Determinants Of Psychoactive Substance Use Among Selected Senior Secondary Schools Students In Oyo Metropolis, Nigeria

Project and Seminar Material for Nursing (Science)

Determinants Of Psychoactive Substance Use Among Selected Senior Secondary Schools Students In Oyo Metropolis, Nigeria


Abstract


The study examined onthe determinants of psychoactive substance use among selected Senior secondary schools students in Oyo metropolis, Nigeria. The study is was specifically set to find out the extent psychoactive substance usage among senior secondary schools students in Oyo metropolis, ascertain the attitude of senior secondary schools students towards the use of psychoactive substance, find out the factors influencing the use of psychoactive substance among senior secondary schools students in Oyo metropolis, and determine the impact of psychoactive substance use on the academics of senior secondary schools students in Oyo metropolis. Survey research design was adopted in the study in order to assess the opinions of the selected respondents with the use of questionnaire. Data obtained were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores, while hypotheses were tested using Chi Square statistical tool. The findings of the study showed that the extent psychoactive substances are utilized among senior secondary schools students in Oyo metropolis is high.Furthermore the findings of the study showed that the factors influencing the use of psychoactive substance among senior secondary schools students in Oyo metropolis include; peer pressure, social acceptance, loneliness, family background, and curiosity.Based on the findings, it was recommended that the government should take special priority in banning the use of cannabis, cigarettes and alcohol, especially among secondary school students in order to minimize the prevalence of the use of psychoactive substances among secondary school students.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
  • 4.5 Discussion of Findings

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of Study

According to the World Health Organization (WHO) the word drugs refers to any substance which, when absorbed by a living organism, will alter one or more than one of its functions. These substancescan be licit (medical products, alcoholic beverages, tobacco), but they can also include other active substances (Cocaine, LSD, Ecstasy, opiates) (kramer & Cameron, 2005).

Drugs can be seen as simple – organic or inorganic- medicinal substances which can be used on their own or as ingredients or can be considered a forbidden chemical substance which use is illegal and harmful to its user, a substance which will affect the body and change that person’s mood, his behaviour, his sensations, his humor, the way that person will see and hear things. When we think about drugs, we commonly tend to think about heroin, hashish, cocaine or ecstasy. Alcohol and cigarettes are also substances that come up when we talk about drugs. Besides those substances, a lot of others, like caffeine or aspirin, are considered to be drugs, too. We have to accept that each culture and each country have their own drugs and their own way of dealing with them (Ganeri, 2002).

Several authors consider “drugs” to be any natural or synthetic substance that, when it is absorbed by the organism, will alter its functions. Natural drugs- like caffeine, nicotine, opium and cannabiscome from certain plants, animals or from certain minerals (Geier, 2013; Feijão, 2010; Henry, 2010; Ganeri, 2002; Riggs, Black, & Ritt-Olson, 2014).

Adolescence is a phase in which the brain prefrontal cortex, a part of our brain which is responsible for behaviour and emotions self-regulation, is developing itself and in which teenagers start making cognitive decisions. A late cortical prefrontal development and its integration with the brain’s limbic areas which are associated with reward, pleasure, the search for new experiences and emotions may contribute to the increase of vulnerability and to substance abuse (Riggs, Black, & Ritt-Olson, 2014). There are other factors than those related to natural development to be taken into account: namely the socio-demographic factors (gender, age, social status), socio-economic and family factors associated with alcohol and drug abuse: growing up with one of the parents only, a poor perception of paternal and maternal support, friends who do drugs, the absence of a strong religious belief and a lack of interest in sports (Tavares, 2001).

Psychoactive drugs work on the brain, modifying its operation and changing mood, behavior and consciousness, which may lead to a state of dependence(Caldeira, 2010). Among these substances are licit drugs (alcohol and tobacco), illicit drugs (marijuana, cocaine, crack and others) and psychoactive drugs (tranquilizers, sedatives and strong analgesics).

Generations of students have used brain stimulants, food supplements, drugs subject to medical prescription, amphetamines and energy drinks in order to enhance their mental faculties, namely memory, concentration, reasoning and language, which are inherent to studying and academic development(Fleckenstein, 2015). The main substances used for this purpose are caffeine, methylphenidate (MPH), modafinil, piracetam, energy drinks and amphetamines. Although the specific action mechanisms may vary, psychostimulants usually work directly or indirectly through dopamine, motivation, attention and excitement. Among students using methylphenidate, most of them have used it in highly stressful periods of academic studies(Fleckenstein, 2015). Thus, studies have estimated that 5% to 35% of university students use these drugs to improve their academic performance, stimulate cognitive function and decrease physical and mental fatigue. Hence, the increasing use of psychoactive drugs for non-therapeutic purposes creates the need to inform students and raise their awareness about the real risks of over-the-counter psychoactive drugs and their harmful effects on health, such as increased blood pressure, arrhythmias, headaches, overdose and depression(Mizrahi, 2016). In view of the above, this study seek to examine determinants of psychoactive substance usage among secondary school students.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Studies show that psychoactive substance use (PASU) among secondary school students is associated with altering time sense, decreasing auditory discrimination (Holister, 1971); and difficulty in concentration (Scott & Scott, 2013). Further sources suggest that there is an association between students’ school performance and substance use, and that students who use psychoactive substances are at a greater risk of performing poorly in school and vice versa (Bergen, Martin, Roeger, & Allison, 2005; Diego, Field, & Sanders, 2003; Ellickson, Tucker, & Klein, 2001). Other known studies have confirmed that PASU is closely associated with truancy and school exclusion among other behavioral problems(Atilola et al., 2014; Kacwamu, 2010).Use of psychoactive substances among secondary school students and its concomitant performance-related consequences is hence a notable concern, both globally and in the developing countries like Nigeria(Fekri, & Mohsen, 2009). In view of the above, this study seek to examine the determinants of psychoactive substance use among selected Senior secondary schools students in Oyo metropolis.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The major of this study is to critically examine the determinants of psychoactive substance use among selected Senior secondary schools students in Oyo metropolis, Nigeria. By extension, this study will specifically;

