Factors Influencing Consumer Buying Behaviour On Household Products In Nigeria
The aim of this study was to examine the factors that influence consumer buying behaviour on household products in Lagos. The study specifically sought to answer research questions related to the influence of social and cultural, psychological/personal class, demographic and economic factors on consumer buying behaviour on household products. The study employed a Descriptive design. A total of 70 questionnaires were distributed to the respondents. However, only 57 (81.4%) respondents participated in this study. These participants were selected using purposive sampling methods to ensure participants meet the criteria for the study. Data were collected using mainly questionnaires and interviews but also methods of observation and documentary reviews were used to supplement collected data as required. Theories and literatures relating to consumers’ buying behaviour were reviewed and summarized and used to develop a conceptual framework, the questionnaire and interviews for studying consumers’ buying behaviour on household products on supermarkets. The findings of this study did not show wide variations to studies conducted in other places and literatures. The majority of respondents agreed that social cultural factors, psychological/personal class factors, demographic factors and economic factors influence consumers buying behaviour on household products on supermarkets. The study recommends attention should put on social cultural, psychological/personal, demographic and economic factors while developing, pricing, distributing and communicating products.
1.1 Background of the Study
Consumer behavior is a young discipline; the earlier books were written in 1960’s however, its intellectual forefathers are much older. Understanding of consumers is the consumption process provides a number of benefits. These benefits include assisting the manager in decision making and providing the marketing research with a theoretical base from which to analyses consumers in making better purchase decision.
The study of consumer can help to understand more about psychological, sociological and economics factors that influence human behavior. A general knowledge of consumer behaviors also has personal value. It can help people to become better consumers by informing them of the way in which they and others go about their consumption activities. In addition it can assist consumers in the buying process by informing them about some of the strategies used by companies to market their products (Foxall & Goldsmith, 1994).
The field of consumer behavior explores why people make certain purchasing decisions, what products and services they buy, where they buy them, how they use them, the frequency with which they purchase them, and the consumer decision process in action. In this context, consumer behavior has been defined as the activities of people engaged in actual or potential use of market items-whether products, services, retail environment, or ideas (Berkman & Gilson, 1978).
One of the important means of dissemination for information is word of mouth. Word of mouth both negative and positive can have a profound impact on consumer behavior. If utilized correctly, it can go a long way to promote products or service and build a perception created through this method can persist for a long time and adversely effect to the marketing. Therefore the effect of word of mouth can be harsh as well as beneficial (Solomon, 1996). Word-of-Mouth Marketing progress align advertising campaign messaging and product releases with local market influencers, Trendsetters, and Tastemakers to craft mass opinion and purchase behavior.
Effective word of mouth marketing campaign connects with Influencers and Trendsetters who initiate consumer trends (e.g. Fashion trend, automobile purchase trends, consumer product trends, entertainment trends, and beverage consumption trends) that are followed by mainstream consumption trends) that are followed by mainstream consumers. Consumers value word-of-mouth twice as much as they value advertising. In a world in which we all are bombarded with advertising all day (and all night), what is the first thing we usually do to learn more about a business, a restaurant for example? We try to find someone we know who has been there, or someone who knows someone who’s been there. It’s true. Word of mouth does have more credibility than advertisers can even imagine, much less conjure up. And yet word of mouth suffers from the same virtue that makes it so strong. It is personal and therefore, limited in its reach (Pusateri, 1999).
For companies to attain commercial success, it is important that managers understand consumer behaviour. The relationship between consumer behaviour and marketing strategy is emphasised because the success of companies’ marketing strategies depends upon managers’ understandings of consumer behaviour (understanding of consumer behaviour is especially important during a recession – see Kotler and Caslione (2009). Consumer buying decisions indicate how well the company’s marketing strategy fits market demand. Thus, marketing begins and ends with the consumer.
The study of customer behaviour is based on consumer buying behaviour, with the customer playing three distinct roles: user, payer and buyer. Research has shown that consumer behaviour is difficult to predict, even for experts in the field (Armstrong & Scott, 1991). Consumer behaviour involves the psychological processes that consumers go through in recognising their needs, finding ways to solve these needs, making purchase decisions (e.g., whether to purchase a product and, if so, which brand and where), interpret information, make plans, and implement these plans (e.g., by engaging in comparison shopping or actually purchasing a product).
Consumer buying behavior refers to the selection, purchase and consumption of goods and services for the satisfaction of their wants. There are different processes involved in the consumer behavior. Many factors, specificities and characteristics influence the individual in what he is and the consumer in his decision making process, shopping habits, purchasing behavior, the brands he buys or the retailers he goes. A purchase decision is the result of each and every one of these factors. Initially the consumer tries to find what commodities he would like to consume, then he selects only those commodities that promise greater utility.
