Boom In Fast Food Industry And Its Effect On Health Especially Obesity

Project and Seminar Material for Food Science and Technology (FST)

Boom In Fast Food Industry And Its Effect On Health Especially Obesity


The research study will examine the boom in fast food industry and its effect on health especially obesity. The research would make awareness and promote our understanding by presenting an in-depth knowledge of fast food outfits to expose it’s potential for growth and also highlight the prospects and challenges of operating fast food business in Nigeria. the research therefore considered is worth to expose the fast emerging outfits in Nigeria with the aim of consolidating and improving current operation procedures in the fast food outfit and have soughed to assess the perception of consumers about service quality in some selected outfits in Nigeria. This research has also investigate the socio economy effort of fast food industries on urban residents of Nigeria. The instrument for data collection has structure questionnaire, books, internet and other in-depth interview. The findings show that there is an increase in the desire for outfit relaxation by urban resident of Nigeria. It was recommended that fast food industries should maintain sustainability good hygiene environmental and balanced nutrition and also recommended strict application of quality control and improvement measures and required skills needed in the fast food outfits operation. Finally, conclusion and recommendation have been drowned for improving fast food outfits service and operation.

Chapter One


1.1 Background of the Study

Nigeria could be regarded as a turning point in the country. The Nigeria business environment has never remained the same as it has witnessed and continue to witness the establishing of various fast food joins fondly referred to as eateries virtually in every nooks and corners of the country. A glance at any street now in Nigeria, especially in the urban centres, may likely view at least two eateries with their front-lit menu boards jostling for customer attention. At present, there are over 150 brand names in the country (Fakokonde, 2012). Also, northern Nigeria accommodates nothing less than 500 outfit of different sizes each blushed by corporate individual and organization (Fakokunde,2010).

According to Eke (2006) and reported by Olutayo and Akanle (2009) the number of fast food outfit in Nigeria is increasing at a geometric rate and expected to double in five years, now the result show that over 1012 outfit are currently in operation in Nigeria.

Not with standing, this rapid increase in growth and proliferation of fast food restaurant in Nigeria can be excused on the basis that it is a worldwide phenomenon. The food institute report of February 6,2006 and April 19,2010 both confirmed the ever increasing global demand for fast food service. In 2006, the global fast food market grew by 4.8%and reached a value of 102 billion and a volume of 80.3 billion transactions. It also reported in April 2010 that the sale increase 3.0% from a year earlier is the largest in the sector since January 2009 which now is increase to 13.3%.

Fast food eating, a dietary that used to be uniquely foreign has gradually become part of the life style of people in Nigeria, especially those in urban centres (Moronkola, 2003; Adeniyi, 2011, Akinbile, 2008). In many cities in Nigeria, one can find numerous fast food restaurants where most of the food sold are usually snacks, burgers, fries, chicken, cola, drinks, ice cream, fruit drinks, and other food that are high in fat sodium and sugar (Ajala,2006, Aladelokun, 2006).The growth in this business can be noted in fact that the number of fast food eating establishment scattered all over major street of big cities increased in the past few years with different exotic and enticing names.

The essence of this research therefore is to present the current effect of rapid increase of fast food outfit and customers perception with view of finding a common need for improvement and proper control in the industry.
The corner suya seller, the Akara ( beans cake), roasted plantain, mai-shayi (tea seller), or even fried yam seller, have been an age old business feature in several Nigerian towns serving snack for those on the go, from children to working adults. During the early times, people away from home needed a particular place to eat and the idea of restaurant and the catering service improve and operation was established, so that people on their way may have food to eat at the restaurant. the oldest age operation take place at small huts, kiosk and under the trees, where food is sold at low price and the traditional facilities used include the stick used in eating (Danwake), koshiya a local spoon made from wood use for eating solid food and “Fura da nono” and pots which are made from mud and clay that are used for cooking on oldest age ( Elizabeth,2013).

