Utilization Of Digital Library Resources For Enhanced Library Resources By Undergraduate In The Faculty Of Social Science In The University Of Nigeria Nsukka

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Utilization Of Digital Library Resources For Enhanced Library Resources By Undergraduate In The Faculty Of Social Science In The University Of Nigeria Nsukka


Abstract


The use of Digital library resources (DLRs) has become inevitable for higher education students in the digital age, given the volume of academic materials that are available in electronic rather than print format. Effective use of these resources depends on whether students have the requisite skills to access and effectively use them. Studies have shown that DLRs have been underutilized by undergraduates in Nigeria. The study investigated the utilization of digital library resources for enhanced library resources by undergraduate in the faculty of social science in the University of Nigeria Nsukka. The survey research design was adopted for the study. Proportionate to size sampling method was used to select 802 students in 400 and 500 levels across all disciplines from the study centers. Data were collected with a validated questionnaire. The Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficient for each of the constructs ranged from 0.74 to 0.92. A response rate of 71.3% was obtained. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential (correlation and regression) statistics. Findings showed that there were significant relationships between DLRs use and ICT skills (r=0.389; p<.05) and DLRs use and information literacy (r=0.439; p<.05). The study concluded that the students in the faculty of social science in the University of Nigeria Nsukka were highly skilled in ICT use and their information literacy level was high which reflected in their use of DLRs. The study recommended that the University of Nigeria library should train students on how to make effective use of information by offering ‘Use of library’ as a course. The administration of the University of Nigeria and other universities should provide the enabling environment in the libraries and on their campuses to facilitate the use of digital library resources.

 


Table of Content


Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background to the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objectives of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Question
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisation of the Study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 ICT Skills of Undergraduates in Nigeria
  • 2.2.1 Constraints to the Use of ICT by Undergraduates in Nigeria
  • 2.3 Overview of Digital Library Resources
  • 2.4 Use Of Digital Library Resources by Undergraduates in Nigeria
  • 2.5 ICT Skills and Use of Digital Library Resources by Undergraduates in Nigeria
  • 2.6 Constraints to the Use of Digital Library Resources
  • 2.7 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.7.1 Information Literacy Model by Sconul
  • 2.7.2 Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT)

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population
  • 3.3 Sample and Sampling Technique
  • 3.4 Instrument for Data Collection
  • 3.5 Validity of the Instrument
  • 3.6 Reliability of the Instrument
  • 3.7 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.8 Data Analysis

Chapter Four

4.0 Results and Discussion

  • 4.1 Result
  • 4.2 Discussion

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

The use of digital information resources in learning and research by undergraduates has become indispensable in this digital age where globalization of education is made possible through Information and Communication Technology (ICT). We are currently living in an information society where there is exponential growth in information accessible through ICT especially the Internet. This has given rise to virtual learning, learning at a distance and globalization of education. Tinio (2002) averred that globalization and technological change have created a new global economy that is powered by technology, fueled by information and driven by knowledge. This new global economy implies that as information continues to grow exponentially, schools cannot remain mere venues for the transmission of a prescribed set of information from teacher to student over a fixed period of time but schools must promote learning to learn as knowledge becomes more dynamic.

The emergence of digital library resources (DLRs) has greatly transformed information handling and management in Nigerian university communities (Adeleke & Emeahara, 2016). Digital library resources (DLRs) or simply electronic resources (e-resources) are information stored in electronic format, in computer or computer related facilities such as CD-ROMs, flash drives, digital libraries or the Internet. DLRs provide easy access to vast amount of information remotely which is becoming more popular globally (Tinio, 2023). DLRs offer have potential advantages and benefits over the print in an electronic information environment. The Internet is a computer network that connects millions of computers globally. It is referred to as global communication network, global information system, information superhighway, network of networks and cyberspace. Electronic resources have been embraced in academic spheres. It is used for general communication, information retrieval and instructional delivery to support teaching, learning and research activities in tertiary institutions. The Internet is referred to as a global information resource that contains all sources of information across academic disciplines. The World Wide Web (WWW) helps in navigating through different electronic resources.

