Psychoactive Substance Use Among Young People

Project and Seminar Material for Nursing (Science)

Project and Seminar Material for Nursing (Science)


Abstract


The study titled Psychoactive Substance Use Among Young People was designed to determine prevalence and patterns of Psychoactive Substance use among young people in Nigeria. The study adopted an exploratory research design obtaining Data from secondary sources which includes published articles and journals first use. The study discovered from data gathered that prevalence of substance abuse among young people is high and recommended strategies for the treatment of the effect of substance abuse.


Table Of Contents


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Certification page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of content

Chapter One

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background Of The Study
  • 1.2 Problem Statement
  • 1.3 Study Objectives
  • 1.4 Significance Of The Study
  • 1.5 Study Questions/Hypotheses
  • 1.6 Scope And Limitation Of The Study
  • 1.7 Definition Of Terms

Chapter Two

Review Of Related And Relevant Literature

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Conceptual Clarifications
  • 2.3 Theoretical Studies
  • 2.4 Empirical Studies
  • 2.5 Related Literatures

Chapter Three

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Study Area
  • 3.3 Sources Of Data
  • 3.4 Population Of The Study
  • 3.5 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.6 Instrumentation
  • 3.7 Reliability And Validity Of Instrument
  • 3.8 Method Of Data Analysis

Chapter Four

Data Presentation, Analysis And Interpretation

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Data Analysis
  • 4.3 Data Interpretation

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusion And Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Psychoactive Substance use and dependence cause a significant burden to the individuals and societies throughout the world. The World Health Report (2010) indicated that 8.9% of the total burden of disease comes from the use of psychoactive substances. The report showed that tobacco accounted for 4.1%, alcohol 4%, and illicit drugs 0.8% of the burden of disease in 2010. Much of the burden attributable to substance use and dependence is the result of a wide variety of health and social problems. Data from the (World Health Organization, 2011) show large-scale seizures of cocaine, heroin, cannabis and amphetamine-type stimulants in different parts of the world. Availability of cocaine, heroin and cannabis depends on the level of cultivation in source countries and on the success or failure of trafficking organizations. However, even with increased levels of law enforcement activities, there always seems to be enough available to users. According to (UNODC, 2011) estimates show that about 200 million people make illicit use of one type of illicit substance or another.

Psychoactive substance use is a social problem that has spread and increased rapidly in educational institutions especially among secondary school students (Neeraja, 2011). This social problem is considered an issue of serious concern as it adversely affects the lives and performance of students involved as well as the harmonious functioning of the entire structure of the society. Use of psychoactive drugs and other associated problems are inimical to the survival and effective functioning of human societies. A significant number of untimely deaths and accidents have been linked to the activities of persons under the influence of one psychoactive drug or the other (Shelly, 2010).
Drug abuse is viewed by different authorities in various forms. Neeraja (2011) defined substance abuse as the dependence on a drug or other chemical substances leading to the effect that are detrimental to the individual’s physical and mental health or the welfare of others. According to Smelzer, Bare, Hinkle, and Cheever (2008) substance abuse is a maladaptive pattern of drug use that causes physical and emotional harm with the potential for disruption of daily life. From these definitions, it can be deduced that substance abuse is the misuse of one or more drugs which could be prescribed by a health practitioner with the intention to alter the way one feels, thinks or behaves and it is associated with consequences which include physical and emotional harm to the person.

The African Symposium (2010) viewed substance abuse as the improper use or application of drugs by a person without proper knowledge of the drugs and without due prescription from a qualified medical practitioner. This definition focuses on psychoactive drugs. All drugs can be abused to an extent that it turns into addiction when the drug user is unable to stop the use of the drugs despite the harmful effects on the user’s social, personal and economic lives. The problem of substance abuse is so grave that though it was originally conceived as the problem of a ‘select few’, it has extended beyond the usual characteristics of abusers being males, adults and urban based people, to now include females, youngsters and rural dwellers (Rocha, 2009). These abusers erroneously believe that drugs enhance their performance, put them in good mood etc. The accompanying problems of this act constitute a major threat to the wellbeing of the society (Ajala, 2009).


1.2 Statement of problem

The youths in Nigeria like many countries of the world are increasingly developing addiction to psychoactive substances. The National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA, 2011) collected drugs use and abuse data from schools, records of patients admitted at mental health institutions for drug problems and interview of persons arrested for drug offences. The result showed that youths constitute the high risk group for drug trafficking and abuse. Friends and school mates account for about 90% of the source of influence of the use and abuse of various psychoactive substances. In Nigeria, alcohol and cigarette are legal substances but, the two have been discovered to cause physical damage to human bodies. It has been reported that smoking tobacco causes 90.0% of lung cancer, 30.0% of all cancers, and 80.0% of other chronic lung diseases (Sale 2008). Apart from these health implications, according to Stephen (2010), alcohol and cigarette are said to be “gateway drugs” to other more potent psychoactive drugs like marijuana, heroin and cocaine.

The future of any community, society, state or nation is tied to the character of the adolescent in that particular place, area or locality. It is also said that “The youth are the leaders of tomorrow”. Therefore responsible youth in the society indicates responsible and brighter future of that society and also the reverse is the case.

