A Survey Of The High Rate Of Failure In Shorthand In The Department Of Secretarial Studies (IMT) Enugu

Project and Seminar Material for Secretarial Administration

A Survey Of The High Rate Of Failure In Shorthand In The Department Of Secretarial Studies (IMT) Enugu


This dissertation is concerned with the survey of the high rate of failures in shorthand. This enables the researcher to have a broad and elaborate knowledge of the problem faced by shorthand students and how they can be tackled.

Shorthand, formally known as phonograhy is an art; a time saving system of writing by sound. The advantage can be blurted due to the excessive rate of failure.

This dissertation covers the background of the study problem and signification of shorthand. It discusses some of the concepts that will be of immense help to the writer such as mastery, basic skills, aural comprehension and method of teaching research methodology and design used by the researcher in this study is also discussed.

The and it is of the data collected were also presented. A survey of the high rate of failures in shorthand were also enumerated.

Table Of Content

  • Title page
  • Approval page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract.
  • List of tables
  • Table of content

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background to the study
  • 1.2 Statement of the problem
  • 1.3 The objective or purpose of the study
  • 1.4 Scope or Delimitation of the study
  • 1.5 Research Question
  • 1.1 Hypothesis
  • 1.2 Significance of the study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Mastery
  • 2.2 Basic skills
  • 2.3 Aural comprehension
  • 2.4 Method of teaching

Chapter Three

3.0 Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Area of study
  • 3.3 Population of the study
  • 3.4 Sample and sampling produce
  • 3.5 Instrument for data collection
  • 3.6 Validation reliability of the research instrument
  • 3.7 Method of administration of research instrument
  • 3.8 Method of data analysis

Chapter Four

4.0 Data presentation and result

  • 4.1 Summary of result finding

Chapter Five

5.0 Discussion, Implication, Recommendation

  • 5.1 Discussion of result
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Implications of the results
  • 5.4 Recommendations
  • 5.5 Suggestion for further research
  • 5.6 Limitations of the study
  • References.

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background To The Study

Shorthand is the art of representing spoken sounds by written signs pitman shorthand provide a ways of representing every sound heard in English words.

Samaha (1973: 112) defines shorthand as a method of writing rapidly by substituting characters, abbreviations, or symbols for letters, words or phrases.

Isaac pitman published the first edition of his shorthand system in 1837. He spent half a century improving it, and the great work has since been continued by several generations of expert writer and teachers.

Millions have used this system as a means of earning a livelihood, and today, throughout the world wherever accurate and immediately legible recording of spoken English is reguired in parliament and congresses of every size.

Isaac pitman devised his system after profound and epock making study of the phonetic structure of the English language. The system is a result of his scientific analysis. Systems before pitman and even systems in use today, could achieve speed only through the laborious memorization of hundreds of special forms and arbitrary abbreviations. In pitman shorthand speed and facility of writing and safety of reading are achieved by following a coherent and comprehensive scheme: each individual sound has its signs and sounds of the same family have signs with an appropriate family likeness, after a little practice the signs seen to produce themselves like snapshots from the sounds and the sounds themselves seem to speak from the written page.

Historians date the beginning of shorthand with the Greek historian xenophobe, who used an ancient Greek system to write the memos of secretes. In the fourth century B.C Marcus Tulluis Tiro, a secretary to the Roman Orator cecero, invented a shorthand system called Tiroman According to stoddard and scalter good (1983:93) the time that Tiro invented his system was not quite clear and some people so as far as to say that he stole a system used in Greece. However, most agree that Tiro’s notes were the first organized system that enabled a writer to take down notes as fast as they were said.

Although, shorthand writing has undergone many modifications since its invention, the gregg and pitman methods are the beast known system using symbols. About 1913, shorthand written by machine was introduced and Gregg simplified version of shorthand written by machine was introduced in 1949 revised in 1963) and in the latter part of 20th century, the use of shorthand machines became widespread.