The use of digital library resources (DLRs) affords researchers and students the opportunity to have access to global information resources, especially the Internet for thDLR scholarly work. Higher education students make use of DLRs for many purposes; mostly for academic purpose that is, retrieving current literature for studies and prepare for examinations, to do class assignments, to carry out research projects, and to communicate and collaborate with peers and teachers via the Internet on e-mail or by following blog discussions (Adeniran, 2013). Students use the World Wide Web (WWW), e-books and e-journal articles to acquire knowledge and carry out research work (Ajayi, Shorunke & Aboyade, 2014). Course materials are provided on CD-ROM for students’ use which affords them to peruse as convenient. With the emergence of ICT, digital library resources (DLRs) have become widely used and accepted among scholars and have increased tremendously in volume around the globe (Oyedapo&Ojo, 2013). All these resources have really influenced learning and improved the quality of education as this is evident in distance learning. However, literature revealed low usage of DLRs by undergraduates in Nigeria (Omoike, 2013).

The developments in ICT have changed the way information is organized, presented and accessed today. Information is a collection of meaningful, interrelated and organized data. It is a completely processed data. It implies a message received and understood. It is also a knowledge acquired either through study or through the reception of an instruction (Aina, 2004). Information helps reduce uncertainty, increases the state of knowledge of a person and aids his decision making. Tiwari, Tiwari, and Sharma (2013) opined that information is the key factor of any kind of research and development and it is a fundamental resource which is essential for survival in today’s competitive and wired world. Information is therefore vital to the success and achievement of every student and most importantly, higher education students in today’s educational system. The availability, access to and use of the right information will pave the way for the academic success of students in higher institutions of learning. This is provided by the library.

The University library is saddled with the responsibility of providing relevant information resources for users in order to support research, teaching, learning, and community service. The library is, therefore, a learning center and is regarded as the heart of the intellectual system of the university. The provision of library and information services is one of the essential support services that should be made available in any distance learning program. According to Sacchanand (2002), the library plays a significant role in enhancing the quality of distance education programs and is a key indicator in quality assurance. The university library selects, acquires, processes and makes available information resources in different formats ranging from print, audio-visual, microforms and electronic resources. The provision of electronic library makes it possible to have easy access to digital library resources and services. This has been made possible by information and communication technology which has improved the potential for access in the information age as information resources are now made available in electronic format. Libraries, especially university libraries now subscribe to digital library resources (DLRs) like e-book, e-journals, online databases, CD-ROM databases, and so on. These resources are invaluable resources that complement print-based resources (Dadzie, 2005) and they constitute a larger number in the university library’s bibliographic system.
DLRs have many advantages over printed materials in that they can be accessed anytime, anywhere and they do not occupy much space like printed materials. As Varghese (2008) asserted, the availability of information in electronic media has created opportunities for global access to information, enhanced the speed of service, increased the number of users served, increased the quality of information provided, and offered new opportunities for students to find relevant information. Students are able to access up-to-date international literature as soon as it is published on the Internet from the libraries, student IT centers, internet cafes, work places and thDLR homes. It is therefore important that higher education students be equipped with the research tools necessary to access DLRs. This is particularly necessary for distance learning students. Moreover, Yalman, Basaran and Gonen (2016) averred that knowledge of ICT and related skills plays an important role in today’s educational activities. Therefore, every distance learning students should possess these skills in order to be able to participate effectively and successfully as they make use of digital library resources in learning.

