Effects Of Apprenticeship System On Job Creation

Project and Seminar Material for Industrial Relations and Personnel Management

Effects Of Apprenticeship System On Job Creation


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the effects of Apprenticeship System on Job Creation in Nigeria using Etche Local Government Area, Rivers state as a case study. The study was carried out to ascertain whether there is a significant relationship between apprenticeship training and job creation in Nigeria, find out whether apprenticeship as a means of skills acquisition promote self-employability and reliance in Nigeria, find out whether apprenticeship facilitate entrepreneurial skills and knowledge for entrepreneurship development in Nigeria, and identify the challenges encountered by apprentices in the course of skill acquisition in Nigeria. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of youths in Etche Local Government Area, Rivers state. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 147 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. While the hypotheses was tested Pearson correlation statistical tool, SPSS v23. The result of the findings reveals that apprenticeship as a means of skills acquisition promote self-employability and reliance in Nigeria. Furthermore, the study revealed that the challenges encountered by apprentices in the course of skill acquisition includes: master crafts persons lack pedagogical skills, low quality work and exploitation of young people, insufficient training tools and inadequate infrastructural facilities, and lack of capital to establish self-employed business. Therefore, it is recommended that the government of Nigeria and African by extension should adopt the practice of face-to-face apprenticeship system and entrepreneurial development in Nigeria as a strategy for the development of the country’s entrepreneurship. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

With a high population and numerous universities in Nigeria turning out thousands of graduates each year, with no ready labour market to employ this teeming job seekers, it has become a clarion call more than ever before for “self determination”(Godwin Omena, 2012).

The trend of graduates’ unemployment is in Nigeria is presently worrisome. Many graduates do not secure employment contrary to their thought and hoped to get a white-collar job after so many years of studies in their various higher institutions in Nigeria. The uneducated ones in rural areas who supposedly would have learnt a trade or another also migrate to the urban cities looking for a white collar jobs that are non existence or in very short supply. The urge for livelihood and existence is dawning on them as a utopia, as labour scholars and social movements call on the need for apprenticeship and entrepreneurship (Hernando, 2013).

Apprenticeship has been a traditional method of acquiring skills and trades in most African and developing countries as a training for capacity building in the middle level and higher manpower, but today that trend has changed (Ariyo, 2008). Gone are the days when apprenticeship skills were learnt only by those who took it as an alternative to formal/higher education because of economic motives of low intelligence. Todays realities makes it obvious to all classes, even to universities and higher school graduates that skills acquisition through apprenticeship is the roadmap for future self employment, sustainability and development.

Apprenticeship, as it is being regulated and supervised by the old medieval guilds is not so today. Government enacts apprenticeship programs for youth empowerment, while some centuries ago, social thinkers were unanimous in their thought that apprentices, grown into artisans and entrepreneurs were to be the mainstay of the economy. This thinking is showing relevance today, with the increase in unemployment in Nigeria due to inadequate apprenticeship skill learning, regulating, enforcement and control of this process to self employment and development (Guardian Newspaper, 2012).

Apprenticeship is a way of training in the informal sector for those who were unable to get formal education that would lead to a white collar job. Today the jobs are scarce, and there is need for people to acquire skills and trades to be self reliance, employers of labour, if they do not get the official post in the government. The importance of apprenticeship in creating job opportunities for the global working population is captured in Markinson global international reports estimates that 2.9 billion jobs in the world in 2010 would be increased to 3.5billion in 2030 with majority coming from new entrepreneurship and private employment (Guardian Newspaper, 2012).

Unemployment is a great determinant of a countrys progress, so it should be taken seriously and tackled (Godwin Omene, 2012). Individuals, youths, and our young graduates must from hence fort acquire one skill or the other to be self employed entrepreneurs in the event they do not have a job ‘this is why there is major highlight on the apprenticeship and skill acquisitions that is imparting on changing global trends on self employment and labour relations in Nigeria’.
Apprenticeship education and training entails philosophy of self-reliance such as creating a new cultural and productive environment, promoting new sets of attitudes and culture for the attainment of future challenges (Arogundade, 2011). The development process of any country is determined by the way the production forces in and around the economy is organized. For most countries the development of industry had depended a great deal on the role of private sector. Apprenticeship is a call for youth’s entrepreneurship.

