E-Banking And Bank Profitability (A Case Study Of Access Bank)
This study review the concept of electronic banking (E-banking), examined its prospects for Nigerian banks and discussed associated risks . it discovered that the increased application of E-banking worldwide is a function of improvement in information and technology (ICT). E-banking , it also observed holds enormous potentials for the banking industry in Nigeria. Collaboration among banks, Electronic payment system as a result of its huge financial involvement requires that banks must joint set and manage a network system such as ATMs, V-cards e.t.c collaboration helps to spread and reduce the initial costs of setting up the electronic banking system.
Direct report of the qualitative data from observation has been made while descriptive statistics was utilized in the analysis of the descriptive data collected fro questionnaire to generate frequencies and percentage statistical analysis is carried out on each of the research questions based on the extracted from the computation of data which was effected using simple parentage after which comparisons were done to determine the effectiveness in achieving the desired objectives. The major problems hindering the effective operation of electronic banking in Nigeria are infrastructural deficiencies such as errotic power supply, lack of government support and high charge on payment terminals (POS, ATMS) etc these problems are only peculiar to Nigeria as it known that in developed countries issues like power failure or failure links are not in existence . however the introduction of electronic banking system has also contributed significantly to bank income by way of fee or changes gotten from these services.
Table Of Content
- Title page
- Approval page
- Table of content
- 1.1 Background
- 1.2 Statement of problem
- 1.3 Objectives of the study
- 1.4 Research questions
- 1.5 Significance of the study
- 1.6 Scope of the study
- 1.7 Limitation of the study
- 1.8 Definition of terms
2.0 Literature Review
- 2.1 Introduction
- 2.2 Electronic Banking
- 2.3 Type of electronic banking
- 2.4 The problems and solutions associated with the development of Electronic banking in Nigeria.
- 2.5 Negative impact of Electronic banking in Nigeria.
- 2.6 Positive Impact of Electronic banking in Nigeria
3.0 Research Design
- 3.1 Introduction
- 3.2 Research design
- 3.3 Sources / methods of data collection
- 3.4 Population and sample size
- 3.5 Sample techniques
- 3.6 Validity and reliability of measuring instrument
- 3.7 Method of data analysis
4.0 Presentation and Analysis of Data
- 4.1 Introduction
- 4.2 Presentation of Data
- 4.3 Analysis of Data
- 4.4 Interpretation of Result
5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary of findings
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background Of The Study
Before the emergence of modern banking system, banking operation was manually done which lead to a slow down in settlement of transactions. This manual system involves posting transactions from one ledger to another which human handles. Figures or counting of money which should be done through computers or electronic machine were computed and counted manually which were not 100% accurate thereby resulting to human errors. Most bank then use any one computer in carrying out transactions which ameliorate the sluggish nature of banking transaction.
Nigeria do not embrace electronic bankinger early compared to developed countries. Nigeria adopted electronic banking system in the early 2000s. During the introduction of electronic banking system , the use of raw cash was said to have bred corruption through the “cash and carry syndrome” usually inked with the swift movement of Ghana must go bags by some politicians. Such bags as some analyst say , are a major source of corrupt practices as dubious persons seeks to bribe their way to avoid been checked in some sensitive areas or places in a corrupt society.
Since electronic banking started in all Nigeria banks, it has been a woe for civil servants; checks show that some staff in establishments such as the national boundary commission for instance, are yet to receive their salaries for the previous months as efforts to electrically transfer salaries into their account have failed according to Ibrahim (2009).
“one bank will tell you it has transferred you salaries but the supposed recipient bank will tel you it has not received leaving you even more confused,” says Jon (2009) . OLeka (2009) while acknowledging the initial hiccups that dogged the system, advises stakeholders against being discouraged as such “teething problems” are normal.
James (2009) a banker reported to vanguard annual report that we should not destroy electronic banking by looking at the negative aspects, we must strive towards perfecting it”. James (2009) also says that the volume of data generated by the government ministry Agencies is mainly making it a bit difficult for banks to cope, Mattew (2009) a workers says in his report to vanguard annual report on banks and cards that government should have done its home work “very well “ before introducing the system, k”they plugged us into a system they were not prepared for and the result is untold hardship visited on innocent people”. At this juncture , its good to know what e-banking is all about.
According to Anyawaokoro (1999) Electronic banking is defined as the application of computer technology to banking especially the payment (deposit transfer) aspects of banking. He also defined electronic banking as a system of banking with an electronic communication network which permits on line processing of the same day credit and debit transfers of funds between members institutions of a clearing system.
According to Clive, (2007) in his academic dictionary of banking , electronic banking is defied as a form of banking in which funds are transferred through an exchange of cash, cheques or other negotiable instruments.
According to Omotayo (2007) defines electronic banking as a system in which funds are moved between different accounts using computerized on line real time systems without the use of written cleaves.
According to Edit, (2008) in international journal of investment and finance, electronic banking is defined as a system by which transaction are settled electronically with the use of electronic gadgets such as ATMs , POS terminals, GSM phones and V-cards e.t.c handled by e-holders , bank customers , and stake holders.
1.2 Statement Of Problems
AS earlier pointed out, there is delay in payment of cheques which lead to the adoption of electronic banking system. Adoption of electronic banking which supposes to ease banking transactions rather resulted to woes to customer most people complain of time wasted In banks. This occurs when there is power failure in banks resulting to slow down in operation.
