A Survey Of The Unemployment Problems Amongst Graduate Of Institution Of Higher Learning

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A Survey Of The Unemployment Problems Amongst Graduate Of Institution Of Higher Learning


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the unemployment problems amongst graduate of institution of higher learning in Nsukka, Enugu State. The study was carried out to determine the prevalence of unemployment of graduates of high institution of learning in Nsukka, Enugu State; ascertain the causes of unemployment problems amongst graduate of institution of higher learning in Nsukka, Enugu State; and ascertain the consequences of unemployment among graduate of institution of higher learning in Nsukka, Enugu State. The population size comprised of youths residents in Nsukka, Enugu State. In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 147 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. While the hypotheses was tested chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that there is a high prevalence of unemployment among graduates of high institution of learning in Nsukka, Enugu State. Furthermore, the study revealed that the causes of unemployment problems amongst graduate of institution of higher learning in Nsukka, Enugu State includes; mismanagement of economy, poor standard of education, population explosion, preference of employers, and attributes of graduates. Therefore, it is recommended that the government should embark on rural development such as rural industrialization and electrification to curtail rural-urban drift. In engendering rural development, rural roads should be built, infrastructures provided to ensure that the rural areas are attractive to live in. this will enable the possibility of youths staying in the rural areas and getting productively engaged. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Nigeria is a country passing through multiple transition, form the period of colonialism to independence, from illiteracy to literacy, subsistence agriculture to monetary economy, rural life to urban cosmopolitan life, form the day of employment to the days of mass unemployment. The time and time again throughout the human history. Year after year in Nigeria, the increasing number of graduates joining the labour market keeping rising geometrically and any hope for them to secure jobs looks pessimistic. The tempo of economic development does not keep pace with the rate of educational advancement. That a developing country should suffer from surplus labour is hardly surprising, but generally, unemployment is one thing and graduate unemployment is another. Unemployment has in all it’s ramification come to stay with us sine the era of oil boom which has unfortunately turned to our doom.

According to Daily Star, June 30 1986, unemployment is descried as a situation where there are few jobs to go round the great number of people wiling to work”. Here, it could be both educated and uneducated people in the country. Graduates unemployment has became some of the basic economic social and political problems facing so many states in Nigeria recently. The graduates in this context are generally the school leavers from our post primary and higher schools of learning. This pitiable “labour forces” who are left redundant are ever ready to put in their best services in any kind of jobs, but would not be called upon to do so because of the situation in the country.

In Enugu metropolis, there hs been a persistent increase in the number of unemployed graduates of institutions of higher learning. It is a problem that has consistently forced itself on the minds of different people in different ages. It is time we redressed our mind sincerely to the issue of graduate unemployment. The past government officials in the state had failed to give an accurate employment figure of the labour force available and this has perpetuated to pose some dangerous threats to the socio-economic stability of the state than usual.
On this note, therefore, it becomes imperative to give a brief definition of unemployment. According to Nigeria Statesman May 28, 1986, “Unemployment connotes the scarcity of job both in public and private sectors”. Also according to Weekly Star, August, 17 1986 “unemployment is the state of being unemployed” it further describes a person as unemployed when despite his ability and willingness to work is jobless. It is worthwhile to mention that all mentally and physically incapacities people are excluded. The researcher intended to concretize her ideas on those employment resulting from an unusual rise in the number of jobless graduate. This may be traceable to mismanagement of productive resources, immobility of labour between jobs, economic crisis like oil doom etc. especially in our predominately capitalist economy.

Onsite unlike in the past, graduates of schools of higher learning now roam the streets and motor parks in search of non-existing job opportunities and this has created immeasurable number of social and economic problems in the states quo of the society. This problems therefore, is of staggering magnitude because idleness influences all our actions and designs. It corrupts the graduates and is the bane of the middle ages. This research is also intended to find out the root causes of the increasing number of unemployed graduates.
It is also inteneded to study in detail the past effect by both the pesent and past governments to pave out the predicament. It is of paramount importance to stress that no other economic problem needed more immediate attention than finding job for the growing number of unemployed graduates. In the light of this problems, the former Head of State and Commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces General Sani Abacha in his 1st October, 1995 broadcast lifted the ban on employment. There is no doubt that the country has witnessed an upsurge in crime such as drug addiction and sophisticated armed robberies while broken homes, malnutrition and many other social vices are on the increase too.

Other factors that contributed to this situation also remain an integral part of this research. Such factors include the expansion of the existing schools and establishment of new schools without a collateral increase in industries to absorb produced graduates, the behaviour of graduate themselves towards jobs like farming construction of roads, bridges, school taxi cars and also the over-dependence of a mono-export-oriented economy etc. the efforts of the previous government in areas of infusion of skill-orientation in educational scheme will be scrutinized in order to have a balanced analysis. Did the government evolves stringent measures aimed at eradicating problem of unemployment in the state or did they apply the myopic machineries which appealed to policy makers because of case or execution?
The answer to this question with relevance to the historical background of Enugu urban requires meticulous evaluation in order to find a lasting solution. The researcher will therefore, use questionnaire and review of past work in the same direction. Most regrettably, however, there is scarcity of domestic data relating to the number of unemployed graduate of school of higher learning.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The unabated increase in the rate of unemployment among the youth, with particular emphasis on higher institution graduate has been a source of concern to the entire nation. Moreso, being aware of the social vices that this situation could result it makes sit more disabusing. This situation is a delima when we consider many policies, and legislation so far put in place by the government to cub this mince and how ineffective they have been as an instrument to reduce unemployment. The researcher having considered the above and decided to study the under listed problems with the view to x-raying then and possibly proffering lasting solutions to them.