This opinion is supported by Ogundele (2007) that the promotion and development of entrepreneurial activities would aid the dispersal and diversification of economic activities and induce even development in a country. Similarly, Osuagwu (2006) added that entrepreneurial development in Nigeria should be perceived as a catalyst to increase the rate of economic growth, create job opportunities, reduces import of manufactured goods and decrease the trade deficits that result from such imports. Youths, graduates and nongraduates should therefore learn and practice skills acquisition for self and national development. Hence, this study seeks to investigate the effect ofApprenticeship System on Job Creation in Some Selected Small and Medium Scale Businesses in Lagos.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

There has been a general outcry on the persistent rise in the unemployment rate in Nigeria. This has led an army of angry and desperate unemployed youths prowling the cities and the unending influx of youths into the urban areas which has now posed further threat to an already precarious state of national security (Hernando, 2013).

The unemployment situation has denied its victims their legitimate means of livelihood, and in order to survive, they now involved in all forms of criminality which threaten the peace of the society. The International Labour Organization indicated that 40 per cent of jobless people worldwide were young. However, government was insensitive to the plight of youths, who spend their youthful years and vigour going in search of non-existent jobs (ILO, 2012).

The informal sector which ought to be a saving grace for the unemployed has continued to suffer from comprehensive absence of Social protection, vocational education facilities, access to business friendly credits, unfair competition through dumping of manufactured goods from more industrialized countries, inadequate infrastructure, lack of representation and participation in decision-making processes resulting in unworkable, corruption prone public policies and programmes that have failed significantly to solve the problems in the informal sector.

Development experts have identified corruption and neglect of the strategic role of small and medium enterprises as some factors being responsible for the otherwise underdevelopment of the Nigeria economy. In the view of Matanmi and Awodun (2005), if Nigeria desire to move out of the disturbing high level of unemployment and ravaging level of poverty, adequate attention must be given to the growth of apprenticeship. They concluded that Nigeria still remain in the doldrums of youths unemployment because of the combination of ignorance, low capacity building and lack of encouragement of apprenticeship. It is against this backdrop that this research seeks to investigate the effects of apprenticeship system on job creation in Nigeria.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The major objective of this study is to examine the Effects of Apprenticeship System on Job Creation in Nigeria. While other specific objectives are:

  1. Ascertain whether there is a significant relationship between apprenticeship training and job creation in Nigeria.
  2. Find out whether apprenticeship as a means of skills acquisition promote self-employability and reliance in Nigeria.
  3. Find out whether apprenticeship facilitate entrepreneurial skills and knowledge for entrepreneurship development in Nigeria.
  4. Identify the challenges encountered by apprentices in the course of skill acquisition in Nigeria?

1.4 Research Questions

This research work shall be guided by the following research questions:

  1. Is there any significant relationship between apprenticeship training and job creation in Nigeria?
  2. Does apprenticeship as a means of skills acquisition promote self-employability and reliance in Nigeria?
  3. Does apprenticeship facilitate entrepreneurial skills and knowledge for entrepreneurship development in Nigeria?
  4. What are the challenges encountered by apprentices in the course of skill acquisition?