In the understanding of Tinio (2002), ICT refers to forms of hardware and software applications that are used to transmit, store, create, share or exchange information. They may include high-tech devices such as computers and software as well as the more conventional technologies such as radio, television, and telephone technology, Digital Virtual Drive (DVD), satellite systems, video conferencing and electronic mail. Information technology has influenced the way libraries generate, organize, store, retrieve and disseminate information; libraries now rely on ICT to manage, access and deliver information services; ICTs have become powerful tools for teaching, learning, research and participation in the twenty first century. It has afforded people anywhere to learn at any time, making learning flexible. The application of ICT in education has increased access to higher education, improved quality of education and afforded students competitive advantage globally. Therefore, ICT skills are highly needed by students to engage in distance learning. Craig (2007) posited that ICT skills involve all the ability to receive digital data, the storage of the data on a computer device and the skill to retrieve the data and transmit it. ICT skills are the skills students need to access, evaluate, communicate information and produce document electronically by the use of computers and communication technologies (Buarki& Ian Murray, 2011). Effective use of digital library resources depend on ICT skills and information literacy, hence, distance learning students must be ICT and information literate. In lieu of this, there is therefore the need to equip or prepare distance learners with the ICT skills necessary for them to function well in the digital environment.

Bundy (2004) asserted that exhaustive information and technologies cannot itself make people more informed without a required skill and capacity to use information progressively. However, the possession of ICT skills enhances information literacy in this digital era. The rapid growth and application of the Internet in education with the increasing growth in available information has called for a much wider understanding of the importance of information literacy in the academic community and much more in the distance learning system. Librarians and teachers need to work together so as to help students achieve higher levels of literacy, reading, learning, problem-solving and ICT skills.

In view of the fact that technological revolution has brought about information explosion, the increase in information due to the advancement of ICT, higher education students therefore need to develop skills, especially ICT skills and to have the ability to identify, search, retrieve, evaluate, organize and communicate information in electronic format so as to enhance thDLR learning and to be able to synergize with thDLR peers and teachers or supervisor to carryout research. These are most times found out to be majorly lacking in most undergraduate students in Nigeria (Oyedapo & Ojo, 2013). Reasons that could be responsible for this include poor basic knowledge of ICT skills as most colleges in the country today lack both the personnel and the basic facilities for the teaching of computer. Some of those exposed to basic computer knowledge do not possess the requisite skill that could qualify them as being computer literate.

Proficiency in information literacy requires the constant use of DLRs through ICT to which many students lack access. A large proportion of access to DLRs is still through public information centers which are located mainly in the business areas of major cities and towns only, access to which comes at a cost. Learners located in semi–urban and distant rural areas may not even have access at all. Having personal access to DLRs devices such as i-pad, laptop, modem comes at even a higher cost (Ojeniyi & Adetimirin, 2013). The speed of the Internet servers in most public information centers is so slow it can discourage a learner just developing ICT skills as the slow speed increases the cost of time spent. Even for the few with personal electronic learning devices, inconsistent power supply is a major challenge. All these linked together could be said to contribute to the observed inadequate ICT skills and information literacy of distance learning students in Nigeria. This major lacuna is the gap that this study is set out to fill. This study is particularly important since distance learning students often times make use of digital library resources which depend on the use of ICT for access, utilization, sharing and presentation. Therefore this study seeks to investigate the ICT skills, information literacy and use of digital library resources by NOUN students in South-West, Nigeria.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

he university education system is developing and advancing both in the application of technology to its teaching, learning and research processes. Recent development in learning is not limited to interaction between teacher and students thus, students have to rely more on different forms of learning resources. Towards achieving its set objectives, various ICT tools for use by staff and students have been set up. It has also acquired digital library resources in an attempt to enhance the teaching and learning process to meet up with the global trend and standard of education. Digital library resources have indeed become very important to higher education students in accessing up-to-e information at the right time and in the right form. They enable students to have access to quality information and offer opportunity for searching multiple database files per time which has reduced the time spent by students searching for information in the print media. Yet, the availability of these devices does not guarantee thDLR effective and efficient use if students lack the corresponding skills for thDLR use.