After selecting the commodities, the consumer makes an estimate of the available money which he can spend. Lastly, the consumer analyzes the prevailing prices of commodities and takes the decision about the commodities he should consume. Meanwhile, there are various other factors influencing the purchases of consumer such as social, cultural, economic, personal and psychological.
Consumer behaviour research attempts to understand the buyer decision-making process, both individually and collectively. It studies individual consumer characteristics such as demographics and behavioural variables in an attempt to understand people’s wants. Consumer behaviour research allows for improved understanding and forecasting concerning not only the subject of purchases but also purchasing motives and purchasing frequency (Schiffman & Kanuk, 2007).
One of the current fundamental assumptions in consumer behaviour research is that individuals often purchase products for their subjectively perceived values rather than their primary functions (Stávková, Stejskal & Toufarova, 2008). This does not mean that the products’ basic functions are not important, but that the contemporary role of a product is more than its basic use-value (Solomon, 2004). Frequently, consumers do not rate products according to their core attributes (i.e., the primary utility they provide) but, above all, according to the so-called real product (i.e., a particular products’ qualities) and the extended product, which represents the set of intangible factors that confer a desired perceived advantage on the consumer – including image, consultancy, and after-sale service (Foret & Procházka, 2007).
The majority of developed countries have attained their objectives by relying on domestic production and also through government campaigns in support of the utilization of local goods. The intensity of dedication to the consumption of local products depends greatly the extent on ethnocentrism (Sciffman & Kanuk 2007). Therefore, this study focuses on the factors influencing consumer buying behavior on household products in Nigeria.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The research problem can be stated as finding out the right and suitable marketing strategy to be adopted by organization producing households products to increase the local consumption of their locally made products.
In Africa, Nigeria is one of the developing countries where large amounts of products from other countries are imported each year and alcoholic beverages are not an exception. This has exposed many Nigerian to alternative preference for domestic made products and foreign products. The great variety of goods and services from other countries has made many consumers to patronize imported products. However, many of the local industry are thriving hard to survive in today’s turbulent Nigerian market.
As more companies consider the value of expansion in Africa, the need to understand the African consumer is becoming a priority (Hatch, Becker & van Zyl, 2011). However, there is currently very little research that has been conducted regarding the factors that impact the consumer decision-making process in Africa.
It has been assumed that African companies are not as mature in their analysis and assessment of their consumer base, when compared to companies in developed countries. Maturity in this context can be defined as having progressed to a state of understanding the required consumer and consumer base. Companies are not mature largely due to their inherent composition, and also because of the consumers that they serve. Much of Africa’s markets are also immature, with a large portion of purchasing happening in open markets. It is estimated that approximately 80% of total consumer purchasing happens in open markets in Nigeria, which is one of Africa’s largest economies (CNBC Africa, 2014). These problems make it glaring that there is a need to carry out a study on the factors influencing consumer buying behavior on household products in Nigeria.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The general objective of this study is to examine the factors influencing consumer buying behavior on household products in Nigeria. The specific objectives include the following:
- To find out the perception of consumers towards buying household products in Nigeria.
- To ascertain if social factors influence consumer buying behavior on household products in Nigeria.
- To investigate the socioeconomic factors influencing consumer buying behavior on household products in Nigeria.
- To know the impact of Psychological factors on consumer buying behavior on household products in Nigeria.
- To examine if cultural factors influence consumer buying behavior on household products in Nigeria.
1.4 Research Questions
This study was guided by the following questions:
- To what extent do social and cultural factors influence consumer buying behaviour on household products?
- To what extent do psychological/personal class factors influence consumer buying behaviour on household products?
- To what extent do demographic factors influence consumer buying behaviour on household products?
- To what extent do economic factors influence consumer buying behaviour on household products?
1.5 Significance of the Study
The findings of this research are of interest to policy analysts, decision makers marketing managers in their efforts to formulate policies and make decisions that impact positively on consumers’ behaviours motivational approaches and retain more loyal employees. It is expected that the findings of the study will enable academicians and researchers to better understand and forecast not only of the subject of purchases but also of purchasing motives and purchasing frequency. It is further expected that the findings of this study will help the household products sellers to recognize consumer behavioural attributes and needs, lifestyles, and consumers’ motives behind purchase and then make proper marketing-mix decisions.
1.6 Scope and Limitations of the Study
Geographically, the scope of this study was delimited to Lagos. Lagos was selected because it is a major port city of Nigeria and centre of Government administration, industry, commerce, banking activities, shopping malls and supermarkets. The study was limited at examining the factors that influencing consumer buying behaviour on household products in Lagos.
