The Roles Of Data Preservation In Enhancing The Efficiency Of Secretarial Function In Selected Banks In Enugu Metropolis
This research work was undertaken to find out the roles of data preservation in enhancing the efficiency of secretarial function in selected banks in Enugu Metropolis.
In doing this, the researcher evaluated the various methods of data preservation their advantages and disadvantages and the functions of a secretary in an organization. The researcher collected data from primary and secondary source. Through the primary source of data questionnaire was used to elicit appropriate information from the respondents (secretaries) in selected banks in Enugu metropolis. Secondary source of data collection in the form of textbooks, lecture notes, handbooks and journals were used to explain the topic.
The data was analyzed using simple percentages and tables and statements. Findings from the study revealed that majority of the respondents use computerized method of data preservation while minority uses electromechanical and manual method. It was equally revealed that users of manual method face varying problems such as time wastage and monotony while computer users face problems such as retraining and complexity. In view of this, it was concluded that computerized method is the most effective method of data preservation. And the method was recommend to be used in banks so as to enhance the efficiency of secretarial function.
Table Of Content
- Title page
- Approval page
- List of tables
- Table of content
- 1.1 Background of the study
- 1.2 Statement of the problems
- 1.3 Purpose of the study
- 1.4 Scope of the study
- 1.5 Research questions
- 1.6 Significance of the study.
- 2.1 Definition and meaning of data
- 2.2 Definition and meaning of data processing
- 2.3 Definition and meaning of data preservation
- 2.4 Data preservation method
- 2.4.1 Manual method
- 2.4.2 Electromechanical method
- 2.4.3 Computerized method
- 2.4.4 Who is secretary
- 2.4.5 Various secretarial functions in an organization.
- 3.1 Research design
- 3.2 Area of study
- 3.3 Population of the study
- 3.4 Sampling and sampling procedure
- 3.5 Instrument for data collection
- 3.6 Validation of research instrument
- 3.7 Reliability of research instrument
- 3.8 Method of administration of research instrument
- 3.9 Method of data analysis.
Data Presentation and Results
- 4.1 Summary result/findings.
Discussion, Implication and Recommendation.
- 5.1 Discussion of results
- 5.2 Conclusions
- 5.3 Implications of results
- 5.4 Recommendations
- 5.5 Suggestions for further research
- 5.6 Limitations of the study.
List Of Tables
- Table I Response on question no. I and 2
- Table II Response on question no. 3
- Table III Response on question no. 4
- Table IV Response on question no. 5
- Table V Response on question no. 6
- Table VI Response on question no. 7
- Table VII Response on question no. 8 and 11
- Table VIII Response on question no. 9 and 10
1.1 Background Of The Study
According to the Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English data is information prepared for and operated on a computer programmer.
The preservation of data is as old as man himself. In the earlier times, men were capable of storing information in their brains and passing them on form one person to another by mouths. But the more authentic one were data inscribed on stone tablets, on paper scrolls and eve on walls so that generation later can still make reference to them if properly preserved. However, there were limitations on how for one could rely on these methods of preserving data. As time progressed, man continued in searching for as satisfactory data processing/preservation machine. It was due to the numerous problems encountered by man when dealing with large numbers that gave birth to the invention of various mechanisms for preserving data.
Although man used pebbles, grains of corn, figures and toes as well as other smaller objects. The problems on how to handle pebble conveniently was solved in the Tigress-Euphrates valley about (5000 years ago by designing a clay board with grooves into which the pebble could be placed. The device enable the grooves to be moved from outside on the instruction to the other to facilitates counting. The technique which was the forerunner of the abacus was adopted and modified by the Chinese and Japanese
The Abacus comprises of several rows of beads which slide in sticks or wires mounted in a rectangular frame. The frame of the abacus is divided by a cross number so that each row of the bead has a sector with four or five beads and another sector with one bead (two on some abacuses.)
The abacus, however could not solve man’s arithmetic problems efficiently and effectively so, man’s search for a better and improved method continued.
By the seventeenth century Jon Nappier a Scottish theologian and mathematician developed a calculating aid know as Nappiers bone. It consisted of a set of roles each of which had a multiplication table marked on it. He later developed logarithms – a tabular system of numbers which simplified arithmetic operations with logarithms, multiplications, divisions, additions, etc were modified and simplified.
In 1642, Blaise Pascal developed a digital counter with teeth numbering 0 – 9. he invented this device to assist in adding long columns of figures in his fathers tax office in frame. The machine consisted of a row of wheels with teeth. The first wheel denoted units, the second tens etc. when the first wheel was turned six spaces six was shown in windows at the top of the machine. If the wheel was turned tow more spaces the result was eight, the addition of another seven caused that indicator to proceed through 0 to 6. in this instance, a lever on the units dial must have moved the tens dial one tenth (1/10) of a revolution so that the machine has carried one indicating a total of 16 Pascals machine was only capable of performing addition and subtraction but based on his effort other mechanical machines were developed.
