Assessment Of The Prevalence And Pattern Of Overweight And Obesity Among Secondary School Students In Imo Municipal Area

Project and Seminar Material for Public Health

Assessment Of The Prevalence And Pattern Of Overweight And Obesity Among Secondary School Students In Imo Municipal Area


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the prevalence and pattern of overweight and obesity among secondary school students in Imo Municipal Area. Specifically, the study was carried out to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among secondary school students in Imo Municipal Area, identify factors associated with the patterns of overweight and obesity among secondary school students in Imo Municipal Area, and ascertain the problems experienced by overweight and obese secondary school students in Imo Municipal Area. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of secondary school PHE teachers in Imo Municipal Area. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 41 respondents and 35 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables and mean scores. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the prevalence of overweight and obesity among secondary school students in Imo Municipal Area is high. The study also revealed that the factors associated with the patterns/prevalence of overweight and obesity among secondary school students in Imo Municipal Area includes: sedentary life/inactivity, poor dietary manipulation, family economic status, inheritance/genetic factors, and lack of close care of children. Therefore, it is recommended that health education in schools is needed. Policy makers, Health professionals, School authorities, Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) should be involved in primary preventive actions against childhood overweight and obesity. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Obesity is a global problem affecting both developed and developing countries. It is a leading preventable cause of death worldwide, with increasing prevalence in adults and children( Barness and Opitz, 2007).In developed countries an increase in obesity prevalence has been observed in the last two decades. In the United States, overweight and obesity was found to have increased by as much as 200% within 20 years from 1980 to 2000 (Mercedes and Blossner, 2000).

In developing countries, an increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity is being observed (Ogden et al, 2002). The World Health Organisation (WHO) has expressed concern over the increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity among preschool and school age children, with a tendency to progression into adulthood and may soon replace more traditional public health concerns such as malnutrition and infectious disease as the most significant cause of poor health, particularly in developing countries ((WHO, 2011, 1998).

Overweight and obesity are associated with a number of co-morbidities such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, gall stones, osteoarthritis and some cancers. At the root of these associated disorders are the metabolic disorders of hyperlipidaemia and impaired glucose tolerance. It has also been associated with psychological and social disturbances like low self esteem, stigmatization and an increased risk of depression. This is important public health concern particularly for countries like Nigeria with a significantly large population of school age children and a health sector burdened by ignorance and poverty as major driving forces for disease (Nigerian DHS, 2008).

In Nigeria, the prevalence of overweight individuals ranged from 20.3% – 35.1%, while the prevalence of obesity ranged from 4.6% – 22.2%(Adienbo, et, al. 2012, Gujba, 2015, Chukwuonye, 2013). The prevalence of obesity and overweight varies between geographical regions in Nigeria. Higher prevalence have been recorded in southern parts of the country with female preponderance (Gujba, 2015, Chukwuonye, 2013). Among the Kalabaris(2014) (south-south Nigeria) where fattening rituals may be performed for women, that prevalence of obesity was estimated at 47.3%. Other characteristics of the distribution of obesity/overweight in Nigeria include its high prevalence along with socioeconomic class and in mid-life(Fawole, 2017, and Ikorok, 2013) with some studies reporting that more than 55% were either overweight or obese(Adienbo, 2012). The peak prevalence of obesity in most studies from Nigeria is midlife(Amira, 2014, Sokunbi,Dolapo, and Sokunbi,2011), while the lowest prevalence of obesity is observed below 20 years(Sokunbi,Dolapo, and Sokunbi,2011).

Reports from other SSA countries have reported high prevalence of obesity. The prevalence of obesity reported in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso in 2014, gave a 30.5%, 22% prevalence of overweight and obesity respectively(Drabo, 2014). Systemic reviews and other studies on the subject suggest high and wide ranges in the prevalence of overweight and obesity(Mensah, 2005, Akoha,2012, and Mohammed, 2014). It is important however to note that most SSA studies were conducted in large urban centers in these countries and may not necessarily be representative of the whole nation. Generally, though the prevalence of overweight and obesity is lower in rural SSA(McLarty, Pollitt, and Swai, 1990). Quantifying the prevalence of obesity is important to draw health policy makers attention to address this problem.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Overweight and obesity present a growing health problem among Africans from all socioeconomic status(Adienbo, Hart, and Oyeyemi, 2012). In Sub Saharan African (SSA), obesity is not only a consequence of over-nutrition but possibly from excessive consumption of unbalanced diet dominated by carbohydrates and saturated fats(Yusuf, Reddy, Ounpuu, and Anand, 2001). Poor nutrition coupled with low levels of physical activity associated with urbanization as well as other factors has resulted in high rates of metabolic syndrome and other non-communicable diseases in the sub-continent(Adeboye, Bermano, and Rolland, 2012). Obesity is a risk factor for premature death for individuals younger than 65 years old, it is a risk factor of many cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular disorders including several types of cancers, arthritis, gall bladder stone and amenorrhea [Adeboye et al. 2012).