Nigeria was first introducing fast food within the context of what obtains in the west by the United African Company (U A C) when they opened Mr. Biggs as the first fast food restaurant. Mr. Biggs history begins with the coffee shops inside Kingsway Departmental store in the 1973 these shops were rebranded as Kingsway Rendezvous which become Mr. Biggs in 1986. However long before then traditional fast food have been in vogue and continue to be patronized. These include rooting plantain (bolie) Roasted /fried yam (dundun), Akra, suya meat (beef kebab) and fura da nono (local yoghurt). Since the introduction of Mr. Biggs into the fast food industry, consumer acceptance of fast food has continued to increase. These include Tantalization sweet sensation, Tasty fried chicken, chicken Republic, mama cases, munchies, crunchier, chicken licken, kenchitins, Mac Dons master bugger e t c some of the fast food chains like Mr. Biggs, Tantalization and tasty fried chicken are now listed on the Nigeria stock exchange (N S E) The latest big entrance are Mc Donald’s and Kentucky fried chicken (K F C) (Ajabo & Salami, 2013).

With the exception of McDonald and K F C none of the fast food chain are known to operate under franchise agreements, even though many of them have outfit in the major cities of Nigeria such as Abuja, port Harcourt, Ibadan, Kano, Calabar, Kaduna, Jos, Warri and Asaba e.t.c. The city of Lagos remains the headquarter of fast food in Nigeria, although with the rapid increase of the urbanization and expansion of the other it means that most expansion in the fast food industry will take place outside Lagos. (Moron Kola, 2013)

Since the 1960 Nigeria has had one of the fastest population growth rates in the world and as at 2010, almost half of all Nigeria live in cities .(Elizabeth, 2010) This increased urbanization and change in work roles have contributed significantly to the growth of fast food outfit in Nigeria. More fast food outfit have sprung of in cities across in Nigeria to carter to the changing need of the populace with west tastes as more and more Nigerians are able to travel and experience new culture. Not considering the aforementioned obvious causes for market growth, it was only a matter of time before the industry would grow. As early as 2010, the informal fast food outfit, the Akara, Suya, fried yam seller, was estimated at $600-750 million a year. (Orgah, 2010)

With the advancement in technology it will not be too long before the revenue brought in by modern fast food super sides the informal fast food marketer. There is already evidence of such technological strides within the market as entrepreneurial Nigeria have devised way to offer online home delivery services. Today, customer can now order food from any fast food outfit online or over the phone and have it delivered to the home or office. With this major leap in technology it is only a matter of time before this market grows uncontrollably.
(Salami, 2012)

1.2 Statement of the Problem

The fast food industry is facing a lot of problems which include: in adequate finance to meet the customer taste, multiple taxation from the different Government agencies and difficultly finding adequate fast food processing machine and equipment.

The greatest challenge facing the country, according to the Association of Fast Food and Confectioners of Nigeria (AFFCON) is unhealthy competition posed by the uncountable number of unregistered fast food outfit, which not only consume in to the market share of the organization outfit, but also threatens public health and the environment.

Case of litigation and health claims filed against fast food owner-operators are also increasing daily. In response to this stake holders in the industry are now faced with need for proper reappraisal and realignment of their operation in line with healthier laid down procedure and guidelines targeted at increasing life expectancy.

The problem has changed from lack of food to eating too much of the wrong foods. Most of the fast food like hamburgers, cheese doughnut, meat pie, and sugar that people are spending on will at the end create health problem for those consuming them since they are not beneficial to the body but create problem for somebody organs. Due to this Nigerian government planned to increase the higher rate of tax to reduce the rapid increase of opening fast food outfit at every corner.

Another problem in the Nigerian fast food sector is the employment of unskilled labour that end up working in unsafe condition, but do not know how to ask for improvement. Security instability in northern Nigeria has also affected the development of fast food business to the extent that many places are sacking/reducing their staff, due to high down fall of the business.

1.4 Aims and Objectives

The aim and the objectives of the research should be:

  1. To highlight the socio-economic effect of fast food outfit to the growth of revenue and man power
  2. To ascertain the problems associated with the production of fast food and their solution in order to develop and promote fast food production.
  3. To assess the customers perception about the quality of service in fast food outfits in Kano state.
  4. And assess the hygienic factors of fast food production

1.4 Research Questions

The following questions are raised to guide the conduct of this study.

  1. How did the socio economic effect of fast food outfit contribute to the growth of revenue and man power in Nigeria?
  2. How to ascertain the problems associated with the production of fast food and their solution in order to develop and promote fast food production.
  3. How to assess costumers’ perception about the quality of service in fast food outfits in Kano state.
  4. How to ascertain the hygienic factors of fast food production.

