which distinguish the world order. ICT in secretarial field can be understood as the application of digital gadget to all aspects of secretarial duties. Within the context of secretarial profession, ICT is described as the combination of technology for collecting, storing, processing, file management, diary keeping, communicating and delivering of information relating to secretarial processes (Oladimeji 2003). The spread and efficiency of ICT is critical to the achievement of secretarial goal (Obanya 2002). ICT involves the application of all aspect of the use of computer, micro electronic devices, satellite and communication technology.
The national policy on ICT (2001), describe ICT as any equipment that is used in the acquisition, storage, manipulation management, control, display, switching and transmission of information. In other dimension, ICT is conceptualized as communication in whatever forms used, assessed, relayed and transmitted to communicate, send and receive information. Application and utilization of these devices converts information, text, messages, sound and motion to digital form. In an office situation, ICT influences the secretarial behavior of the secretaries through training and retraining. It is an integral component of secretarial duties. Since the role of a secretary involves managerial and clerical function.
The potential of ICT as an effective tool to promote efficiency and meet present day secretarial challenges in the organization is not in doubt. The federal government of Nigeria approved a national ICT policy in March 2001 and implementation started in April of that same year. With the establishment of the National Information Technology Development Agency (NITDA), charged with the implementation of the policy, the federal government recognized that private service providers have enormous capacity for ICT services. Accordingly government setup the Nigeria National ICT for development of ICT4D, strategic action plan committee to develop a new road map for the nation.
ICT has positively affected the secretarial profession in all ramification such that no nation can escape this transforming movement driven forward by the engines of the internet and the modern day invention like the computer, fax machines, GSM and so on. This implies that secretaries for the survival of their profession now have to put their very destines in ICT. Recent findings, have shown that the introduction and application of ICT into the secretarial profession improved the performance of the secretaries in every organization. Recent studies have shown also that the application of ICT makes the secretary work less and accurately (Ogunsiji and Aregbe 2010). Lasisi (2005) is also of the view that ICT has upgraded the function of a secretary and has removed the boredomness of using a typewriter. The cyber revolution has started to redefine secretarial profession, creating new self Image, creativities and innovation, and an ever expanding technological framework. However, the new challenges of ICT and the excitement they are causing do not seems to permeate the entire society.
In early modern time, numbers of nobles have secretaries who functioned quite similarly to those of the present day. They are men who had good command of several languages including Latin, and were required to have what we could consider today as a broad generalized education. Following the renaissance, men continued to dominate clerical and secretarial roles until late 1880’s when the new writing machine was invented that welcomed the entering of women into the profession.
In 1942, the National Secretaries Association (NSA) was formed (now know as the International Association of Administrative professional).NSA first administered the certificate of professional secretaries examination in 1951. The history of secretarial profession in Nigeria can be traced back to the arrival of the missionaries and the colonial masters.
Information technology have restricted the role of the secretary through the elimination of monotonous aspect of paper holding and filling. As a result, the secretary would likely have more time for work that involve human behavioural aspect. There is no doubt about the fact that ICT has contributed greatly to the secretarial profession. The coverage of this research work is to examine the impact of information and communication technology on the secretarial profession in selected government agencies
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Deficiency of the typewriter and the duties of the secretary in the office has affected the governmental framework directly and indirectly, which slows the efficiency of the front office. There has been a lot of research efforts in other to recommend or find a lasting solution to the challenges of the secretaries in the office but their are still lapes. This study examine the impact of information and communication technology on the secretarial profession in selected government agencies.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The overall aim of this study is to critically examine the impact of information and communication technology on the secretarial profession in selected government agencies.. Hence, the study will be channeled to the following specific objectives;
- To examine the impact of information technology on secretaries’ effectiveness in Government agencies.
- To examine the impact of information technology on secretaries’ productivity in Government agencies.
- To ascertain if the adoption of ICT leads to the retrenchment of secretaries in Government agencies.
- To examine the challenges encountered by secretaries in the use of information technology in Government agencies.
1.4 Research Questions
The study will be guided by the following questions;
- What is the impact of information technology on secretaries’ effectiveness in Government agencies?