The major limitation for this study is that it was confined to the city of Lagos. The city was therefore considered as a good representation of the whole population. Furthermore this study only researched the consumer buying behaviour of household consumers goods, since the consumption pattern between products may differ. Consumers show a unique buying behaviour to every single product. For instance, the buying behaviour toward appliances differs from foods and beverages.
Also, this study was limited to Lagos consumers, since it was considered that consumers of different parts of the country behave differently because of the cultural factors. Although the household consumers’ goods market is countywide and global, generalization of the findings of this research beyond Lagos is therefore not recommended. Finally, only some social – cultural, economic, demographic and psychological (personal) factors were selected for this study. Although there are more types of factors which influence the consumer buying behaviour, only four types were investigated in this study. This was because of time and administrative restrictions.
1.7 Organization of the Study
This study is organized into five chapters.
- Chapter one introduces the study. It presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objectives of the study, research questions, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study as well as organization of the study.
- Chapter two provides the literature review related to the topic under study. It defines the key concepts used in the study. The chapter further presents the theoretical perspectives, the empirical studies, the research gap and the conceptual framework of the study.
- Chapter three presents the design and methodology used in the study. It explains the area of the study, the population of the study, sampling design, data collection methods, data collection instruments, data analysis procedures and validity and reliability test.
- Chapter four presents the findings of the study. It also analyses and discusses the findings of the study.
- Chapter five concludes the study. It presents the conclusion and the summary. It further offers the recommendations and areas for further studies.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations
The aimed of the study was to examine factors that influence consumer buying behaviour on household products in Lagos. The objectives of the study were accomplished and attained because numerous data were gathered and analyzed which gave the blueprint of the factors that influence consumer buying behaviour on household products in Lagos targeting household product consumers at main supermarkets and supermarkets dealers in Lagos.
The study used a descriptive research design. This study involved 57 respondents whereby 41 were household product consumers and 16 were supermarkets dealers. These participants were selected using purposive sampling methods to ensure participants meet criteria for the study. Data were collected using several data collection methods. The main methods used were questionnaires and interviews also methods of observation and documentary reviews were used to supplement collected data as required. Theories and literatures relating to consumers buying behaviour were reviewed and summarized in this study and were used to develop conceptual framework, questionnaire and interviews for studying consumers’ buying behaviour on household products on supermarkets. The findings of this study did not show wide variations to studies conducted in other places and literatures. The majority of respondents agreed on the presence of factors that influence consumers buying behaviour on household products on supermarkets. These factors included social and cultural factors which are culture, subculture, social class, roles and status, reference groups, family and education. Motivation, perception, beliefs, attitudes, skills and knowledge, self – consciousness, personality and lifestyle, were Psychological/personal class factors identified in this study.
Other factors were demographic factors which are determined by sex, age, place of domicile and physical environment of the purchase place. Also, economic factors which are determined by price, quality of product, product branding, economic situation and occupation were assessed.
From the findings of this study it can be concluded that; Consumer buying behaviour on household products is influenced by a unique set of social and cultural factors, psychological/personal class factors, demographic factors and economic factors. These factors are non-controllable by producers or marketers but should be aware of these factors and take them into account while formulating their marketing strategies.
Based on the above findings and conclusions, the following recommended.
- It is recommended that in designing marketing strategy for household products, decision makers and marketers should take into account socio-cultural factors basing on the fact that the society’s culture is one of the most fundamental determinants of a person’s want and behaviour. Also, as part of their effort to convince customers to purchase the kinds of products they sell, they need to use socio-cultural representations, especially in promotional appeals that are easily understood and often embraced by the consumers. This would make the consumer feel more comfortable with or can relate better to the product since it corresponds with their cultural values.
- In order to maximize relevance and effectiveness, business and marketing programs of any type, but particularly those that relate directly to the products buying behaviour of consumers, must take into account the psychological/personal class and economic factors. By knowing the influence of the factors such as personality, lifestyle and economic positions to the people they intend to serve, the marketing managers will effectively enhance their target marketing.
- It is also recommended that marketing managers should adopt market segmentation strategies and segment their products markets on the bases of demographic variables such as age and sex since they were all found to have great degree of influences on household products consumer’s buying decisions.
- Marketing managers are recommended to stimulate opinion leadership in some key members of the society by encouraging favourable word-of-mouth about their products since household consumers are found to heavily rely on them for information. They should also ensure that their products are adequately labelled with important features and attributes to satisfy the educated ones who are found to be problem solvers and would deliberately seek for information in that direction.
- Finally, the study has found that, concessions in the form of price reduction, discount sales and the like have become common practices in supermarkets. The buyer or consumers of household products should try to avail of these benefits, whenever they are available. However, the buyers of such goods should not be lured merely by concessions without considering the quality and performance aspects of these household products.
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