1.5 Significant of the Study

This research work shall be of valuable importance to hospitality industry toward fast food outfit. It will also be of great benefit to fast food outfit in terms of facilities providing renovation. The Government will also give better recognition in seeing that the fast food industry is developed and promote with adequate equipment to deliver a standard and successfully service of food. It is expected that better production and service will lead to efficiency of customer which will bring about higher income and profit to the particular industries of service delivery and increase patronage of and profit to the particular industries cannot offer bad product to consumer many stand not risk of losing patronage. This study will be significance to the effect of rapid increase of fast food outfit it will provide the getaway of meeting the customer perception about the fast food outfit in Kano state and on the quality of service delivery in the modern fast food outfit within the urban area of the state. Institute ion of Nigeria, especially the student of hospitality department will also benefit from this research and study. It will increase employment and provide further study from which the study paused for academic excellence

1.6 Scopes of the Study

The scope of this study is to examine critically the boom in fast food industry and its effect on health especially obesity. Specifically, and considering certain limitation firms involve in the fast food business, operating in Kano state are the center stage on which the study is placed. Furthermore, there is abundant present of fast food operators in this state, although, majority are still unregulated. Only few fast food outfit and allied group with their numerous chain and restaurant scatter in every where within the city are under the regulatory guideline and supervision of NAFDAC, as at the time of the study.

This project has made effort to examine the extent of hospitality services development in the state that affects the rapid increase of fast food outfit in the country (nation) at lager. The research had some limitations to this write up.

These include lack of co-operation from the outfit to furnish information on, inadequate information materials to gather factor. there were no enough fund for the conduct of the research work, distance and cost involve is another limitation of the scope of the coverage, like wise time factor, as the work was only to be conducted within three months period hence the research has to be limited.

1.7 Limitations of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. The significant constraint was the scanty literature on the subject owing that it is a new discourse thus the researcher incurred more financial expenses and much time was required in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. Additionally, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. Despite the constraint encountered during the research, all factors were downplayed in other to give the best and make the research successful.

1.8 Definition of Terms

1. Food:

Is any substance while consumed to provide nutrition support for the body. Food is also a substance (matter) solid or liquid which when taken enable the body to carry its living function like body building and energy production.

2. Fast Food:

Is the term given to food that is prepared and service very quickly any meal with low typically the term refers to food solid in restaurant or store with pre headed or pre-cocked ingredients, for take away/take out. Fast food include hamburgers, pizza, fried chickens ,e.t.c that is prepare in quantity by standardization method and can be dispensed quickly in expensive restaurant or outfit for eating there or eels where.

3. Outfit:

Is a take away or take out provide often with a “drive through” service that allows customers order and pick up food from their cars but most also have indoor or outdoor seating increase where customer can sit and eat.

4. Effect:

Is a change which is as a result or consequence of an action or other cause. It is also the result of a particular influence. Effect is also a change that results when something is done or happened.

5. Increase:

Is to become progressively greater: to multiply be the growth of something that get bigger in number or volume.

6. Development:

Is the process of economic and social transformation that is based on complex cultural and environment factor and their interaction. It is the systematic use of scientific and technical knowledge to meet specific objective or requirements.

Development is an improvement, advancement or incensement of income and output, radically changes in institutional, social and administrative structure as well as customer and beliefs.

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

Fast food outfit is a sector of Hospitality Industry that concerned with the preparation and service of food and beverages quickly for immediate sales to customer for consumption either on or off the premises.

The Introduction of the research involved, Background of study, Historical background, Statement of the problem, Aims and Objectives of the research, Significant and Scopes of the study, research Questions and Definition of the subject terms.

The researcher attempt to review some literature related to the topic. It can be seen that fast food and Take away sector is a sector of Hospitality industry that is concerned with the preparation and service of Food and beverages quickly, for immediate sales to the customers for consumption either on or off the Premises. It is also classified into two, which are either providing standardized or unstandardized services. The standardized outfits include the registered food retail outfits with the formalized business Names and organized structures, whose operations are usually large, scaled and certified by appropriate Regulatory authorities. On the other hand, unstandardized outfits are usually the unregistered small Operators, providing informal table service to customers.

The finding reveals current trends and issues of Nigeria’s fast food industry, as highly labor-intensive, or as a leading overall employer of labor looking at the food supply chain from farm to the table.