1.5 Hypotheses

  • Ho: There is no significant relationship between apprenticeship training and job creation in Nigeria.
  • Ho: There is a significant relationship between apprenticeship training and job creation in Nigeria.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will help in identifying the challenges associated with apprenticeship system and subsequently proffer suggestions that will help Planners, Administrators, Policy Makers and other Stakeholders take advantage of apprenticeship system to address the issue of youth unemployment in Nigeria.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study will focus generally on the examination of the effects of apprenticeship system on job creation in Nigeria. The study will geographically be delimited to youths in Rivers state.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

As with any human endeavor, the researcher experienced small impediments while performing the study. Due to the scarcity of literature on the subject as a result of the discourse’s nature, the researcher incurred additional financial expenses and spent additional time sourcing for relevant materials, literature, or information, as well as during the data collection process, which is why the researcher chose a small sample size. Additionally, the researcher conducted this inquiry in conjunction with other scholarly pursuits. Additionally, because only a small number of respondents were chosen to complete the research instrument, the results cannot be applied to other secondary schools outside the state. Regardless of the limits faced throughout the investigation, all aspects were reduced to ensure the best outcomes and the most productive research.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Apprenticeship

Apprenticeship is a system of training individual a structured competency or a set of basic skills

Traditional Apprenticeship

Traditional apprenticeship represents the system of skills transmission from a father or mother to a child, including close family members.

Job Creation

Job creation is the dynamic process of creating incremental wealth


1.10 Organizations of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, abnd selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the effects of Apprenticeship System on Job Creation in Nigeria using Etche Local Government Area, Rivers state as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the effects of Apprenticeship System on Job Creation in Nigeria using Etche Local Government Area, Rivers state as a case study. The study specifically was aimed to ascertain whether there is a significant relationship between apprenticeship training and job creation in Nigeria, find out whether apprenticeship as a means of skills acquisition promote self-employability and reliance in Nigeria, find out whether apprenticeship facilitate entrepreneurial skills and knowledge for entrepreneurship development in Nigeria, and identify the challenges encountered by apprentices in the course of skill acquisition in Nigeria.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents are youths in Etche Local Government Area, Rivers state.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. There is a significant relationship between apprenticeship training and job creation in Nigeria.
  2. Apprenticeship as a means of skills acquisition promote self-employability and reliance in Nigeria.
  3. Apprenticeship facilitate entrepreneurial skills and knowledge for entrepreneurship development in Nigeria.
  4. The challenges encountered by apprentices in the course of skill acquisition includes: master crafts persons lack pedagogical skills, low quality work and exploitation of young people, insufficient training tools and inadequate infrastructural facilities, and lack of capital to establish self-employed business.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. The apprenticeship practice should be revived and modernized and also that ethnic-based unions should be given legal recognition and restructured to play both social and economic roles.
  2. The government of Nigeria and African by extension should adopt the practice of face-to-face apprenticeship system and entrepreneurial development in Nigeria as a strategy for the development of the country’s entrepreneurship.
  3. An incentive should be implemented for young who wish to learn new skills, and apprenticeship should be promoted among youth as a professional option to alleviate poverty.
  4. Curriculum planners and employers’ associations should design youth apprenticeship programmes to provide opportunities for students to experience hands – on learning through a combination of classroom – based and work – based learning.

Get Complete Project Material

5,000 5000

The Complete Material Will Be Sent to You in Just 2 Steps

Quick & Simple…


Step One Purchase

Make Payment (Through Transfer) of ₦5,000 to the Account Below

Zenith BankAcc No: 1225513212
Samphina Academy
Current Account

Or CLICK HERE To Pay With Debit Card


FOR STUDENTS OUTSIDE NIGERIA
CLICK HERE To Purchase Material ($15)

Step Two Purchase

Send the Following Details on WhatsApp ( 08143831497) After Payment

  1. Payment Details

  2. TOPIC: Effects Of Apprenticeship System On Job Creation

The Complete Material Will Be Sent To You On WhatsApp After Receiving Your Details
T & C Apply


  Contact Our Help Desk


Need a Different Topic? Perform a Quick Search



List of Related Works

Click on Any Topic to Preview the Content

samphina.academy

Samphina Academy

Samphina Academy is an Online Educational Resource Center that is aimed at providing students with quality information and materials to aid them in succeeding in their academic pursuit.