In 1671, a German Philosopher and mathematician, Gothfried leibniz conceived a calculating machine but the machine was completed in 1674 this was known as Libniz machine and was useful in arithmetic procedures.
The search for satisfactory data processing and preserving machine continued until in 1909 when Charles Kettering developed for the national cash register company the first accounting machine called the teller. The teller machine was used for certifying passbooks using a tabulating carriage, the machine could sort data into a number of columns in addition to performing the functions of recording, calculating and summarizing.
All these machines discussed above although efficient had limitations. They were manual rather than automatic. They laid the foundation on which the modern electronic computers were built.
In 1802 a French man named Joseph Marie Jacquard invented a weaving loom called Jacquard’s automatic loom. This textile loom was responsible for making famous the wearing trade. The punch card with punch holes supplied instructions which controlled trade selection and directed pattern designs
In 1917 Charles Babbage an English mathematician designed the first machine that used the punch card in solving mathematical problems. This innovation can equally be used as a memory or storage unit that can store data in the form of holes punched in cards.
However, the effectiveness of this machine was limited by slowness and mechanical difficulties. These restrictions were overcome by the next development in data a preservation history – the invention of electronic computer.
In 1954, the first type of computer called UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer) was directed to a business enterprise. They were designed to handle vast quantities of data typical of business speed, output and preservation. Over the years, files and cabinets have been used to preserve data too.
The development of banking services in Nigeria also passed several stages. In these stages of development manual method of data preservation was used. In manual data preservation human efforts is combined with simple office tools to perform the operation.
However, today the major banks in operations in Enugu are the First Bank of Nigeria plc, Union Bank for Africa Plc, the Africa continental Bank plc, the international Bank for Wes Africa (IBWA) Plc presently in these banks, data is being preserved in the Hard Disc or Floppy Disc which is used by the computers as well as manually.
It is on record that there are many methods of preserving data in banks. This study is directed towards identifying the various methods of preserving data, the roles and efficiency of these methods.
1.2 Statement Of Problems
Public opinion in most offices is that some secretaries especially new ones are lax in their duties, since they are unable to produce stored data promptly when needed. This might be as a result of the method of data preservation being adopted. It is equally common to see a secretary looking for preserved data, which may have been removed by an unauthorized person. Because of the role played by secretaries in retrieving preserved data, many officers complain that secretaries are mere source of information others complain that most secretaries are relaxed and lazy because of the ease with which they produce preserved data with modern devices or equipment.
It is equally feared that because of the case with which secretaries retrieve preserved data with modern equipment, this might kill the initiative of the secretaries and make their job less challenging. What then is the true position? Can good data preservation system have any effect on the job performance of the secretary? The need to provide answer to the above question necessitated this study, that is to find out the roles of data preservation in enhancing the efficiency of secretarial functions in banks.
1.3 Purpose Of The Study
The purpose of this research work is to identity:
- The various methods for preserving data in banks in Enugu metropolis
- The constraints faced by secretaries in using these methods
- The roles of these methods in enhancing the efficiency of secretarial functions.
1.4 Scope Of The Study
This study is focused on the roles of data preservation in enhancing the efficiency of secretarial function in selected banks in Enugu ,metropolis. The selected Banks are Union Bank of Nigeria Plc, Africa Continental Bank Plc, First Bank of Nigeria plc, and United bank for Africa. The study involves all cadre of secretaries in the selected banks.
1.5 Research Questions
Answers will be provided to the following questions.
- What are the methods used to preserve data in banks toady.
- What are the roles of these methods and how do these methods enhance secretarial functions
- What are the problems emanating from these methods?
1.6 Significance Of The Study
The importance of this study is that it will help the secretaries to be aware of the best method of preserving data, the banks as well as other organizations will benefits from the research because secretaries need guidelines on how to preserve data efficiency and effectively, this will in turn improve or contribute to the achievement of their goals and objectives. The students will also help them ground themselves with the required competency for the operation of those machines use for preserving data as they move into the labor market.
Discussion, Implication And Recommendation
5.1 Discussion Of Results
From the data analysis, it was observed that majority of the secretaries in the various banks use computerized method of data preservation, while a few use the electromechanical method and a few others use manual methods of data preservation.
On the aspect of what to be done to improve data preservation method in their bank, it was found out that majority of the respondents were of the opinion that the computerized method should be installed in their banks despite the problems they face, many were of the opinion that the installation of the computerized method will increase productivity and enhance secretarial function in their respective banks. A few respondents suggest the installation of electromechanical method (use of microfilming) as this is useful for the preservation of certain data for transfer of data between various branches of their banks. Some respondents were of the view that the manual method should be improved upon instead of discouraged as an organization cannot completely ignore the use of files and cabinets for the preservation of certain data, where their original copies and normal size need to be retained for future references.