  1. The increase in the rate of unemployment amongst higher institution graduate not withstanding that the federal government of Nigeria have lifted embargo on employment.
  2. The cream of he university graduate we have today includes those who have studied in very essential field which before now was not so. Nevertheless they suffer unemployment.
  3. The increase in eh scope of private sector participation which should result I the increase in employment of university graduate has not been true in our situation.
  4. The federal government recently increased the capital base of the bank of industry so as to allow more graduate to participate in the federal government graduate loan scheme, with the aim of being self employed, but this has not yielded any meaningful result or reduced the unemployment toll.

1.3 Objective of the Study

The major of this study is to critically examine the unemployment problems amongst graduate of institution of higher learning. By extension, this study will specifically;

  1. Determine the prevalence of unemployment of graduates of high institution of learning in Nsukka, Enugu State.
  2. Ascertain the causes of unemployment problems amongst graduate of institution of higher learning in Nsukka, Enugu State.
  3. Ascertain the consequences of unemployment among graduate of institution of higher learning in Nsukka, Enugu State.

1.4 Research Question

The study will be guided by the questions;

  1. What is the prevalence of unemployment among graduates of high institution of learning in Nsukka, Enugu State?
  2. What are the causes of unemployment problems amongst graduate of institution of higher learning in Nsukka, Enugu State?
  3. What are the consequences of unemployment among graduate of institution of higher learning in Nsukka, Enugu State.

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: There is no high prevalence of unemployment among graduates of high institution of learning in Nsukka, Enugu State.
  • Ha: There is a high prevalence of unemployment among graduates of high institution of learning in Nsukka, Enugu State.

1.6 Significance of the Study

Owing to the down turn in the economic fortunes of this country over the years, the Nigerian graduates have lost their pride of place. Their status in the society has continued to dwindle. Today, it is sheer mirage for fresh graduates to dream of the good things of life. They are made to understand and accept that the graduates, unemployment should be seen as a passing phase in the history of the nation. It is very doubtful if the much desired change in the near future will bring us anything. Therefore, this study is aimed at showing how these problems of unemployment among the graduates of institutions of higher learning could be eradicated.

It is desirable to create a new forum in which the government plays a dominant role and actively promotes private enterprises, establishes new enterprises with a centrally directed mobilization of resources towards the definite objectives of solving the graduate problem. One makes hold to add that in choosing their course of studies, they should bear in mind that times have changed. No more straight jacket thinking. She should would excel in. The solution to this national malaise lies in turnaround or direction on the economy.


1.7 Scope of the Study

Broadly, this study focuses on investigate the unemployment problems amongst graduate of institution of higher learning in Nsukka, Enugu State. The study will be carried out among gradutes in Nsukka, Enugu State.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Unemployment:

This means involuntary idleness. A person is described as unemployed when, despite his ability and willingness to work is jobless.

Intentionally:

Done on purpose

Graduate:

One who finished a course of study at a university or polytechnics.

Deficiency:

Not perfect, lacking something

Respondents:

People given answers to questions.

Persistent:

Continues steadily in a course of action inspite of difficulty.


1.10 Organization of the Studies

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the unemployment problems amongst graduate of institution of higher learning in Nsukka, Enugu State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the unemployment problems amongst graduate of institution of higher learning in Nsukka, Enugu State. The study specifically was aimed at to determine the prevalence of unemployment of graduates of high institution of learning in Nsukka, Enugu State; ascertain the causes of unemployment problems amongst graduate of institution of higher learning in Nsukka, Enugu State; and ascertain the consequences of unemployment among graduate of institution of higher learning in Nsukka, Enugu State.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents were youths residents in Nsukka, Enugu State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. There is a high prevalence of unemployment among graduates of high institution of learning in Nsukka, Enugu State.
  2. The causes of unemployment problems amongst graduate of institution of higher learning in Nsukka, Enugu State includes; mismanagement of economy, poor standard of education, population explosion, preference of employers, and attributes of graduates.
  3. The consequences of unemployment among graduate of institution of higher learning in Nsukka, Enugu State includes; poor human capital development, decline in quality of life, increase in poverty, and increases crime rate.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. Though government may not be able to create job enough for the teaming millions of Nigerian unemployed youths, they should therefore embark on massive youth development programmes in all the states of the federation with entrepreneurial skills acquisition and entrepreneurship development as a key target hence a viable intervening tool for unemployment.
  2. That there should be a massive reduction in the political corruption index of the country to enable youth development to thrive. This is because corruption, which has permeated the entire social structure of Nigeria, has robbed the country of developing a vibrant economic base as funds meant for development projects have been misappropriated, diverted, embezzled and stashed away in foreign bank accounts, while some incompetent and corrupt bureaucrats and administrators in the public enterprises and parastatals have liquidated their organizations. It is a pity that each successive government took turns to prey on the nation’s wealth, by using public power, resources, good will, utilities, instrument of abuse, and personal gains.
  3. That government should embark on rural development such as rural industrialization and electrification to curtail rural-urban drift. In engendering rural development, rural roads should be built, infrastructures provided to ensure that the rural areas are attractive to live in. this will enable the possibility of youths staying in the rural areas and getting productively engaged.
  4. The general school curriculum should be remodeled to inculcate technical skill acquisition which will help even secondary school graduates to have employable skills. This is against the complain that Nigerian graduates are unemployable leading to youths unemployment.

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