It also reveal customers perception of fast food service and quality, base on comparison of customers expectation with actual service performances, where the need for quality control and improvement practice in the Nigeria fast food outfits was also discussed.

The finding deliberate the regulation of fast food business under the role of National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC), with a mission to safe guard public health, by ensuring that only the right quality of food and other regulated products are manufactured, sold and used. Where the conditions given by “NAFDAC” for operation of fast food business in Nigeria are purely discussed.

The research reveals that, fast food outfits have potential contribution on the development of the Nigerian Economy, in which the industry is currently worth about, two hundred and fifty billion, Naira (N250bm)
With a growth potential, that is next only to the petroleum industry and it was noted that the industry employs over five (500) hundred thousand personnel’s spread across different profession and casual workers. In addition, the industry contributes over one hundred and fifty million naira (N150m) to the nation security trust fund. It also contributes to the development of infrastructural facilities, flow of foreign currency and creation of new technologies etc

The finding also reveals the problems associated with the frequent eating of fast food and it effect on consumer health.

The research methodology deals with various methods of data collection, and the method that have been adopted for gathering of information to be analyzed. The research methods include; Desktop internet, interview method, consulting of textbooks and Questionnaire method.

Finally, the researcher analyzed and presented the data’s that were collected from various avenues within and outside fast food sector. Presentation of the analyzed data was in tabular form.

5.2 Conclusion

The Conclusion drawn by the researcher is that, the services of the fast food should be improved by application of modern equipment and menus which will aid the customers satisfaction, because good product and services get compliment not complains.

The fast food outfits should also be improved by organizing process and strategies of given training to their staff. Training is a way of going beyond customer’s expectation and help in providing excellent product and services. Giving training on how to produce product and how to handle customers is important for the following reasons:

  1. It satisfied fast food customer who walks out with a pleasant experience.
  2. It also reflects the professionalism of the organization there by building its image.
  3. It should become a topic to be talked about with others, who will be motivated to try the product, service and gets customers to come back.
  4. Security should also be considered. Method of ensuring effective security for the safety of staff and customers of fast food outfits should be applied.
  5. The prime motive of fast food outfits is to offer high standard products and services very quickly, through proper planning and service of products to save the establishment from huge losses of income through improper (bad) product and service.

5.3 Recommendation

Following the investigation finding, base on the above analysis, summary and conclusion, the researcher would recommend that:

  1. The Government should provide a regulation to aid enforcement aspect during the operation, and services, and provide more securities to monitor criminal activities in fast food outfits or sector and to protect society from insecurity challenges.
  2. Fast food outfits should provide a proper hygienic practice during production to avoid producing unhygienic contaminated food to consumers.
  3. A standard training should be given to the staffs to minimize and save time during production and service in order to avoid delay during service.
  4. Government should make awareness to the society about fast food business. as an entrepreneurship programme by providing training centers, and source of capital to start running their own business.
  5. Fast food outfits should endeavor to prepare more of the traditional Nigeria dishes with native and indigenous ingredients. This will help in promoting the rich and diverse nutritional culture of the nation since the restaurants had become the major eateries for Nigerians-youth, children and old ages.
  6. Its hope that, in future student undertaking similar research area, should further investigation on the effect of rapid increase of fast food outfits on the socio economic development in Nigeria.

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Frequently Asked Questions

Does fast food contribute to obesity epidemic?

Due to its low nutritional value, cheap cost, and large portion size, fast food and consequent consumption habits has been considered one of the factors contributing to the obesity epidemic. Since its introduction to the United States, fast food has risen in popularity to become a prominent role-player in the everyday diet of children.

What are the effects of fast food consumption?

Fast food is associated with higher body mass index, less successful weight-loss maintenance and weight gain. Fast foods reduce the quality of diet and provide unhealthy choices especially among children and adolescents raising their risk of obesity. Fast-food consumption costs were nearly $164.8 billion in 2010. This was a 3% rise from 2009.

Is there an association between fast food consumption and BMI?

Moreover, a study a significant association was observed between BMI and fast food consumption [4]. Two commonly eaten fast foods including fried foods and hotdogs have been associated with risk of obesity and weight gain [22]. Moreover, fast food consumption was related to general obesity in female adolescents.

Does eating out increase the risk of obesity?

It is well known that eating out may lead to excess calorie intake and increases the risk of obesity because of large portion sizes and increased energy density of foods. Fast foods fall into this category of food.

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