Another problem that emerged was that banks do not have information backup to fall back on should there be any computer breakdown.
In investing electronic banking, the country will need a large amount of financial resource in computer technology, obviously , the resource is in short supply in Nigeria, couple with high level of poverty. For an efficient functioning of electronic payment system, there must be availability of infrastructural facilities such as electricity and telecommunication network , however, power supply fluctuates and there is still constant failure links in networks .
Since early 2000s banks have been developing and introducing payment cards for their customers as well as deploy ATM Cards. Usage was however low due to lack of interconnectivity, i.e switching platform to interconnect the ATMS FR CARD HOLDERS.
1.3 Objectives Of The Study
- This research work intends to acess the extent of electronic payment in banking activities as well as identify the various types of electronic banking.
- The researcher will also evaluate the major problems associated with the developmnetnof electronic banking and banking profitability as well as evaluate possible solutions to these problems.
- The effect of electronic banking on profitability of banks will also be assessed. There are different types of electronic banking used in Nigeria bank; the researcher will like to evaluate the impact of these ie payment system on banking industry and also assess the impact of electronic banking in Nigeria economy.
- Give recommendation of the improving, the efficiency of reducing the inefficiencies presently existing in use of e banking in operation.
1.4 Research Question
in order to get information from respondents the following questions were frormulated
- What are the various types of electronic payment and the extent of electronic payment in banking activities?
- To what extent can e-banking improve or enhance banking services.
- What are the major problems associated with the development of electronic banking system in Nigerian?
- What are the solutions to the problems associated with the development of e-banking?
- What extent has e-payment affected banking activities? The research shall attempt to find answers to these questions in the next chapter.
1.5 Significance Of The Study
Electronic banking in our economy today is a welcome development and also its impacts in the society are over whelming , so this research is significant in so many ways.
It will expose the strength and weakness of electronic banking.
It will motivate banks and other economic agents to computerize their services.
Knowledge in the area of electronic banking will be advanced. Apart from contributing to the knowledge of electronic banking, it forms a reference for future research in this area.
1.6 Scope Of The Study
This research is on E-banking and banking profitability and also the various forms of payment and electronic systems used by banks. The researcher will base this work on the entire deposit money banks in Nigeria but to Access bank in particular.
1.7 Limitation Of Study
Time is a major factor to the researcher as research of this kind requires enough time in gathering of data, but it was not given to carryout the research, distribution , collection and analysis of questionnaire.
Also the school system has made it difficult for student to go out in search for information by not granting exit for student. Some banks needs information from students who desires such information in other to maintain the banks secrecy thereby making it difficult for students to gather information for their research.
Finally, finance was infact the most limited factor, in site of this the researcher have to travel out to the sampled organization to interview some of the mangers and supervisor.
1.8 Definition Of Terms
E-banking and bank profitability can be defined as a system of banking with an electronic communication network which permits on line processing of the same day credit and debit transfers of funds between member institution of a clearing system. It is also a form by which transactions are settled electronically with the use of electronic gadgets such as ATMs, POS Terminals, GSM phones and V-Cards e.t.c handled by e-holders, bank customers, and stake holders.
5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
5.1 Summary Of Findings
The introduction of electronic banking in Nigeria a strong influence on the development of the payment system in particular and the system, involves commitment of huge , amount of financial resoures on computer technology and telecommunication facilities, computer technology is a primary requirement for the proper function ing of the electronic monetary transfer system (EMTS)/ Electronic banking.
The use of computer in payment system would no reduce the importance of branch banking in nigeria or reduce customers confidence on the banking industry, from respondents obtained from staff of the bank studied , the introduction of electronic banking has rather increased customers loyalty to banks in general.
The major problems hindering the effective operation of electronic banking in nigeria are infrastructural deficiencies such as erratic power supply, lack of government support and high charge on payment terminals (POS , ATMS) e.t.c These Problems are only peculiar to nigeria a it known that in developed countires issues like power failure or failure links are not in existence.
However, the introduction of electronic banking system has also contributed significantly to bank income by way of fee or changes gotten from these services.
The Nigeria system is as old as the banking industry; this dynamism is manifested by the nature and quality of payment product paraded in the sytem . these products range from common paper money, cheque, cash to electronic payment products such as automated teller machine (ATM) , SMARTCARD telephone banking , internet banking e.t.c with the introduction of these electronic payments products , it is expected that the volume and cost of process cheque will be drastically reduced or eliminated.
The C.B.N Other financial authorities and banks have a role to play in enhancing the system through effective banking and monetary policies, efficiency and stability are also ensured and promoted.
Furthermore, to sustain the electronic payment system, certain strategic measures must be taken to reduce negative effects of the problem identified as obstacles to the smooth functioning of the system.
- Skilled manpower and computer wizard should be employed by every banking other to stop, prevent fraudulent personal hackers from manipulating the banks data and stealing money from the banks accounts.
- Provision and maintenance of public network, system such as telephone (NITEL) The availability of these basic infrastructures is fundamental to the efficient functioning of the payment system.
- Failure to maintain these infrastructures implies that the banks must be ready to provide their own communication networks and operate electronic generating sets to ensure reliable power supply.
- Collaboration among banks: Electronic payment system as a result of its huge financial involvement requires that banks must jointly set and manage a network system such as ATMs, V-Cards e.t.c collaboration helps to spread and reduce the initial costs of setting up the electronic baking system.
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