Despite the high dependence of distance learning on ICT and the great potentials DLR holds for effective teaching, learning and research in universities, studies have revealed that digital library resources are grossly underutilized (Omoike, 2013). Perhaps, a low level of information literacy and inadequate or lack of ICT skills by students in tertiary institutions could be responsible for this situation. The need to achieve greater utilization of DLRs by undergraduate students who constitute a significant percentage of the user community in universities makes it imperative to identify the factors affecting the effective use of these resources. It is against this background that the researcher intends to examine the utilization of digital library resources for enhanced library resources by undergraduate in the faculty of social science in the University of Nigeria Nsukka.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The aim of this study is to examine the utilization of digital library resources for enhanced library resources by undergraduate in the faculty of social science in the University of Nigeria Nsukka. Specifically, the objectives of the study include to;

  1. To find out the types of digital library resources used by the students in the faculty of social science in the University of Nigeria Nsukka
  2. To ascertain the purpose of use of digital library resources by the students in the faculty of social science in the University of Nigeria Nsukka
  3. To find out the extent of use of digital library resources by the students in the faculty of social science in the University of Nigeria Nsukka
  4. To identify the challenges faced by the students in the use of digital library resources in the faculty of social science in the University of Nigeria Nsukka

1.4 Research Question

The following research questions are formulated to guide this research:

  1. What are the types of digital library resources used by the students in the faculty of social science in the University of Nigeria Nsukka?
  2. What is the purpose of use of digital library resources by the students in the faculty of social science in the University of Nigeria Nsukka?
  3. What is the extent of use of digital library resources by the students in the faculty of social science in the University of Nigeria Nsukka?
  4. What are the challenges faced by the students in the use of digital library resources in the faculty of social science in the University of Nigeria Nsukka?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • HO1 There is no significant relationship between digital library resources and enhanced library resource utilization by the students in the faculty of social science in the University of Nigeria Nsukka
  • HA1 There is a significant relationship between digital library resources and enhanced library resource utilization by the students in the faculty of social science in the University of Nigeria Nsukka

1.6 Significance of the Study

The study would be of benefit to undergraduate students, librarians, researchers, university library management and stakeholders in the university. This study is important to the tertiary institution students at this time when there are enormous amount of information available on the Internet which require them to have skills to access and to utilize these resources for thDLR academic pursuit and success in life. Findings from this study would highlight the various skills and trainings that are needed by undergraduate students to make the best use of digital library resources (DLRs). Also, the study would help librarians and library management to see the need for programmes and training that would make the undergraduates more information literate and be effective in the use of ICT and e-resources. The outcome of this study is expected to bring about enhanced utilization of the DLRs by the undergraduate students thereby leading to improved academic performances and research output as well as the ability to compete favorably with thDLR counterparts from the developed parts of the world.

This study would also help librarians and library management to know the trend of use of DLRs, the purpose of use of DLRs and the challenges that students face in the use of digital library resources(DLRs). This would afterwards help them to see the need to come up with programmes and training that can enhance the use of DLRs.

Furthermore, findings from this study would sensitize librarian, curriculum planners in tertiaryeducation, university management and other stakeholders to evaluate the relevance and impact of DLRs in tertiary institutions. Besides, the findings of this study would help academic librarians, faculty and university management see the need for collaboration amongst them to enhance students’ level of information literacy. In addition, this study would also provide empirical evidence on the relationships that exist between ICT skills, information literacy and the use of DLRs by undergraduates. Finally, the study would contribute to the existing body of knowledge on factors that determine effective use of digital library resources by undergraduate students as this will be of great help to researchers at all levels.


1.7 Scope of Study

This study focused on the utilization of digital library resources for enhanced library resources by undergraduate in the faculty of social science in the University of Nigeria Nsukka. Male and female 400 and 500 level undergraduates in the faculty of social science participated in the study. The use of digital library resources that were examined in the study includes the e-resources used, purpose of use and extent of use.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

In the course of this study, the researcher encountered some limitations. There was unwillingness of respondents to fill the questionnaires. Some of the copies questionnaires were also reported missing and it was severally replaced and this affected the researcher negatively finance wise. Also, the researcher faced time constraints and had to combine the research with other academic activities and coursework.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Information and Communication Technology (ICT):

Application of communication technologies which consists of hardware, software, networks and media for collection, storage, processing, transmission and presentation of information via voice, data, text or images.