  1. Find out the extent psychoactive substance usage among senior secondary schools students in Oyo metropolis.
  2. Ascertain the attitude of senior secondary schools students towards the use of psychoactive substance.
  3. Find out the factors influencing the use of psychoactive substance among senior secondary schools students Oyo metropolis.
  4. Determine the impact of psychoactive substance use on the academics of senior secondary schools students in Oyo metropolis.

1.4 Research Question

The study will be guided by the following questions;

  1. To what extent are psychoactive substances utilized among senior secondary schools students in Oyo metropolis?
  2. What is the attitude of senior secondary schools students towards the use of psychoactive substance?
  3. What are the factors influencing the use of psychoactive substance among senior secondary schools students in Oyo metropolis?
  4. What is the impact of psychoactive substance use on the academics of senior secondary schools students in Oyo metropolis?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: Psychoactive substance usage has no negative impact on the academics of senior secondary schools students.
  • Ha: Psychoactive substance usage has a negative impact on the academics of senior secondary schools students.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The present study will reveal the prevalence, sources, and the impact of psychoactive substances used by secondary school students. These findings are essential as they will help in understanding the overall social, academic and drug problems of the students. This finding would be useful to the parents, teachers, police and the drug law enforcement agency (NDLEA) as well as other bodies concerned with checking drug abuse problems in Oyo and Nigeria at large.

It is also hoped that the findings of this study will be useful for social monitoring and alerting people to the signs of substance use so as to enable early diagnosis and treatment of affected persons. It will also assist in planning of preventive strategies for substance use in our secondary schools across the country.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study is to critically assess the determinants of psychoactive substance use among selected senior secondary schools students. The study specifically seeks to establish the prevalence of psychoactive drugs abuse among secondary school students. Geographically, this study will be delimited to some selected senior secondary schools in Oyo metropolis. Respondents for this study will be obtained from students of the selected secondary schools in the study area.


1.8. Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Psychoactive Substance:

This refers to any substance which may be a drug or not but has the property of altering the mood in form of stimulation or distortion of perception.

Psychoactive Substance:

Psychoactive substance use refers to the use of any substance which may be drugs or not that has the property of altering the mood in form of stimulation or distortion of perception.

Drug Abuse:

Drug Abuse refers to the illegal or excessive drug use; deliberate use of an illegal drug or of too much of a prescribed drugs.


1.10 Organization of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the determinants of psychoactive substance use among selected Senior secondary schools students in Oyo metropolis, Nigeria. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine on the determinants of psychoactive substance use among selected Senior secondary schools students in Oyo metropolis, Nigeria. The study is was specifically carried out to find out the extent psychoactive substance usage among senior secondary schools students in Oyo metropolis, ascertain the attitude of senior secondary schools students towards the use of psychoactive substance, find out the factors influencing the use of psychoactive substance among senior secondary schools students in Oyo metropolis, and determine the impact of psychoactive substance use on the academics of senior secondary schools students in Oyo metropolis.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 210 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent arestudentsof some selected senior secondary schools in Oyo metropolis.


5.3 Conclusion

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. The extent psychoactive substances are utilized among senior secondary schools students in Oyo metropolis is high.
  2. Senior secondary schools students has negative attitude towards the use of psychoactive substance.
  3. The factors influencing the use of psychoactive substance among senior secondary schools students in Oyo metropolis include; peer pressure, social acceptance, loneliness, family background, and curiosity.
  4. The use of psychoactive substance among students has notable impact on their academics, among which include; truancy, poor study habit, and poor academic performance.

5.4 Recommendation

Basedon the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the followingrecommendations:

  1. The government should take special priority in banning the use of cannabis, cigarettes and alcohol, especially among secondary school students in order to minimize the prevalence of the use of psychoactive substances among secondary school students.
  2. There is also need for an intervention by the government and non government organizations on preventive strategies of drug abuse. Government should ensure the enforcement of anti psychoactive substance laws. Government should be encouraged to established drug treatment centre in our hospitals. Also more health worker should be trained on how to identify addicts, prevent and treat victims of drug abuse and also to educate the public.
  3. School management and government at large need to establish drug control and prevention clubs in secondary schools so as to equip students with the necessary skills of knowing to resist temptations related to the use of psychoactive substances.

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