It was observed that computer users enjoy the benefit of preserving more data at a time, their method takes less space, there is security, it is more interesting and efficient, it is equally faster to use. For electromechanical user (microfilming) they responded that it saves space, secure, less expensive and more permanent for it cannot be easily distorted or damaged. It was equally observed that manual users enjoy the benefit of maintaining original copy of their preserved data, their system is easily to access, it is less expensive and no special training is required to know how to operate it.
All respondent from the four banks feel that proper handling of data preservation could enhance efficient performance of secretarial function. For computer users, they said that it increases their output, there is security, it saves space and time spent on looking for preserved data, there is ease in storing and retrieving preserved data. Manual users felts that if their data preservation is properly handled, it would lead to good arrangement of files and tidy environment in the office.
From the analysis of data collected and discussion of findings it can be decided that majority of the respondents use computerized method because of its many advantages over the manual and electromechanical methods such as security, increased efficiency, and productivity, less space less time in storing and retrieving preserved data. This proves that is is the most effective method of data preservation.
Notwithstanding, the fact that most respondents did not opt for the manual and the electromechanical methods they did not totally discourage their use as they can be useful in some areas of data preservation amongst which are retainment of original copies of data and for transfer purposes.
From the responses it can be concluded that the computerized method is the most efficient method of data preservation and proper handling of any of the data preservation method will greatly increase the productivity and efficiency of secretaries and enhance the performance of their secretarial functions in the various banks in Enugu metropolis
5.3 Implication Of The Results
It is of paramount importance to research on the roles of data preservation on the efficiency of secretarial functions. As the secretary is a versatile member of any organization, his function straddles along different functions the secretary needs guidelines on how to preserve data efficiently and effectively.
In view of the findings and conclusion made above, the following are recommended for the enhancement of secretaries efficiency is their secretarial functions in the banking sector in Enugu metropolis
- Since the preservation of data is an important aspect of the secretarial function it is recommended that the computerized method of data preservation be introduced and installed in the banks as it is the most efficient method of data preservation.
- Despite the high cost that is attributed to the computerized method of data preservation, it is still recommended for use as its advantages outweigh its disadvantages it becomes less expensive on the long run as access cannot be made to reserved data except where the secretary is careless, it is faster and more challenging and more interesting, these increases the efficiency of secretarial functions.
- Regarding training, adequate training programmes should be made available for secretaries to enlighten then on the use of the computer since the computer is what is vogue in the age of technology. The training programme should be organized to suit the need of the secretaries. If well organized the disadvantages of computerized method will be greatly reduced as secretaries will enjoy their job, and maintain high performance when they get used to the system being introduced to them. It will equally boost their moral as they will feel that they are part of the organization, it will equally reduce laxity on their part. There is no problems in training and retraining as knowledge cannot be got in one day or in a short space of time, so the researcher recommends that secretaries should be patient and painstakingly learn whatever newer and more developed method of data preservation being introduced to them. It is for their benefits
- Regarding the challenging aspect of the computerized method of data preservation the secretarial function is general is a challenge as secretaries are involved in diverse activities in the organization. It is recommended that secretaries avail themselves to their jobs to avoid laziness in any way.
- Because of the complex nature of computerized method, the training programme should be made as easy as possible, lively and interesting, practical sessions should be allowed to facilitates understanding. Through the training, the complexity of this method will be reduced.
- Notwithstanding, the manual of data preservation cannot be totally ignored, arrangements should be made to make them more tidy and well arranged so that they do not consume too much space, arrangement should equally be made so that only those data which original are needed for references purpose are preserved through the manual method. This will reduce monotony and time wastage
- The manual method should be made more secure by using fir-proof cabinet to avoid fire and damage. Special locks to be provided to avoid theft or removal by authorized persons.
- Still on the manual method, it is recommended that file tracing equipments are used to trace missing files so that they can be easily accessed when needed, this is to reduce the time spent on looking for preserved data.
- Microfilming equipment should be installed in the banks where needed.
5.5 Suggestion For Further Research
Since the researcher limited herself to bank in Enugu metropolis, it is suggested that further research be carried out in Enugu as a whole and the other organiztuons.
5.6 Limitations Of The Study.
This research work is intended to find out the roles data preservation play in enhancing the efficiency of secretarial function in selected bank in Enugu metropolis.
Due to lack of sufficient funds and shortness of the semester the researcher was not able to cover a wider area in the state.
The Roles Of Data Preservation In Enhancing The Efficiency Of Secretarial Function In Selected Banks In Enugu Metropolis
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