In our society people are known to have had problems that had made them to adopt various measures to cope with such problems and live successfully within the confines of societal normative values. While some people take solace in lawful ways others resort to unlawful and unhealthy measures such as the use of drugs or psychoactive substances to the extent of abusing them, hence resulting in addiction. According to Edum (2006) the adolescent in our society are not left out in this, as they are either influenced by peer group while others do so because of the easy availability of the abused substances, others also watch on television and films and some read in books and so try to experiment to experience the effects. Several studies have shown the effects of psychoactive substance varing from one another depending on their mechanism of action, the amount consumed and the history of the user among other factors. It is against this background that the study aims at highlighting and identifying problem and prospect of prevalence of psychoactive substance among young people


1.3 Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of the study is to determine the prevalence and pattern of psychoactive substance in Nigeria.

The Specific Objectives are to

  1. Identify the Causes of Psychoactive substance use by young people in Nigeria
  2. Establish the Pattern of Psychoactive Use/Abuse among young people in nigeria.
  3. Discuss the Problems Associated with Psychoactive Substance Use.
  4. Highlight the Effects of Substance Abuse
  5. Identify the Symptoms of Psychoactive Substance Dependence
  6. Determine the Treatment Modalities of Psychoactive Substance Abuse

1.4 Research Questions

The research questions to guide this study includes

  1. What are the Causes of Psychoactive substance use by young people in Nigeria?
  2. What is the Pattern of Psychoactive Use/Abuse among young people in Nigeria?
  3. What are the Problems Associated with Psychoactive Substance Use?
  4. What are the Effects of Substance Abuse?
  5. What are the Symptom of Psychoactive Substance Dependence?
  6. What are the Treatment Modalities of Psychoactive Substance Abuse?

1.5 Significance of the Study

The present study will reveal the prevalence, pattern, types and sources of psychoactive substances used by young people. This finding would be useful to the parents, teachers, police and the drug law enforcement agency (NDLEA) as well as other bodies concerned with checking drug abuse problems in Nigeria. The findings will provide a source of reference for intervention programmes in Nigeria. The finding of this study will be useful to future researchers on the topic, as they will build on the strength and limitations of the study. And the finding of the study may spur them to form anti-psychoactive substance use clubs and associations.


1.6 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study is focused on Nigeria. The study will be employ a library research methodology delimited to articles and publications related to prevalence and pattern of psychoactive substance use among young people in Nigeria.


1.7 Operational Definition of Terms

Psychoactive Substance:

This refers to any substance which may be a drug or not but has the property of altering the mood in form of stimulation or distortion of perception.

Psychoactive substance use:

Refers to the use of any substance which may be drugs or not that has the property of altering the mood in form of stimulation or distortion of perception

Drug Abuse:

Refers to the illegal or excessive drug use; deliberate use of an illegal drug or of too much of a prescribed drugs

Prevalence of psychoactive substance use:

Refers to the proportion of a population found to have used a psychoactive substance or drugs.

Pattern of psychoactive substance use:

Is the process addicts use which include Modes of Taking, frequencies and Style of psychoactive substance abuse etc


Chapter Five


Conclusion And Recommendations

Conclusion

The study covered the Concept of psychoactive substances and psychoactive abuse. Most of the literature reviewed showed that, throughout the ages, people have used various substances to alter their mood perception or behaviour. Most of these substances were derived from plants or their seeds and included marijuana, coca leaves, opium and psilocybin from mushrooms. Refined substances include alcohol, heroin and cocaine. Synthetic drugs include lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), phencyclidine (PCP), Cracic and amphetamine.

Also the study focuses on pattern and prevalence of psychoactive substance which smoking huping, injection etc. Problems associated with psychoactive use include psychological problem like hallucination euphoria, amnesia and distortion of thinking. Behavioural problem include difficulty in maintaining successful relationship which often leads to isolation divorce, loss of job etc. Physical problem associated with drug abuse include anxiety, craving, tremor and malnutrition in chronic and prolong use. Addiction is divided into two, psychological and physical addiction.

Treatment modalities of psychoactive abuse include psychological treatment which is by the use of psychotherapy, psychoeducation and family therapy. Another method of treating drug abuse is by the use of drugs. Drugs commonly used in treatment of psychoactive substance abuse are Naltrexone, diulprim etc. Nevertheless, the review touches some common features associated with risk factors of substance abuse, which include availability and encouragement, adverse social conditions, environmental or biological factors, psychological influences, disabilities, developmental influences and cultural influence. The study also considered some causes of psychoactive substance abuse which include biological, psychosocial and socio-cultural in nature. These factors are likely to coexist. One group of theories considers the importance of personality.


Recommendations

The following recommendations could reduce the prevalence of drug abuse if not totally eradicated among students of Ahmadu Bello University.

  1. More awareness on the meaning of psychoactive substance abuse should be made available in courses, in guidance and counseling centres and bill boards as majority of the students did not have knowledge of psychoactive substances and its use.
  2. Early health education on the effect of psychoactive substance should commence at an early age before students gain admission into the university.
  3. Equal attention should be paid to both male and female students on the effects of psychoactive substance use.
  4. Close attention should be paid to all students regardless of their socio-economic background since monthly allowance does not influence the use of psychoactive substances.
  5. Students whose parents are dead are prone to psychoactive substance abuse, so they should be given special attention by the university authorities.

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