Recent studies in Nigeria (Olumakaiye, 2008) reported a prevalence of 3.2% for overweight and 0.5% for obesity among adolescents in Osun State. Similarly, in another study done specifically in Ile-Ife among children age 6 to 18 years, the prevalence of overweight was 2.8% and 0.3% for obesity with higher values in females (Adegoke et al, 2009). However, in a two-country study of Ghana and Uganda, prevalence rates for overweight and obesity for school aged children were 10.4% and 0.9% among girls and 3.2% and 0.5% among boys respectively(Peltzer and Pengpid, 2011). These rates were higher than those found in Osun and lower than those found in a Quatari study where the prevalence of overweight, and obesity was 28.6%, and 7.9%, respectively, among adolescent boys and 18.9%, and 4.7% among girls age 12 to 17 years (Benner, 2006). The prevalence of overweight and obesity and the co-morbidities associated with them are well documented in developed countries. However, the same cannot be said of developing countries, especially among adolescents in peri-urban communities. This study sought to determine the prevalence and pattern of overweight and obesity among secondary school students in Imo Municipal Area.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The main objective of the study is to assess of the prevalence and pattern of overweight and obesity among secondary school students in Imo Municipal Area. but for the successful completion of the study, the researcher intends to achieve the following sub-objectives;

  1. Determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among secondary school students in Imo Municipal Area.
  2. Identify factors associated with the patterns of overweight and obesity among secondary school students in Imo Municipal Area.
  3. Ascertain the problems experienced by overweight and obese secondary school students in Imo Municipal Area.

1.4 Research Question

  1. What is the prevalence of overweight and obesity among secondary school students in Imo Municipal Area?
  2. What are factors associated with the patterns/prevalence of overweight and obesity among secondary school students in Imo Municipal Area?
  3. What are the problems experienced by overweight and obese secondary school students in Imo Municipal Area?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

  • Ho: There is no high prevalence of overweight and obesity among secondary school students in Imo Municipal Area.
  • Ha: There is a high prevalence of overweight and obesity among secondary school students in Imo Municipal Area.

1.6 Significance of the Study

Findings from this study would be helpful in raising awareness among teachers, parents and other stakeholders in education, health and sports context about the impacts that overweight and obesity have to the children’s health, social and academic welfare.

The study findings would enhance teachers and parents’ plan on effective use of leisure time at schools and homes by putting great emphasis on sports as well as physical activities. In due regards, children would be able to expend extra energy that could otherwise be stored in their bodies and cause overweight as well as obesity.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study covers the prevalence and pattern of overweight and obesity among secondary school students in Imo Municipal Area. The respondents for this study will be obtained among secondary school PHE teachers in Imo Municipal Area.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definition of Terms

  • Overweight is a possession of extra weight that is unproportional to the height and age. It is the body weight falling above the range associated with minimum mortality (Sharkey, 1997).
  • Obesity refers to much higher body fat percentages than that considered normal for age and sex. It can also be termed as the condition of having excess of non-essential body fat, Body Mass Index (BMI) above 30 (Sharkey, 1997).

1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (background of the study), statement of the problem, objectives of the study, research questions, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope of the study etc.
  • Chapter two being the review of the related literature presents the theoretical framework, conceptual framework and other areas concerning the subject matter.
  • Chapter three is a research methodology covers deals on the research design and methods adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the prevalence and pattern of overweight and obesity among secondary school students in Imo Municipal Area. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the prevalence and pattern of overweight and obesity among secondary school students in Imo Municipal Area. The study was specifically carried out to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among secondary school students in Imo Municipal Area, identify factors associated with the patterns of overweight and obesity among secondary school students in Imo Municipal Area, and ascertain the problems experienced by overweight and obese secondary school students in Imo Municipal Area.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 35 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were secondary school PHE teachers in Imo Municipal Area.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among secondary school students in Imo Municipal Area is high.
  2. The factors associated with the patterns/prevalence of overweight and obesity among secondary school students in Imo Municipal Area includes: sedentary life/inactivity, poor dietary manipulation, family economic status, inheritance/genetic factors, and lack of close care of children.
  3. The problems experienced by overweight and obese secondary school students in Imo Municipal Area includes: truancy, recurrent fever, sleep in class, and teasing and bullying.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. Public health education programs using different media should emphasize the rising problem of obesity and health risks related to it.
  2. The problems associated with obesity should be included in the basic school curriculum early enough in our institutions.
  3. The increasing awareness of physical fitness should be encouraged especially in schools and places of work.
  4. Health education in schools is needed. Policy makers, Health professionals, School authorities, Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) should be involved in primary preventive actions against childhood overweight and obesity.
  5. Policies on sports and physical education should be corrected or restated so that they incorporate criteria for all children of all ages in sports and health related activities. The policy statement should provide an open room for parents, guardians and stakeholders in education to debate on how to develop children’s interests towards physical activities, sports and development of good sportsmanship.

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