In 1973, institute of management and technology started offering secretarial study as a course.

In 1989, the N B Y E introduced advanced transcription in the curriculum and course specification studies lectures in this department relied on dictation and general principles and techniques of writing and subsequently transcription in type writer. Shorthand and has been the bare of most students. Shorthand as the name suggests spells terror and doom to the students with exeption of a far.

The pitman organization has carried out series of research and emerged with some teaching methods, techniques and even the publication of books, programmed to enable students so through this course with minimum rata of failure. However the government infura approved several commercial schools and colleges where shorthand is being taught attend extra classes in the evening. Like institute of management and technology, students are being divided into groups to create attentiveness and interest from the students.

Inspite of these the problem of high rate of failures in shorthand still persist.

1.2 Statement Of Problem

Shorthand in business today is basically English. Writers/ students in this country have had to endure lots of problems in the writing of shorthand due largely good facilitators ignorance on the part of student etc. this leads to the high rate of failures in shorthand.

The problem of shorthand is not hinged on the subject propert. Most students come in with already ill convinced belief that shorthand is a difficult subject; every subject is difficult, and there are experts in all subject. This has been identified as contributory toward students high rate of failures in the subject, shorthand like mathematics is expected to have its peculiar methods and problems among others. Student ill-convinced motion that shorthand is a difficult subject inflicted a lot of psychological damage to their understanding of shorthand. It gave rise to many needs and imagined problems which hinder the much desired progress in shorthand. Some students are interested in the course but when they encounter minor problems, their interest fizzle out, the high rate of failures in shorthand is also due largely to the fact that students treat shorthand like any other suject. They study only at the approach of an examination (i.e. when it is already too late to get the skill and the speed students should know from the earlier stage that shorthand is a delicate subject and must be learned with assurance confidence, and consistent studying habits. It is not learned with nervousness.

1.3 Purpose Or Objective Of The Study:

The falling are in purpose of their study survey mirity high rate of failures in shorthand.

The study will

  1. Survey the high rate of failures in shorthand
  2. To identity the high rate of failures in shorthand.
  3. Find out if the students are responsible for their failures
  4. Find out if the teachers are responsible for the student failures.
  5. Identify the role of the school authorities in alleviating the problems facing the teaching and learning of shorthand.

1.4 Scope Of The Study

This research work covers the department of the secretarial studies institute of management and technology Enugu.

1.5 Research Questions

  1. What are the causes of high rate of failures in shorthand?
  2. How can problem be solved?
  3. Would you attribute this failure rate to the students?
  4. Could the rate of failures be attributed to the lecturers?
  5. What are the contraption of the school authorities alleviating the problem?

1.6 Significance Of The Study

The important of the study is to survey on the high rate of failures in shorthand. The study is contributing to the remedy of high rate of failures among the students . it will help education planners to find lasting solutions to the problems created by the by the subject to students there by improving their performance in the subject and creating more positive altitude towards it.

The study shall also be beneficial to new intakes who are about to commerce studies in shorthand. It will help them to have the right altitude and orientation in the field of shorthand. It will also serve as a source of information to those aspiring to do shorthand at higher levels. The study will help facilitators lectures to visualize the type of problems student of shorthand are bonnbd to encounter and to device ways of handling then it will also help the researcher in widening her know ledge of shorthand.

1.7 Research Hypothesis

The following research hypothesis are to be answered before the end of this work:

  1. Shorthand is the most problematic course among all courses offered by secretarial studies.
  2. One particular sex perform better in shorthand than the other.
  3. Problem of shorthand hinges on lack of teaching material for the course.
  4. Past students of secretarial studies land shorthand as a difficult courses.

Chapter Five

5.0 Discussion, Implication, Recommendation

5.1 Discussion Of Results

In research question (1) one table one, shows an insight of the high rate of failures in shorthand as seen by the students.

