Assessment Of The Prevalence And Pattern Of Overweight And Obesity Among Secondary School Students In Calabar Muncipal Area

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Assessment Of The Prevalence And Pattern Of Overweight And Obesity Among Secondary School Students In Calabar Muncipal Area


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background Of The Study

Obesity is defined as the accumulation of extra body fat and is clinically defined as a body mass index (BMI) of 30 with a BMI ranging from 25 to 29.9 as overweight (Apia and Mato 2008). Obesity appears to be emerging in the developing world as a result of improvements in living standards and changing lifestyles (Shebang, 2011). It has been described as a global epidemic, and it has even surpassed undernutrition as the most prevalent public health risk for newborns and children (WHO, 1998). Obesity in children is a severe public health issue. According to studies, a moderate number of obese children will grow up to be obese adults, with the associated negative health consequences such as heart disease, hyperlipidemia, hyperinsulinaemia, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, angina pectoris, non–insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), and early atherosclerosis, as well as increased mortality in adulthood (Amole et al, 2011, Ojofetimi et al, 2011, Rehor and Brownsey 2002 and Sothern et al, 2000). Obesity in children is not limited to industrialized countries. According to the literature, the prevalence of pediatric obesity is increasing in both developed and developing countries (Akinpelu, 2008, Matsushita et al, 2004). According to de Onis and Blössner (2000), the prevalence of overweight and obesity among pre-school children in developing nations is rapidly increasing. Adolescent obesity is assumed to be linked to psychological issues such as low self-esteem, feelings of inadequacy, anxiety, social dysfunction, depression, and moodiness, all of which influence teenagers’ personalities (Ojofeitimi et al, 2011). It has been found that overweight or obese females are more likely to develop high-risk behaviors such as smoking and drinking alcohol, and they are also less likely to participate in physical activities and exercise programs that boost energy expenditure (Wadden and Stunkard, 1995). In Tunisia, 9.1 percent of adolescent females (BMI/age 85th percentile) are at risk of being overweight. In Brazil, the annual rate of increase in the prevalence of overweight is 0.5 percent, while in China it is 0.2 percent. An Iranian prevalence of 15% of overweight and 5% of obesity was also recorded. In India, the overall prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents was 11.1 percent and 14.2 percent, respectively (Akinpelu et al, 2008). Obesity among teenagers increased from 11% in 1984 to 25% in 1998, with African-American females having a 50% higher prevalence than white girls (Ojofeitimi et al, 2011). According to Malik and Bakir (2007), the prevalence of young children in the United Arab Emirates is 22.5 percent and 13.7 percent, respectively. There is no data in Nigeria to support the prevalence of obesity among the general population (Ogunjimi et al, 2009). There is insufficient data on the prevalence of overweight and obesity (Ojofetimi et al, 2011). Little is also known regarding the prevalence of obesity among Nigerian teenagers (Akinpelu et al, 2007). In Nigeria, a prevalence of 18% among school-aged children has been found (Sebanjo et al, 2011). Ben-Bassey et al. (2007) estimated general prevalence rates of overweight and obesity in urban and rural parts of Eti-Osa Local Government Area (LGA) in Lagos State as 3.7 percent and 0.4 percent, respectively, and 3.0 percent and 0.0 percent among children 10-19. Ansaa et al (2007) observed a prevalence rate of obesity and overweight of 1.7 percent and 6.8 percent, respectively, among students aged 10 to 20 in Cross-River state. As a result, this study was carried out to determine the incidence of overweight and obesity in secondary schools in Calabar Municipal.


1.2 Statement Of The Problem

Obesity and obesity pose health risks, as well as potential social and economic consequences. The economic well-being of an individual and the community as a whole. Poor health caused by overweight and obesity may act as a barrier to the development of a good mind, paving the way for poor learning behavior and outcomes. Despite the fact that overweight and obesity are recognized as serious health and social problems with economic and academic consequences around the world, research on their prevalence among secondary school children in rural and urban settings in Nigeria is limited. As a result, establishing statistics on the causes, social problems, and health implications, as well as the impact of overweight and obesity on children’s learning behavior and outcomes in the classroom, has been difficult.

Therefore, this study sought to identify the prevalence of overweight and obesity by identifying the causes, social complications and health implications as well as academic implications for all secondary schools in the Calabar Municipality.


1.3 Objective Of The Study

  1. Determine the cause of overweight and obesity among secondary school students in Calabar Municipal.
  2. To evaluate the social problems that overweight and obesity conditions cause for secondary school children.
  3. To investigate the effects of overweight and obesity on children’s learning behaviors.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What are the causes of overweight and obesity among secondary school students in Calabar Municipal?
  2. What are the social issues that overweight and obesity conditions cause in Calbar Municipal secondary school children?
  3. What are the effects of overweight and obesity on the learning behaviors of Calbar Municipal secondary school children?

1.5 Significance Of The Study

The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among secondary school children in Calabar Municipal. The study’s findings might be useful in raising awareness among teachers, parents, and other stakeholders in education, health, and sports about the effects of overweight and obesity on children’s health, social, and academic well-being. The study findings would improve teachers’ and parents’ plans for making effective use of leisure time at schools and homes by emphasizing sports and physical activities. Children would be able to expend excess energy that would otherwise be stored in their bodies, causing overweight and obesity. The study also aims to provide information that can be used to develop methods to avoid heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, and respiratory illnesses, all of which are caused by being overweight or obese. In a similar spirit, controlling problems caused by overweight and obesity will be a step forward in reducing absenteeism in offices and schools (Sharkey, 1997). The study could help to foster social interactions between fat and non-obese schoolchildren who would otherwise face social rejection and bullying from peers and teachers. Bullying and taunting of obese children undermines children’s intellectual and social well-being potential. Understanding the causes of overweight and obesity will make preventive actions easier, reducing the level of teasing and bullying in schools.


1.6 Scope Of The Study

The purpose of this study was to look into the prevalence, causes, and health, social, and academic repercussions of overweight and obesity in primary school students aged 10 to 20 years old in Calabar South, Cross Rivers, Nigeria. Because different socioeconomic classes and geographical regions were not included, this study may be insufficient in representing the patterns of some countries.However, for an acentralized education system and Nigerian life patterns, results may be generalizable.


1.7 Limitation Of Study

On the other hand, the study was hampered by the scarcity of studies on overweight and obesity among schoolchildren in Calabar, Nigeria, and other poor nations. Many of the studies on overweight and obesity were conducted on adults. This required the researcher to supplement the knowledge received from a few books and journals with information obtained from electronically available resources. There were also no set norms for African children’s BMI and body fat percentages. As a result, the researcher was forced to adopt norms set for children in the United States and Australia.


1.8 Definition Of Terms

Overweight:

Is defined as having excess weight that is disproportional to one’s height and age.It is defined as a body weight that is above the range associated with the lowest mortality (Sharkey, 1997).

Obesity:

Is defined as having significantly higher body fat percentages than is considered normal for one’s age and gender.It can also be termed as the condition of having an excess of non-essential body fat, a Body Mass Index (BMI) of above 30 (Sharkey, 1997).

Body Mass Index (BMI):

Refers to a measure of relative body weight that takes height into account and is correlated with direct measures of body fat (Sharkey, 1997).


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