Digital Library:

Is a special library with a focused collection of digital objects that can include text, visual material, audio material, video material, stored as electronic media formats (as opposed to print, microform, or other media), along with means for organizing, storing, and retrieving the files and media contained in the library collection. Digital libraries can vary immensely in size and scope, and can be maintained by individuals, organizations, or affiliated with established physical library buildings or institutions, or with academic institutions.

Library Resources:

Are those materials, both print and non-print, found in school libraries which support curricular and personal information needs. Print items include books, magazines, newspapers, pamphlets, microfiche or microfilm.

Digital Library Resources:

This refers to the information processed and digitally driven using hardware and software that offer information that can be accessed by digital electronic users through remote information provider networks or mounted locally by digital library (DL) managers.

Undergraduate:

A student at a college or university who has not received a first and especially a bachelor’s degree.


1.10 Organisation of the Study

This study is organized into five chapters. Chapter one included the background of the study, research problem, research objectives and questions as well as limitation of the study. Chapter two contains the literature review. Chapter three includes the methodology and study area. Chapter Four contains the results and discussion of key findings of the study. Chapter Five finally looks at the summary, conclusions, and recommendations based on the findings.


Chapter Five


5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

This study basically examined the utilization of digital library resources for enhanced library resources by undergraduate in the faculty of social science in the University of Nigeria Nsukka. Past studies have shown that the use of digital library resources by undergraduates in Nigeria was low. The study set out to achieve four specific objectives. Four research questions were derived from the objectives. The study adopted the descriptive survey research design. Multistage sampling procedure was used. A sample of 802 undergraduate students in 400 and 500 levels participated in the study using a table of calculated sample size developed by Krejcie& Morgan. Data were collected from 571 undergraduate students in the faculty of social science in the University of Nigeria Nsukka using a validated questionnaire. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21 was used to analyze the data. The findings revealed that:

The students made use of electronic resources such as the World Wide Web, e-mail, e-book, e-news, e-journal, e-reference, e-archives, CD-ROM, Library OPAC, and online databases to some extent.

The students in the faculty of social science in the University of Nigeria Nsukka used digital library resources for assignments, classwork, research projects, getting information on what goes on in the society and for collaboration and communication.

Students in the faculty of social science in the University of Nigeria Nsukka faced the challenges of erratic power supply, poor Internet connectivity and financial constraint in their use of DLRs.


5.2 Conclusion

Digital library resources have indeed become very important to higher education students most especially distance learning students in accessing up-to-date information as they give access to quality information irrespective of place, time and space. However, there cannot be effective use of DLRs without students’ possession of ICT skills and their being information literate. Consequently, this study has revealed that undergraduates in NOUN, South-West Nigeria are highly skilled in ICT use and their information literacy levels are high which have reflected in their use of digital library resources. The study also revealed that the students use DLRs for the purpose of carrying out their classwork, assignments, research project and also to collaborate and communicate with peers and teachers. The students were found to be weak in their ability to use information resources ethically which calls for a redress by the University library and librarians. The digital library resources mostly used by the students are the World Wide Web, E-mail and e-book. In spite of the great benefits digital library resources hold for students and researchers, erratic power supply, poor Internet connectivity and financial constraint are impediments to their effective use for learning and research.


5.3 Recommendation

Based on the findings of this study, the following are recommended;

  1. The University of Nigeria librarians should provide training and re-training on information literacy for student, thereby equipping them to use information ethically and preparing them for lifelong learning.
  2. Also, specific training and re-training on acquisition of ICT skills and use of e-resources should be organized regularly by relevant units such as university libraries or ICT centers in the University of Nigeria. This will help the students to acquire adequate skills to be able to work favourably in any information environment.
  3. The University of Nigeria management should provide enabling environment in the library and in the university at large in order to facilitate the use of e-resources. Thus, adequate investments in ICT infrastructural facilities such as the computers, the internet, intranet, virtual/e-library, mobile technology to match the trends in the globalization of education.
  4. The Federal Government of Nigeria should formulate ICT policy that will facilitate the adoption and effective use of ICT and digital resources by higher education students.

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