Research question two shows students altitude towards the course as in question “B” 23%

From the research question (3) three it shows that 36% agreed that a fore knowledge of what is to be dictated could improve studentsperformance as against 64 % ,

In research question (4) 13% have no alternative in studying the course

From the research question (5) five 13 % shows that students dirll shorthand at their desired time while 46% 41% agreed on daily and weekly dialing.

In research question six(6) 32 % said good background knowledge of English language is not relevant to the study off shorthand as against 68% 4 %

Research question (7) shows that reading of English prose by the student extensive will improve students performance. Also 59% agreed on secretarial students.

Research question 8, 9, 10, 11, shows that 59% against 41% think shorthand is no longer used in our modern office the same were of the sporran that shorthand is the difficult as against the other.

59% agreed that the marking scheme is encouraging against 412% 13% rate the teaching method used by the shorthand lecturer poor 41% satisfactory, 46% excellent 32% agreed there is a well equiped shorthand liberation in the school for shorthand lessons while 68% disagreed.

In research question (13) 30 (27%) were of the view that poor performance was caused by carelessness 27% lack of writing material 46% govt. reglects of obligations to educational institution.

5.2 Conclusions

The following conclusions have been drawn from the relevant major finding from the relevant major findings of the study. From the analysis of data, if could be high rate of failures in shorthand in higher institution of learning these can be attributed to.

  1. Altitude of students to the course
  2. Poor knowledge of shorthand principles technique’s and niles.
  3. Lack of adequate and qualified teachers and conducive atmosphere for learning

From the findings it was also discovered that 37% of student are studying shorthand because their friend are studying the course or because they have no alternative.

From the findings, it shows that if the school authorities equip language laboratory it will help the student in alleviating the problem of high rate of failures.

5.3 Implication Of The Results

  1. The institution must ensure that the number of student’s admitted tally with her available facilities and equipment’s.
  2. Should plan its activities to reflect the requirement of the national Board for Technical Education.
  3. Department should regulate the activities of both lecturers and students.
  4. Ensure enough contact hours allocated to skill course especially shorthand.
  5. Ensure that seminar workshop is organized from time to time to improve teaching and learning.
  6. Employment of good teachers
  7. Provision for conducive environment.

5.4 Recommendations

The following recommendation have been made in the light of the findings and the discussions with relevant major condusion which have been highlighted.

  1. Student in field should endeaovur to help themselves by having a change altitude toward the course shorthand knowing that shorthand as a skilled course needed constant practice mastery of rules techniques and principles. In this case the research believed that this is the first step towards success.
  2. Passages to be dictated in the exams could be given to the student in the class with out them knowing that it is the exams passage and they should be made to write them often times, to give them mastery of words in the passage.
  3. Students should be guided and counseled while still in secondary school as to their future career and not to be forced to do something they do not actually want and teachers should also help those already in the profession to adjust themselves.
  4. The government as the strongest in the society and the owner of most tertiary institution should ensure that necessary facilities and equipment needed for effective teaching and learing of shorthand are provided to help in improving students performance in the course.
  5. Introduction of shorthand at primary school level so as to help and improve students knowledge of shorthand.
  6. Tape recorder as a substitute for shorthand.
  7. Shorthand as a skilled subject requires that enough equipment be provided these equipment can be introduced by the school authorities through fund scheme can provide the needed equipment such as:
    • Ruled chalkboard:
    • Video and cassette tape and television.
    • A well equiped laboratory with avoid visual aids.
    • A mini library

5.5 Suggestions For Further Research

The researcher considers it worth while that further research be conducted in such other untouched areas as:

  1. The relationship between shorthand and typewriting in secondary students life.
  2. Compulsory study of English Language from primary school level to improve students vocabulary.

5.6 Limitation Of The Study

These are the difficulties encountered during carrying out the research:

(1) Distance:

The researcher encountered distance difficulties in transporting from a different state twice in a week to meet up with the project supervision.

(2) Financial problem:

The researcher also encountered sense of financial problem ie on transportation typing of the prefect photocopies and other needs during carrying out the protect.

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