Code Mixing And Code Switching Among Market Women In Nigeria (A Case Study Of Ilorin Kwara State)

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Code Mixing And Code Switching Among Market Women In Nigeria (A Case Study Of Ilorin Kwara State)


Abstract


The study aims to examine code mixing and code switching among market women in Nigeria. The population of study consists of market women from Illorin metropolis in Kwara state. The survey research design through the administration of questionnaires was used for the study. The study design was based on the use of statistical and descriptive methods of analysis. The method which was applied in analysis data for this research work was the method of descriptive analysis, simple percentage was used to analyze the respondents bio – data in the structured questionnaires. The test-retest method was used in order to determine the reliability and validity of the study work. The sample size was 200 market women. The data were analyzed using descriptive and statistical methods. The results show that the level of code mixing or code switching can be reduced among women in the country. Code mixing and switching improves communication among women. Code switching has effect on effective communication among market.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Code-switching and code-mixing are popular characteristics in the speech pattern of the average bilingual in any human society the world over especially in the African society. The first contains the definition of concepts. It is in the second that the previous investigations of scholars on code-switching and code-mixing are examined. The entire procedure for the current research constitutes the third section, while the fourth one contains the conclusion in which the afore-mentioned implication is explicitly stated.

Code-switching is a linguistic behaviour that arises as a result of languages coming into contact with each other and the need for individuals to effectively communicate. Generally, it simply means mixing of words, phrases or smaller units of one language into the structure of another language in other to effectively communicate. Hymes (1962) defines code-switching as a common term for alternative use of two or more languages, varieties of a language or even speech styles. Code-switching which is often times referred to as ‘code-mixing’, ‘code-shifting’ or ‘code-changing’ has also been defined as the act of “alternation of two languages within a single discourse, sentence or constituent” (Poplack, 2008) While Bokamba (2009) defines code mixing and shifting as the mixing of words, phrases and sentences from two distinct grammatical (sub) systems across sentence boundaries within the same speech event… code-mixing is the embedding of various linguistic units such as affixes (bound morphemes), words (unbound morphemes), phrases and clauses from a co-operative activity where the participants, in order to infer what is intended, must reconcile what they hear with what they understand. Other phenomena that could result from languages being exposed to one another are bilingualism, borrowing, pidginization and creolization. However, some people have used the term ‘code-switching’ and ‘code-mixing’ to distinguish two types of alternation in the use of two languages. Code-switching is said to be the alternate use of sentences from two languages in a single discourse, while code- mixing refers to the alternate use of constituents from two languages within a sentence.


1.2 Statement of the General Problem

The multilingual nature of the country and some individuals’ multilingual or bilingual competence and the inter-language relationship existing between English language and over four hundred indigenous languages in Nigeria have led to code-mixing in conversation, discourse and communicative competence which has negatively affected communication between the diverse ethnic nationalities in Nigeria.


1.3 Aims and Objectives of the Study

The major aim of the study is to examine code mixing and code switching among market women in Nigeria.

  1. To examine the major reasons for code switching and code mixing among market women.
  2. To determine the level of code mixing and code switching among women in Nigeria.
  3. To determine the effect of code mixing and code switching on communication among market women.
  4. To recommend ways of effective communication among market women in Nigeria.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What are the major reasons for code switching and code mixing among market women?
  2. What is the level of code mixing and code switching among women in Nigeria?
  3. What is the effect of code mixing and code switching on communication among market women?
  4. What are the ways of effective communication among market women in Nigeria?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • H0: Code mixing and code switching has no effect on effective communication among market women in Nigeria.
  • H1: Code mixing and code switching has an effect on effective communication among market women in Nigeria.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The study would greatly benefit market women in Nigerian markets as it would reveal the effect of code mixing and switching on effective communication as the study tries to recommend ways of effective communication in Nigeria. the study would be of immense importance to students, researchers and scholars who are interested in developing further studies on the subject matter.


1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study

The study is restricted to code mixing and switching among market women in Nigeria using Illorin metropolis in Kwara state as the case study.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Financial constraint:

Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview)

Time constraint:

The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

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Conclusion


To many, code switching-and mixing have become a habit and occurs subconsciously. Related to the language attitude is the cultural attitude. Most Hausa people seem to be proud of their culture and find it difficult to abandon their language completely even when speaking another language.

The paper also pointed out that there is increasing lexical gaps in Hausa brought about by new inventions and globalization. Although there seems to be enough effort to fill these gaps by developing and disseminating vocabularies to make effective speaking and communicating in Hausa easier, some of the younger generations of educated Hausa speakers do not deem it necessary to know these lexical items in Hausa since the English equivalents serve their communicative needs.

I shall conclude by saying that code-switching is a natural language phenomenon which is not bad in itself but let it be guided among the Hausa/English bilinguals by Fishman’s (1965) questions of who speaks what language, to whom and when? Most Hausa bilinguals readily code-switch not minding the occasion of speaking whether formal or informal, whether addressing fellow Hausa-English bilinguals or Hausa monolinguals.

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