- What is the impact of information technology on secretaries’ productivity in Government agencies?
- Does the adoption of ICT lead to the retrenchment of secretaries in Government agencies?
- What are the challenges encountered by secretaries in the use of information technology in Government agencies?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
The hypothetical statement below will be validated in the course of this study;
H0: The use of ICT has no significant impact on the secretarial profession and the individual secretary.
Ha: The use of ICT has a significant impact on the secretarial profession and the individual secretary.
1.6 Significant of the Study
It is intended to study the effect of ICT on the secretaries and identify factors that do not allow for better performance of the secretaries.
This study will also create awareness to the individual secretary as it will enlighten them on the roles of ICT in the desk office.
The study will identify what lesson need to be learned on how ICT lessons can be applied in a consistent way in order to help secretaries put up good secretarial attribute in the performance of their duties.
The study will also assess the effect of ICT in the office and on the secretaries and profer solutions.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study is structured to examine the the impact of information and communication technology on the secretarial profession in selected government agencies. The study will borders across the the impact of information technology on secretaries’ effectiveness in Government agencies, the impact of information technology on secretaries’ productivity in Government agencies, the adoption of ICT leads to the retrenchment of secretaries in Government agencies, and the challenges encountered by secretaries in the use of information technology in Government agencies. The study will be conducted in some selected government agencies in Kano.
The selected agencies include;
- National Drug Law Enforcement Agency
- National Orientation Agency
- NAFDAC Kano
- Kano State Ministry of Social Development and Women Affairs
- Kano State Secretariat
1.8 Limitation of the Study
Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.
Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.
1.9 Definition of Terms
Some key concept in the research work are hereby defined for better understanding of the reader.
It is used to lower the range of information in various forms in particular to computer, digital electronic and telecommunication.
An administrative assistant who has good mastering of office skills and ability to assume responsibilities without direct supervision, displays, initiatives, exercise judgement, makes decision with the scope of his/her ability.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:
This chapter summarizes the findings on the impact of information and communication technology on the secretarial profession in selected government agencies. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.
5.2 Summary of the Study
In this study, our focus was onthe impact of information and communication technology on the secretarial profession in selected government agencies.The study is was specifically set to examine the impact of information technology on secretaries’ effectiveness in Government agencies, examine the impact of information technology on secretaries’ productivity in Government agencies, ascertain if the adoption of ICT leads to the retrenchment of secretaries in Government agencies, and examine the challenges encountered by secretaries in the use of information technology in Government agencies.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 100 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are secretaries in some selected government agencies in Kano.
In the light of the analysis carried out, the following conclusions were drawn.
- Information technology has a positive impact on secretaries’ effectiveness in Government agencies.
- Information technology has a positive impact on secretaries’ productivity in Government agencies.
- The adoption of ICT leads to the retrenchment of secretaries in Government agencies.
- The challenges encountered by secretaries in the use of information technology in Government agencies include; poor provision of modern technologies for secretaries, inadequate training and retraining of secretaries on the use of new technologies, lack of constant and alternative power supply, and lack of good background knowledge of new technologies by secretaries.
Based on the findings the researcher recommends;
- Both government and private organizations should procure adequate modern office technology/equipment to enhance the productivity of their secretaries.
- Government should involve the secretaries in deciding the kind of technological device they wish to procure since the latter are going to use them.
- Secretaries who lack adequate knowledge and skill in the usage of modern office technology/equipment should be retrained to fit into the current trend of technological advancement for effective performance.
- Government should ensure performance monitoring of the secretatires in the use of latest communication office equipment: Performance monitoring involves an in-depth analysis of a process or project, to determine whether it is efficient and efficacious. It involves developing criteria, conducting interviews and examining documentation to determine how the process or project is conducted. Additionally, Compliance monitoring and compliance auditing aim to establish whether a process or procedure is carried out in conformance with pertinent external requisites, whether set through legislation, regulations or directions.
- Generally secretaries should undergo regular training on the usage of new technological gadgets in order to enhance their skill and keep them abreast with the technological dynamism in the 21st century.
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